Final Exam 4 Study Guide
Final Exam 4 Study Guide Psych 2070
Popular in Intro to Human Sexuality
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This 42 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alma G on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2070 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Swartout in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 12/05/15
PSYC 2070 Introduction to Human Sexuality Exam 4 Study Guide Chapters 13, 16, 17, & 18 All readings and lectures are fair game Chapter 13 o What are the most popular contraceptive methods in the U.S.? The world? o Birth control and female sterilization in the US o Motivation of contraception: ▪ Not wanting kids or STIs ▪ Side effects for some people ▪ If intercourse is frequent ▪ Openness about sexuality o What did the availability of contraception look like in the early US? o Very little due to the Comstock laws that prohibited the distribution of contraceptive information ▪ Margaret Sanger one of the first people to publicly advocate the importance of contraception o What factors affect contraception availability in the US? Around the world? o Inside of US: ▪ Must be approved by the FDA and regulating its safety in three phases to test taking around 14 years before being placed in stores o Outside of US: ▪ Issues of $$, knowledge, religion, gender roles, power ▪ Depends on the access people have ▪ Women might not have control to BC o When choosing a contraceptive method, what factors should one keep in mind? o Number of sexual partners o Frequency of intercourse o Risks for STIs o Responsibility and cost of method o Method’s advantages and disadvantages o Barrier methods: be familiar with what they are, how they work, their effectiveness, their advantages and disadvantages, and their cross cultural use. o Male condoms: block sperm from entering uterus ▪ Protects against pregnancy and STIs (8598%) ▪ Since 1850s had some form of male condoms ▪ Advantages: • One of most inexpensive • No prescription needed • No side effects unless have allergies • Encourages male participation in birth control; sharing responsibility ▪ Disadvantages: • Can break easily • Reduce sensation • Smell • Kills the mood to put on ▪ Crosscultural: fourth most popular, used in developed countries • Lack of use in others due to no availability, religious reasons o Female condoms: rings at both ends inserted ▪ Protects against pregnancy and STIs (7995%) ▪ Advantages: • Not that expensive • No prescription needed • Minimal side effects • Not made of latex for people that are allergic • Will stay in place if man loses erection • may enhance female sexual pleasure ▪ Disadvantages: • Difficult to use and insert • Noisy • More expensive than male condoms • Genital contact, decrease sensation ▪ Crosscultural: not popular in developing countries because expensive and difficult to insert, uncomfortable • Has been increasing usage over years o Diaphragms, cervical caps, sponges ▪ Sit at the cervix to block/kill sperm ▪ If properly inserted, will not be felt ▪ Protects against pregnancy, BUT NOT STIs (8494%) ▪ Advantages: • Don’t feel them, quick effects • Can be used multiple times before discarded • Easy to hide in purse, reduce risk of cervical cancer ▪ Disadvantages: • Have to leave in place for 8 hours but removed before certain time • Touching genitals, allergic reaction • Need prescription ▪ Crosscultural: popular in Europe o Hormonal methods: be familiar with what they are, how they work, their effectiveness, their advantages and disadvantages, and their crosscultural use. o Birth Control Pills ▪ Huge revolution in giving women more independence ▪ Usually mimic an average menstrual cycle (21 days + “1 week off”) • Have to see a doctor • Different pills work for different people ▪ Protects against pregnancy, BUT NOT STIs (9299.7%): lower rates is obese • Have to be taken every day at the same time to be very effective ▪ Advantages: • One of highest effectiveness rates • Spontaneity: does not affect sex • Regularity: predictable periods • Rapid reversibility: body returns back to normal after stop usage ▪ Disadvantages: • Female responsibility: relies on woman to take pill every day • Expensive: ~$30 and prescription • Hormonal changes and changes in libido and lubrication: changes in hormone levels changes body • Breakthrough bleeding and spotting: on days not supposed to happen • Mimics pregnancy; pregnancy side effects: vomit, headaches, nausea • Antibiotics: can make BCP ineffective with combination of other medicine ▪ Crosscultural: third most popular contraception, higher in in developed countries o NuvaRing & Paten ▪ Filled with hormones that get released into bloodstream; one size fits all • One for three weeks, off for one week ▪ Protects against pregnancy, BUT NOT STIs (9299.7%) ▪ Advantages: • Convenience of not removing and putting on constantly • No interference with sensation • Easy to use and lower levels of hormones • Protection from some cancers ▪ Disadvantages: • Expensive • No STI protection • Hormonal side effects ▪ Crosscultural: very popular around the world • Low usage in some because requires genital touching o IntraUterine Devices (IUD) o Planted inside uterus to keep egg from implanting o Least expensive method over time ▪ Expensive short term: $100s1000s o Does not interfere with spontaneity ▪ Paragard (copper) – 12 years: heavier periods ▪ Mirena (hormonal) – 5 years: lighter to no periods after long time use o Moderately painful insertion and removal ▪ Must be done by professional provider o Advantages: ▪ Maintenance free ▪ Least expensive o Disadvantages: ▪ No STI protection ▪ May cause spotting o Crosscultural: second most popular worldwide behind female sterilization in less developed countries o How long have birth control pills been around? How long have condoms been around? IUDs? o Condoms have been around the longest since the 1850s o Birth control pills around 1960s o IUDs around since 1975 o Natural Methods for Women and Men: be familiar with what they are, how they work, their effectiveness, their advantages and disadvantages, and their crosscultural use. o Fertility Awareness Method (FAM) ▪ Basal body temperature: have to take temperature every day for several months and track pattern • .4.8 increase immediately before ovulation: don’t notice until after ovulation when it goes back down ▪ 8897% effective against pregnancy is reliable and accurate is able to avoid intercourse o Cervical mucus changes ▪ Becomes different texture at certain times • Thicker: not good for sperm to live; less fertile • Thinner: good for sperm to live; more fertile o Advantages: ▪ Not expensive; free ▪ Intune with body ▪ Communication with partner ▪ Approved by religious communities ▪ No side effects ▪ Variety of other sexual expressions o Disadvantages: ▪ Lower effective rate ▪ Time and commitment to be accurate ▪ Requires abstinence during “high risk” time period ▪ Ovulation can change due to diet, stress, and alcohol o CrossCultural: popular because inexpensive and little medical attention in Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia ▪ Used in Religious areas o Withdrawal ▪ Withdrawing penis from vagina before ejaculation ▪ Popular because convenient and dissatisfied with other methods • No advance preparation ▪ Advantages: • Acceptable for those who can’t use other methods for religious reasons • Free with no devices o Better than no method at all ▪ Disadvantages: • No protection from STIs • Difficult and stressful ▪ Crosscultural: • Popular method worldwide, in Eastern Europe • In countries where other methods not acceptable o Abstinence ▪ Not engaging in intercourse ▪ 100% effective that protects from pregnancy, STIs o Permanent Contraceptive Methods: be familiar with what they are, how they work, their effectiveness, their advantages and disadvantages, and their crosscultural use. o Female sterilization ▪ Tubal ligation: “getting tubes tied” • General anesthesia • Fallopian tubes snipped/tied/ clipped • Outpatient procedure blocking egg form entering uterus o Woman continues to ovulate but does not enter the uterus • Expensive surgery o $1000s ▪ Most widest use around the world ▪ No hormonal changes ▪ Crosscultural: most widely used method worldwide o Male sterilization ▪ Vasectomy • Cheaper/ safer than tubal ligation • 20 minute procedure o Vas deferens snipped • Ejaculate does not contain sperm (1% of semen) o Still have semen ▪ Advantages: 9999.9% effectiveness, highly permanent, quick recovery ▪ Disadvantages: expensive, no STI protection, irreversible o What is Emergency Contraception? How does it work? Is it the same thing as having an abortion? How often do people use it? Is it easily available? Is it affordable? Is it widely used in the US? Around the world? o Emergency Contraceptive ▪ The “morning after” pill ▪ Misnomer: can use up to 5 days ▪ Does NOT cause abortion • Preimplantation: prevents pregnancy ▪ Side effects: magnified birth control side effects, pain due to large amounts of added hormones in body ▪ Prescription if under 17 ▪ Changes mucus and reduces endometrial tissue ▪ 11% of women in US have used emergency contraception • Single, educated, 1529 old women • Not heard of in other countries even though it is available • Highest in Europe, Latin Amer. Africa, W. Asia known by wealthier, educated people o What does it mean to be prolife? Prochoice? What are college students’ attitudes about abortion? o prolife: life begins at conception ▪ person has right to be born ▪ believe it should only be legal for extreme cases(rape) o prochoice: women should have control over fertility ▪ government should not have a decision o What does abortion look like, historically? Has it always been available? Legal? What did behavior look like in societies in which it was not available? o Abortion o Contraception and abortion are two main methods for controlling conception/ birth o Historically happens all around the world ▪ Decisions from the husband in Roman society ▪ Determined by religious views (Christianity condemned abortion) o Banned in US 1965 ▪ Continued illegally ▪ Women travelled to other countries where it was legal o When did abortion become legal in the US? What does it mean to say “abortion is legal?” (i.e., any abortion at any time? Are there still restrictions?) o 1973: Roe v. Wade: abortion legal ▪ up to a certain time of pregnancy when fetus could not live on its own yet ▪ risks to the mother How common is abortion? What are the demographics of a typical woman who has an abortion? Why do women have abortions? o Why do women have abortion? ▪ Rape ▪ Financial reasons ▪ Health reasons, risk of mother o Rate has decreased over the years, early in pregnancy o Increase rate in medical abortions o Women that are young, poor, unmarried, lowincome, minorities o What are surgical abortions? When are they typically performed? What are the repercussions (emotionally, physically, etc.)? o Surgical abortions: abortions terminated by inserting a vacuum ▪ In the clinic with anesthesia opening the cervix and using a vacuum to suck out the uterus contents ▪ In the first and second trimesters ▪ Can experience bleeding, cramping, infection o What are medication abortions? When are they typically performed? What are the repercussions (emotionally, physically, etc.)? o Medication abortions : involves use of a pill to end an early pregnancy o Take two pills within three days of each other o Symptoms: dizziness, pain, cramping, bleeding, fever, etc. o What are women’s typical reactions to abortion? Physically? Emotionally? What are men’s typical reactions to abortion? o Women: ▪ More acceptable of medication abortion because private and control ▪ Physiological symptoms vary depending on type of abortion • Cramping, bleeding, nausea for several days ▪ Emotionally: relief and happiness, shame and guilt, doubt and depression, sense of loss, sadness o Men: ▪ Can experience sense of loss, sadness, fear for partner o What do abortion rates look like around the world? What is the relationship between abortion laws, contraception availability, and abortions? o Legal in most of Europe o 42 million per year, 50% illegal o Countries with liberal abortion laws have lower rates of abortion; higher rates in places where it is illegal o The more contraception available, the less likely to need an abortion Chapter 16 o What is “atypical” sexual expression? o Difficult to determine what is typical sexual expression o What is atypical? o “not typically expressed by most people in society” o Society dictates what is normal and not normal o Statistical judgment ▪ More extreme expressions are at the ends with normalcy in the middle ▪ Sexual expressions are in a continuum o Moral judgment ▪ 1906: KrafftEbing: “every expression of sexual instinct that does not correspond with the purpose of nature propagation” • Belief that anything that does not facilitate procreation is atypical and perverted o Popularities of sexual expressions vary in different time periods and cultures ▪ Oral sex used to be rare, now common o Modern definition: sexual arousal or responses to inappropriate people, objects, or activities ▪ Difficult to define what is “appropriate” o What are paraphilias? What is the difference between a paraphilia and a paraphilic disorder? o Paraphilia: paraphilia: “beside” ”love”: “love outside the norm” o Sexual preferences that involve craving for object, experience that is unusual o DSMV: Paraphilic disorder ▪ DSM: diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders • Paraphilic disorders are often misunderstood for any unusual behavior o Differences between paraphilia and paraphilic disorder ▪ Paraphilia: atypical human sexual behavior that anyone can have ▪ Paraphilic disorder: behavior that causes mental distress to a person or makes the person a serious threat to the psychological and physical wellbeing of other individuals o Most people with atypical sexual interests do not have mental disorder ▪ To be diagnosed, requires that people have these interests: • Feel personal distress about interest from society’s disapproval • Have sexual desire that involves distress of others o Harming someone or doing something without their consent ▪ Diagnosing paraphilia: • Is there distress? Need to be in distress to have the disorder • Is the idea or behavior required for arousal? Are there other ways to be aroused • Is there victims? Does someone have to be forced to be satisfied o What does a “typical” paraphiliac look like (i.e., is there a profile of some kind; does everyone with a paraphilia look the same?)? ▪ People from all ethnics, economic classes, sexual orientation ▪ Common elements • Many are extensions/exaggerations of common sexual desires o Younger women interests • Mostly men o Not common or studied in women • Starts around puberty and often declines with age o Testosterone declines • 54% have 2+ paraphilia o Tend to have multiple types • Personality o Low social skills, inadequacy, depression, rage against women, cognitive distortion, rough childhood, bad relationships, etc. o Difficult to control o Be familiar with the theories of how paraphilias develop—biological theory; psychoanalytic theory; developmental theory; behavioral theory; sociological theory. ▪ Biological Theories: attribute to brain structure abnormalities and chemical imbalances • Does not mean everyone with paraphilia has one of the conditions ▪ Psychoanalytical Theory: paraphilia related to oedipal crisis/castration anxiety (“boy thing”: why it is more common in males) ▪ Developmental Theories: childhood experiences define sexual desire and an interruption of normal development creates atypical behaviors • “sexualize” objects creating fetishes ▪ Behavioral Theory: behaviors are positively reinforced are continued through conditioning ▪ Sociological Theory: women are replaced with sexual objects • Allows us to experience sexuality vicariously with easier access • Men need to reinforce their masculinity o Be familiar with the various types of paraphilias we discussed in class: fetishism; transvestitism; sadism & masochism; exhibitionism; voyeurism; frotteurism. What is involved in sexual arousal/pleasure for each of these paraphilias? Who typically presents with each? Are they fixed or changeable? When do they become problematic? o Fetishism Fetishistic Disorder o Recurrent/intense sexual arousal involving nonliving objects (clothes, lingerie, leather, rubber, silk, etc.) or nongenital body parts (feet, butt, hair, etc.) o Need the objects/parts to be aroused ▪ “partialism”: taking a part of body and focusing on it • Normalized fetishes in media/TV o Transvestitism Transvestic Disorder o Sexual arousal from wearing oppositesex clothing (under normal clothes or dress up at home) ▪ Many like to do it and do not plan to change ▪ Cannot be changed easily because it is personality fixed o Transvestic Disorder v… ▪ Being transgender: as disorder, still consider yourself as male in female clothes; as transgender, believe in the wrong body ▪ Cross Dressing: similar but not for sexual arousal, only for fun ▪ Drag Queen/King: do it for performance, not sexual desire o Sadism and Masochism Sadistic and Masochistic Disorder (CONSENT IS KEY!!!) o Sadist: sexual arousal from inflection of pain or humiliation on other person ▪ Dominant/master/top: feel the enjoyment using blindfolds, restraints, etc. ▪ Dominatrix: female that is sought after to cause pain to someone else • Mostly bought by wealth men to feel submissive ▪ Sexual sadism disorder: is a disorder when there is no consent of other person ▪ Sexual masochism disorder: have desire to be harmed and are distressed of desire • With asphyxiophilia: cutting off airways by choking for arousal o Masochistic: sexual enjoyment from receipt of pain/humiliation ▪ Submissive/slave/bottom: like to feel the inflection themselves • Hire the dominatrix o Sadomasochism: combined or reciprocal ▪ Physical pain: whipping, cutting, nipple clamps, etc. ▪ Psychological pain: restraints, verbal abuse, degradation, etc. ▪ Often associated with fetishistic interests in leather, rubber, etc. o BDSM(Bondage and Discipline): ▪ Dominance/submissive, roleplaying, safe word (important to know when to stop) o Exhibitionism Exhibitionistic Disorder o Exposing genitals to nonconsenting people ▪ May masturbate before, during, after flashing ▪ Often not a preference: still react to other stimuli ▪ May misinterpret reaction of victim as reciprocation of interest • Like to see reaction that gets them aroused ▪ Very common: 1/3 of sex crimes • Highest reoffenders(1/3 repeaters have active crimes) ▪ Similar to obscene phone calling: graphic conversations o Have normal dating experiences, shy, withdrawn, mostly males o 4060% of college women experience it o Is a disorder when sexually aroused by exposing genitals to prepubescent children, to physically mature individuals, or both o Voyeurism – Voyeuristic Disorder o Sexually aroused by watching other people naked, having sex in the bathroom ▪ May masturbate • Excitement from other people not knowing what is going on ▪ Usually hidden, vary levels of intrusiveness ▪ May be legal in parts of US if no video/photography ▪ Get in trouble more for trespassing o Very common: ~50% of male adolescents ▪ Looking into girl’s locker room, etc. o “peeping toms”: heterosexual males start of when close to puberty o Frotteurism – Frotteuristic Disorder o Hidden and forced physical contact o Men rubbing genitals against women in crowded places ▪ Can be explained as an accident ▪ May involve masturbation ▪ Very common: 1/3 of men have done it at least once o What is pedophilia? Why is pedophilia the most common paraphilia seen in treatment? What is the historical context for pedophilia? o Recurrent, intense sexual arousal from prepubescent or pubescent children, usually causing distress or impairment in functioning ▪ Often 18 or older; at least 5 years older than victims ▪ Most common paraphilia in treatment because it is illegal and harmful • Varies in tolerance in different cultures ▪ Double standards between men and women • More disturbing to see older man (“pervert”) than older woman o Often obsessive and predatory ▪ Spend time cultivating relationship with children and family to build trust o Adult/adolescent sexual contact with children ▪ Most contacts involve older children and single encounters ▪ 15% of women, and 7% men recollect contact with adult • Women have more contact with adult males, men have contact with adult women and men ▪ 47% by strangers, most by family friend or relatives • Person that family trusts ▪ 8090% are older individuals touching genitals of victims o Girls more likely to be victims ▪ 44% prefer only girls of ages 810 ▪ 33% prefer boys of ages 1013 ▪ 23% chose both girls and boys • Bodies are similar around the age o Some pedophiles only look, while others engage in a variety of sexual acts ▪ Most common behaviors are fondling and exhibitionism o How harmful is adultminor sexual contact? ▪ Current thought is that it is always extremely harmful ▪ Changes through history and culture • Argument that the perception of harm is causing it to be more harmful ▪ Victims experience • Depression, hostility, antisocial behavior, suicidal, promiscuity, etc. o Higher risks of continuing cycle and becoming pedophile also • Worse if… o Long term victims, incestuous, large age differences, penetration o Mostly men, but women do it too ▪ Perceived as less abusive done by women and less caught than men ▪ Double standards for men and women o Extrafamilial molesters: outside the family less common ▪ More likely to be penetrative ▪ More likely to molest boys ▪ Injury more common ▪ More likely to reoffend ▪ More likely to be exclusive pedophiles that can only get arousal from children o Pedophilia v. Homosexuality rd ▪ 2/3 prefer victims of opposite sex o What does a “typical” pedophile look like? What do their family/life histories look like? Who do they typically victimize? o Psychology of the pedophile ▪ Not much different than any other person • Lack empathy: don’t believe that they are causing any harm to the victim • Arrested psychological development • Low selfesteem: don’t feel good about themselves • Poor social relations: not good relationships with other people • Alcoholism • Exaggeration of social male role • 35% were victims of childhood sexual abuse also ▪ Reasons they give for behavior • They did not fight back • Lacked sexual outlets: no adult women available • Intoxication • Victim initiation: they kid wanted it ▪ Difficult to change behavior ▪ Society sexualizes children in media with advertisements which appeals to pedophiles for easier access o What is sexual addiction? What does a “typical” sex addict look like? What does it mean to say there is a doublestandard for men and women in regard to sexual addiction? How common is sexual addiction? What does the cycle of sexual addiction look like? o Sexual addiction: obsessed sex life bringing excitement and pleasure constantly as important ▪ “typical sex addict:” Obsessed male with Needing repeated sexual encounters with uncontrollable craving obsessed with masturbation and pornography, affairs, prostitutes, etc. ▪ Recurrent and intense sexual fantasies, urges, and behavior o Double standards ▪ Men: Don Juanism/satyriasis: flattering terms for male that enjoy having sex ▪ Women: nymphomaniac: derogatory term for woman that enjoys having sex o Four cycles ▪ Preoccupation with thoughts of sex, ritualization of preparation for sex, compulsive sexual behavior when don’t feel any control, and realization and despair o 35% have addiction, men outnumbering women based on those who seek treatment o Do most people with paraphilia seek treatment? Why or why not? What do typical treatments for paraphilia look like? Are they effective? o Most do not seek treatment and are content with balancing pleasure and guilt o Others who feel ashamed and believe it is disrupting their lives in way of forming new relationships, legal trouble, etc. o Difficult to assess and measure o Treatments: group, individual therapy, medication, education, selfhelp aimed to reduce and eliminate and change behavior; most commonly used and successful Chapter 17 o Be familiar with definitions of rape & sexual assault, state vs. national o Rape: physically or psychologically forced sexual intercourse; ▪ Can also happen by pressuring someone to do something they do not want to do (coercion) o Sexual Assault: any type of sexual contact that occurs without consent of unwanted recipient ▪ Penetration, forced oral sex, masturbation, touching, fondling, etc. ▪ Labeled differently in every state which makes it difficult to gather accurate data o Estimates of number of victims in US; why is this likely an underestimate? 1 in 4/ 1in 5 women are victims of rape or attempted rape by time finish college • Usually 6580% of situations are done by someone that they know • Highly underreported ▪ Across all possible crimes • 1/3 never tell anyone • ½ are reported • 5% go through trial • Feel ashamed, guilty, embarrassed, etc. o What percentage of rapes are perpetrated by someone the victim knows? What are the implications of this? o “date rape” v. “stranger rape” ▪ Victims usually know who the attacker is in some way (friend, partner) 51% women by intimate partner ▪ Trauma knowing that person betrayed trust ▪ Less common to get raped by a stranger o What are the demographics of the typical rapist? Typical attitudes? Average number of victims? Male, single, 1530 years old, sexist, aggressive • Sexist views about women: women should be submissive to men • Traditional male role norms: men are superior and should get what they want when they want • Find rape myths to be true • Might have violence in own history • Higher levels of impulsivity and aggression ▪ Average number of victims is 6 o Be familiar with the three different types of rapists described in your text. o Power rapist: motivated by dominance and control o Anger rapist: motivated by anger and use it in overt ways (force or weapons) o Sadistic rapist: motivated by sexual and aggressive fantasies o What is the basis of the rapist psychopathology theory of rape? o Rape occurs because of mental illness, uncontrollable sexual urges, and alcohol intoxication and if they did not have these problems, they would not rape o According to this theory, how should we “treat” rapists? o Rape can be reduced by finding sick individuals and rehabilitating them o Makes people feel safer because it suggests that only sick people rape, not “normal” people o What does it mean to say that research consistently fails to identify any significant distinguishing characteristics of rapists? o Suggests only sick people rape and it is hard to find distinct characteristics of rapists ▪ Easier to see rapists as sick than to think that they are normal and that we all have the ability to rape people o What is the Victim Precipitation theory of rape? What are rape myths? Be able to identify typical rape myths. ▪ Victim Precipitation Theory: • Rape is cause by victim’s vulnerabilities based on what she was wearing and how she was acting • Media plays role, place the blame on the victim rather than on the rapist ▪ Rape myths: • Only healthy women can resist a rapist is she really wanted to • Women like a man who is pushy or forceful • In majority, the victim is promiscuous or has a bad reputation • A man cannot really tell when a woman means no because women say no but mean yes • “real” men pushes even when partner says no • Aroused men cannot control themselves, women who lead on the men deserve it • Only men can rape women • If couple has sex willingly, forced intercourse between them is not rape o What is the basis of the Feminist Theory of rape? What is the role of sexrole stereotyping in this theory? o Feminist Theory: Rape about control and dominance of the men on women Way to reinforce traditional roles in society Sexrole stereotyping which reinforces the idea that men are supposed to be string, aggressive, and passive encourages rape in culture o What is the Sociological Theory of rape? ▪ Sociological Theory: • Rape is an expression of power and used if males’ masculinity is threatened o Fear that poor men will rape the rich women • More of a power issue than a sexual issue o What is the Evolutionary Theory of rape? What are the shortcomings of this theory? o Evolutionary Theory: Men are meant to impregnate and spread their seeds Inevitable because women are selective in choosing mate, but men don’t have same reproductive strategies Must be normal because it occurs in other animal species o Be familiar with gender differences in attitudes about rape. o men less sympathetic and sensitive than women o many heterosexual men expect sex o Are rape workshops or rape prevention programs successful in changing attitudes? Behaviors? ▪ men who take courses on violence against women have less rape myths and more likely to be sensitive ▪ less likely to be violent and sexually assault women o What does it mean to say that the incidence of rape is dependent upon how a culture defines it? What does rape look like around the world? What cultural factors seem to be related to high incidence of rape? o Some cultures consider rape as a punishment and sense of power over woman as they are property o Initiation purposes to prove manhood or womanhood when given to the husband and no one else having access to her o Cultural factors: ▪ Women have difficult time saying no to sex ▪ Men feel entitled to have sex whenever they want and believe women enjoy being raped • Corrective rape: belief that a lesbian or gay man can be turned straight if they have sex with heterosexual partner ▪ Depends on the status of women, male attitudes, etc. o What is the incidence rate of sexual assault on college campuses? What factors complicate the reporting of rape and sexual assault on campuses? o 1 in 5 women are sexually assaulted and know who assaulted them ▪ During freshman and sophomore year “red zone” o College men are also raped o Campuses have hard time handling rape cases ▪ Not giving enough protection to victims o What percentages of rape and sexual assaults involve alcohol use? How is this related to women’s likelihood of reporting? o 2/3 victims consume voluntarily o Alcohol myopia: tunnel vision and focus on one thing o Can be troublesome if focus is on having sex which can lead to rape o Women less likely to report to report if they are told that they should not have drunk anything o o What is the prevailing social attitude about gender, alcohol use, and rape? o Men sexualize surrounding when drunk interpreting everything as a sexual contact or flirting o Double standard in that men held less responsible if rape when drunk • women held more responsible if was raped when drunk o What features of fraternities make them especially risky places for sexual assault perpetration? What about athletic teams? o Fraternities ▪ Revolve around ethic of masculinity and value competition, dominance, sexual prowess, etc. ▪ Pressure to be sexually successful and more accepting of rape myths o Athletic teams ▪ Becoming more common due to rapesupportive attitudes, sexually aggressive behavior ▪ Female athletics believe that they are at lower risk because they are “stronger” • More likely to blame the victim and that the victim put themselves in the bad situation o Be familiar with Rape Trauma Syndrome—the main characteristics of both the acute phase and the longterm phase. o Rape trauma syndrome: psychological trauma that victims experience similar to PTSD; twostep stress response pattern ▪ Not every victim gets syndrome ▪ Acute phase: • Victims fear being alone, strangers, in places where rape occurred • Feel anger, anxiety, depression, shock, etc. • Majority will talk to someone ▪ Longterm reorganization • Restoring order in life and establishing control o Can recover in within 5 years depending on amount of care that they receive after rape o What is Silent Rape Reaction? What percentage of women never disclose their assault? o Type of rape trauma syndrome in which victim does not talk to anyone after rape o Suffer a longer recovery period o Occurs when they deny and repress incident until they feel stronger(months –years later) ▪ Only way to deal with it is to tell someone what happened o When did marital rape become a crime? What percentage of women are raped by their husbands? ▪ 1993: illegal to rape wife since before, rape did not apply to married couples o Varies between states on how cases are handled o Were treated as property and had responsibility to give men sex when they need to o 1014% women raped by women o We talked in class about 3 especially vulnerable populations. What are they? What are the risks for each? o Lesbian and Bisexuals ▪ Common reason was because they were lesbian only because they never had good heterosexual sex • Will reexamine feelings about men and feel violated and abused; fear of pregnancy o What is the prevalence rate of rape against male victims? o More underreported than female rapes ▪ 1 in 33 men have been victims o Majority as assaulted before the age of 18 o What are the characteristics of female perpetrators of sexual assault? o Engage in wide range of sexually aggressive behaviors including forced sex and verbal coercion o Belief that men are not raped because they always want sex ▪ Have involuntary erections o What are the risks/outcomes for men who are assaulted by other men? o Gay men are raped more than heterosexual men ▪ Forced anal sex, oral sex, and masturbation to ejaculation o Expression of power, show of strength and masculinity o Shame, embarrassment, selfblame, hostility, and depression o What are the prevalence rates for rape within prisons? What characteristics distinguish male and female rapes within prisons? o 34% of inmates were sexually victimized, yet rates higher due to underreporting o Male prisons ▪ Learn avoidance techniques no eye contact, physical modesty, no gift acceptance ▪ Rape is an act of asserting power and dominance ▪ Exchange for money or cigars o Female prisons ▪ Women are often victims of sexual harassment, molestation, coercive sexual behaviors and forced intercourse by prison staff ▪ Also by other female inmates and don’t report due to fear of retaliation o Rape is the only violent crime in which society expects the victim to fight back. o What are the suggested strategies for avoiding/escaping rape? What is the risk associated with these strategies? o For women ▪ Don’t wear certain clothes ▪ Don’t walk at night ▪ Don’t drink ▪ Rules are only for women to control what they do instead of telling men that rape is not a good thing in the first place o On average, how often are rapes reported? What factors are associated with early reporting? Delayed reporting? o No legal obligation; 1 in 7 rapes are reported o More likely to report if person was a stranger, if there was violence, or if weapon was involved; o Less likely to report if they know they attacker o Early reporting: can report everything in detail o Delayed reporting: police might be skeptical to why they took so long in to report the rape o Why is reporting a rape to police often difficult? What is secondary victimization? Why do people press charges? Why do they not? o Difficult because sometimes they are not sensitive and they go through a second rape as they have to clearly explain everything that happened o Press charges because they are angry, to protect others, or want justice o Some don’t because they are afraid of revenge, wanting to forget, feeling sorry for rapist, or feel that the case would not do anything anyways o Be familiar with the strategies that have been tested for treating rapists. How successful are these strategies? What are the goals of these treatments? o Inconclusive results because the idea is that lowering sex drive will decrease rapes o All male programs try to reduce beliefs in rape myths and are less likely to repeat rape again ▪ Try to decrease myth beliefs and increase knowledge levels ▪ Not successful with highrisk rapists o What is the definition of child sexual abuse? What is the incidence rate for girls? Boys? Who is most likely to abuse girls? Boys? o Child Sexual Abuse: sexual contact with a minor by an adult ▪ 1 in 4 girls, 1 in 10 boys experience abuse as a child • Girls more likely to be abused by strangers • Boys more likely to be abused by members What is the median age of abuse? Around 8 or 9 years old o What is incest? What is the difference in incest and child sex play? o Incest: sexual contact between persons who are related or have a caregiving relationship o Child Sex Play: playing around between two kids, not in a sexual manner o What is the most important factor for children’s coping with child sexual abuse? o When tell someone and family handles abuse in a caring and sensitive manner o Combination of cognitive and behavioral psychotherapies to understand and handle trauma with high in emotional intimacy o Compared to nonmolesters, child molesters tend to have what characteristics? o Poor social skills, lower IQ, unhappy family histories, less happiness o What is intimate partner violence? What is polyvictimization? o Intimate partner violence: coercive behavior designed to exert power and control over a person in an intimate relationship through the use of intimidation, threats, or harmful behaviors o Polyvictimization: when victims of violence often experience it more than once ▪ Often have a history of violence in family and will date and be in an abusive relationship o What is the relationship between child sexual abuse/teen dating violence and intimate partner violence? o Victims of child sexual abuse or teen dating violence are more likely to get in other relationships that have violence; positive correlation o What is the difference between quid pro quo harassment and hostile environment harassment? What percentage of college students report experiences with sexual harassment? o Quid pro harassment: type of sexual harassment that involves submission to a particular type of conduct, to get an education or employment ▪ Ex. better grade in class for sexual favor o Hostile harassment: type of sexual harassment that occurs when an individual is subjected to unwelcome repeated sexual comments, or visually offensive material or touching that interferes with school or work ▪ Ex. student repeatedly telling sex jokes o 66% of college students experience some form of sexual harassment, 10% report incidences ▪ Sexist comments, jokes, etc. can sue schools Chapter 18 • What was the history of pornography in the US before the 18 century? During the 19 century? What invention had the biggest influence on the spread of pornography in the US? • The Development of Pornography o Most cultures have created erotic representations ▪ Egypt, Greece, etc. o Before, sexuality was embedded in religious, moral, and legal context that was not thought of as something separate o Development of printing press and mass availability of printed work was string influence on development of pornography • What is the difference in erotica and pornography? How did the erotic subculture that we see today begin? o Pornography: portrays sexuality for its own sake; some create it, others try to stop it; purpose of arousing the viewer ▪ For enjoyment of others o Erotica: sexual representations that are not pornography within acceptable bounds of decency ▪ Interpretation depends on observer • What are the three criteria for determining obscenity? o US courts have a 3part definition of obscenity: subjective because it varies for different people ▪ Appeal to prurient interest • Does not encourage an obsessive interest in sexual matters ▪ Offend contemporary community standards ▪ Lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value • Be familiar with the findings from the 1970 Commission on Obscenity and Pornography and the 1986 Attorney General’s Commission on Pornography (The “Meese Commission”). o 1970 Commission on Obscenity: ▪ Operated to research on pornography ▪ Concluded no reliable evidence found to support the idea that exposure to explicit sexual materials is related to development of criminal sexual behavior among youths ▪ Found to be an insignificant threat • Criticized for not distinguishing between different kinds of erotica o Including homosexuals, exhibitionists, and rapist in the same category of “sex offenders” o On poor empirical studies o 1986 Attorney General’s Commission ▪ Tried to find more effective ways to contain spread of pornography • Assumed porn was already dangerous ▪ Divided porn into four categories • Violent, degrading, nonviolent, nudity ▪ Claim that there was social violence and would hurt women • Need to restrict and ban certain porn • The issue of pornography has been divisive among feminist scholars, splitting them into two general schools. What are those, and what are the basic arguments of each? o Split between feminist that are against pornography and those that oppose censorship ▪ Antipornographic and anticensorship arguments • Antipornographic Arguments: be familiar with MacKinnon’s and Dworkin’s positions on the debate about pornography. What is the moral/religious argument against pornography? • AntiPornography Arguments o two different reasons that both believe that pornography should be banned ▪ Feminist perspective • It is a way to silence and assault women • Reinforces male dominance • Encourages abuse against women • More about power than about sex and should be banned • Dworkin, Mackinnon ▪ Religious perspective • Is immoral and encourages thoughts and behaviors that undermine the family structure • Anticensorship Arguments: be familiar with the basic tenets of this position in the debate. • Anticensorship Arguments o Anticensorship Advocates ▪ Not necessarily propornography ▪ Restriction of pornography will lead to a society ruled by censorship • Won’t be allowed to make own choices o Anticensorship Feminists ▪ Censoring may lead to censorship of feminist writings and gay erotica ▪ Argue that it is not clearly shown that pornography harms women • Studies on the harmful effects of pornography are divided into two categories: societywide studies and individual studies. What are the findings from the societywide studies? Do these findings confirm or contradict the findings from individuallevel studies? • Society Wide Studies o No reliable evidence that sex offenders have more pornography that “average” men ▪ Don’t consume more frequently than others at an individual level o But… rape rates in US are highest in places with highest circulation of sex magazines ▪ At a social level, availability correlated with rape rates o But rape rates are low in Denmark( where there is no pornography laws) and in Japan (where pornography is sold freely) ▪ Rates not the same around the world o And gender equality is higher in states with higher circulation rates of sexually explicit material ▪ Yet also higher rates of assault • Individual Studies o Little evidence that nonviolent, sexually explicit films provoke antifemale reactions in men ▪ Does not make men more aggressive against women o Many studies show violent or degrading pornography does influence attitudes ▪ Longevity of effects unclear ▪ Do they influence behavior? Little correlation because unclear to study behavior ▪ Confound? Male aggression tends to increase after seeing ANY violent movie • What percentage of internet users visit porn sites each month? • Online Pornography o Approximate 1.3 million pornographic websites o Internet allows accessibility and anonymity ▪ Can easily access and at disclosure without going anywhere o Inline sex users: ▪ 83% are recreational users ▪ 11% are at risk users ▪ 6% are compulsive users ▪ 68% lost interest in sex with their partners • Tends to impact relationship overtime with real life partner o Online users report desensitization to pornography over time ▪ Do not get the same pleasure than when they first began to watch and need to watch more to get the more pleasure out of the videos • What is the overarching public attitude about porn? o Majority want to ban violent porn and feel it leads to loss of respect for women, acts of violence and rape • What is sex work? Approximately how many people are engaged in sex work in the US? Worldwide? • Sex Work: Trading Sex for Money o US legal code is ambiguous about what sex work or prostitution is; each state has its own codes ▪ The exchange of money or goods for sexual services ▪ Range of sexual behaviors; erotic interactions without physical contact to high risk sexual behaviors ▪ Estimated 2 million sex workers in US • Around the world could be around 40 million o Ambiguous definition can give inaccurate data • Be familiar with arguments for sex work as a form of power for women, as an extension of patriarchy, and as an economic tool. • Sociological Aspects of Sex Work o Stems from… ▪ Patriarchy? • Idea that it is a form of male control over women and their sexuality ▪ Women’s power over their own bodies? • Women exploit only asset that cannot be taken away: their sexuality • Can make a profit from something that naturally have o Economic standpoint: ▪ They are profiting from something that is “free” to them • Can make money whenever they need some • What are the demographics of female sex workers? What are factors that predispose females for engaging in sex work? • Female Sex Workers o Average age of entry: 14 years ▪ When they begin in the sex work industry ▪ Entry into prostitution is usually gradual until they become accustomed to it • Majority are younger than 25 years old o Predisposing factors ▪ Economically deprived upbringing • Way to make money with something they have ▪ Early sexual contact with many partners ▪ Victim of sexual or physical abuse or rape ▪ Interfamilial violence • Violence in the family can lead them to run away from home and become independent ▪ Lack of sex education o More dangerous to street work than as an escort • Brothels: places you go to have sex with prostitutes • What are the demographics of male sex workers? What are factors that predispose males for engaging in sex work? • Male Sex Workers o Not as many as female sex workers o Majority between 16 and 29; white ▪ 50% homosexual ▪ 25% heterosexual ▪ 25% bisexual • Even if they identified as one, they might perform favors of the opposite sex • Hustling: engaging in homosexual interactions • Escorts and gigolos: engage in heterosexual interactions o Predisposing factors ▪ Need for money • a source of income for some ▪ Early childhood sexual experience • Were abused at a young age ▪ Few career aspirations • Don’t know what else to be ▪ Drugs/ alcohol addiction; other psychopathology • Need to make money to pay for addictions ▪ Are more suspicious, mistrustful, hopeless, lonely, and lack meaningful relationships • Do not have many people in their personal lives o Both male and females have higher levels of fear of violence when prostitution on the streets ▪ Higher risk of being taken advantage of • What is the connection between runaways and sex work? What does it mean to say that the process is?
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