Exam 3 ( Final)
Exam 3 ( Final) PSYC 3121
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This 28 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriela Saint-Louis on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3121 at George Washington University taught by Myeong-Ho Sohn in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see Memory and Cognition in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Chapter 7: Study Guide * **even when people appear to have forgotten memories, there is evidence that they still have some of these memories stored.** Retention and Power Function https://www.coursehero.com/file/9249506/Exam3StudyGuide/ ● The power function of retention (forgetting) captures different characteristics of early and late stages. How are they different? ○ the time course of neural forgetting mirrors the time course of behavioral forgetting, just as the neural learning function mirrors the behavioral learning function. assumption is that the strength of the memory trace decays with time. ○ may be a direct relationship between the concept of strength defined at the behavioral level and strength defined at the neural level. ○ The idea that memory traces simply decay in strength with time is one of the common explanations for forgetting ( decay theory of forgetting) ● Power law of forgetting retention loss decreased as delay increases, performance systematically deterioration with delay by rate of change of deterioration gets smaller and smaller with delay ● Early stages: performance systematically deteriorates with delay ● Late stages: changes in performance negatively acceleratedrate of change gets smaller and smaller with delay ● According to the power function of retention, how does forgetting occur for the duration of retention period? ○ measure of memory systematically deteriorates with delay but the memory loss is negatively accelerated that is, the rate of change gets smaller and smaller as the delay increases. ○ whereas practice functions show diminishing improvement with practice, retention functions show diminishing loss with delaypower law of learning, improvement lower and lower ○ practice function with retention function: practice is learning ○ retentionforgetting Interference ● Describe ABAD paradigm ○ investigated how the learning of one list of paired associates would affect the memory for another list. ( ex: pairedassociates lists made up by associating nouns as stimuli to digit numbers as responses) ○ two critical groups: experimental and control. experimental group learns two lists of paired associates, the first list designated AB and the second designated AD. these lists are so designated because they share common stimuli ( the A termse.g. Cat or house i) but different responses ( the B and D terms eg. 43 and 82) ○ the control group also first studies the AB list but then studies a completely different second list, designated CD, which does not contain tj new stimului ( the C terms( e.g. bone and cup) after learning their respective second lists, both groups are retested for memory of their first list, in both cases the AB list. ○ AD condition: participants learn AB list of paired associates and then learn ADlist of paired associates where first term (A) is the sameoCD control: participants study AB list of paired associates and then learn CDlist of paired associates which has no congruent terms to first list ○ What is the typical result in this type of experiment? ○ oCD does better because they don’t experience the interference that the AD groupdoes (with A terms)How does that support the interference hypothesis of forgetting?oLearning the AD list interferes with retention of the A B list and causes it to beforgotten ● What is the typical result in this type of experiment? ○ often this retention test is administered after a considerable delay,such as 24 hours or a week. in general, the experimental group that learns AD does not do as well as the control group that learns CD with respect either to rate of learning of the second list or to retention of the original AB list. such experiments provide evidence that learning the AD list interferes with retention of the AB list and causes it to be forgotten more rapidly. ● How does that support the interference hypothesis of forgetting? ○ itis difficult to maintain multiple associations to the same items. it is harder both to learn new associations to these items and to retain the old ones if new associations are learned. these results might seem to have rather dismal implications for our ability to remember information. Fan effect ● How does the fan effect explain the competition (interference) hypothesis of retrieval difficulty? The key concepts here are “spreading activation” and “associative strength”. ○ the basic idea is that when participants are presented with a stimulus such as “cat”, activation will spread from this source stimulus to all of its associated memory structures However, the total amount of activation that can spread from a source is limited; the greater the number of associated memory structures, the less the activation that will spread to any one structure ■ presentation of a sentence activates the representations of the concepts in the sentence. ( ex: doctor, lawyer, fireman, bank, church, and park) which are associated with one or more of the four sentences ■ activation spreads from these source concepts to memory structures representing the associated sentences. the total amount of activation that can spread from a source is limited ( ex: each of the two pathways from “lawyer” carries less activation than the single pathway from “doctor”) ■ as activation spreading down the pathways converge on the memory structures, the memory structures are activated to various levels. these activation sum to produce an overall level of activation of the memory structure. because of the limitation on the total activation from any open source, a memory structure’s activation level is inversely related to the sum of association of the source concepts ■ A sentence is recognized in an amount of time that is inversely related to the activation level of its memory structurethat is, the greater the activation level, the less time required to retrieve the memory and recognize the sentence. in terms of associations, the greater the number of associations of the source concepts, the more time required to recognize the sentence. ■ Figure 7.5 example ■ ** the more facts associated with a concept, he slower is retrieval of any one of the facts*** ● What neural evidence is available for the fan effect? ○ In an fMRI brainimaging study, Sohn, Goode, Stenger, Carter, and Anderson (2003) looked at the response in the prefrontal cortex during the verification fo such facts. contrasted recognition of highfan sentences ( composed of concepts that appeared in many other sentences) with lowfan sentences ( composed of concepts that appeared in few sentences) ○ there is greater hemodynamic response for the highfan sentences, which have lower activation. the prefrontal structures must work harder to retrieve the memory in conditions in lower activation. ● Lewis & Anderson (1976) tested interaction between information newly learned in a lab situation and preexperimentally acquired information. ○ How did they conduct the study? ■ they had participants learn fantasy facts about public figures; for example “Napoleon Bonaparte was from India”. Participants studied from zero to four such fantasy facts about each public figure. after learning the “facts”, they went to a recognition test phase, in which they saw three types of sentences: statements they had studied in the experiment, true facts about the public figures, and statements about the public figures that were false both in the experimental fantasy world and and in the real world. Participants had to respond to the first two types of facts as true and to the last type as false. ○ What did they find? ■ reaction time increased with fan for all types of facts. participants responded much faster to actual facts than to experimental facts. the advantage of actual facts can be explained by the observation that these true facts would be much more strongly encoded in memory than the fantasy facts ■ the most important result is that the more fantasy facts participants learned about an individual such as Napoleon Bonaparte, the longer they took to recognize a fact that they already knew about the individual example, “Napoleon Bonaparte was an emperor”. ○ What does the result mean? ■ we can produce interference with preexperimental material. ■ material learned it he laboratory can interfere with material learned outside of the laboratory. Redundancy ***Interference occurs only when one is learning multiple pieces of information that have no intrinsic relationship to one another. In contrast, interference does not occur when the pieces of information are meaningfully related*** ● When a concept is associated with multiple other concepts, these associations sometimes compete against each other for retrieval but sometimes they cooperate. The former process is interference, and the latter is redundancy. ○ Describe Bradshaw & Anderson (1982) experiment. ■ Bradsaw and Anderson experiment illustrates the contrasting effects of redundant versus irrelevant information. they looked at participants’ ability to learn some littleknown information about famous people. ■ In the single condition, they had participants study just one fact : “ Newton became emotionally unstable and insecure as a child” ■ In the irrelevant condition, they had participants learn a target fact plus two unrelated facts about the individual: ● “ Locke was unhappy as a student at Westminster.” plus “Locke felt fruits were unwholesome for children”/ “locke had a long history of back trouble” ■ In the relevant condition, participants learned two additional facts that were causally related to the target fact: ● “Mozart made a long journey from Munich to Paris” plus “ Mozart wanted to leave Munich to avoid a romantic engagement”/ “Mozart was intrigued by musical developments coming out of Paris” ■ participants were tested for their ability to recall the target facts immediately after studying them and after a week’s delay. they were presented with names such as Newton, Mozart, and Locke and asked to recall why they had studied. ○ What are the results? ■ Comparing the irrelevant condition with the single condition, we see the standard interference effect: recall was worse when there were more facts to be learned about an item. ■ However, the conclusion is quite different when we compare the relevant condition to the single condition. Here, particularly at a week’s delay, recall was better when there were more facts to be learned, presumably because the additional facts were causally related to the target facts. ○ What is the implication of the result? ■ learning redundant material does not interfere with a target memory and may even facilitate the target memory. ■ elaborative encoding as an explanation of levels of processing Retrieval and Inference *** often,when people cannot remember a particular fact, they are able to retrieve related facts and so infer the target fact on the basis of the related facts. for example, in the case of the Mozart facts just discussed, even if the participants couldn’t recall that Mozart made a long journey from Munich to Paris, if they could retrieve the other two facts, they would be able to infer this target fact. There is considerable evidence that people make such inferences at the time of recall. they seem unaware that they are making inferences but rather think that they are recalling what they actually studied.*** ● What did Bransford et al. study (1972) show? ○ reported an experiment that demonstrates how inference can lead to incorrect recall. they had participants study one of the following sentences 1. three turtles rested beside a floating log, and a fish swam beneath them 2. three turtles rested on a floating log, and a fish swam beneath them ○ participants who had studied sentence 1 were later asked whether they had studied this sentence 3. Three turtles rested beside a floating log, and a fish swam beneath it ○ Not many participants thought they had studied this sentence. participants who had studied sentence 2 were tested with 4. three turtles rested on a floating log, and a fish swam beneath it ○ *** Results: the participants in this group judged that they had studied sentence 4 much more often than participants in the other group judged that they had studied sentence 3. Sentence 4 is implied by sentence 2, whereas sentence 3 is not implied by sentence 1. thus participants thought that they had actually studied what was implied by the studied material. ● How do you explain these results? ○ In trying to remember material, people will use what they can remember to infer what else they might have studied. ● What do these results mean regarding the integrity or faithfulness of memory? ○ ○ Plausible Retrieval ****in the foregoing analysis, we spoke of participants as making errors when they recalled or recognized facts that were not explicitly presented. in real life, however, such acts of recall often would be regarded not as errors ut as intelligent inferences. Reder (1982) has argued that much of recall in real live involves plausible inference rather than exact recall. for instance, in deciding that Darth Vader was evil in Star Wars, a person does not search memory for the specific proposition that Darth Vader was evil, although it may have been directly asserted in the movie. the person infers that Darth Vader was evil from memories about the Stars Wars Movies.Reder demonstrated that people will display very different behavior, depending on whether they were asked to engage in exact retrieval or plausible retrieval. *** ● In Reder (1982) study ○ Difference between exact recall and plausible retrieval conditions? ■ Results from Reder’s experiment showing that people display different behavior depending on whether they are asked to engage in exact retrieval or plausible retrieval of information. the time required to make exact versus plausible recognition judgments of sentences is plotted as a function of delay since study of a story. ■ She had participants study passages and then asked them to judge sentences. the first sentence was studied; the second was not studied, but is plausible; and the third was neither studied nor plausible. ■ Participants in the plausible condition were to judge whether the sentence was plausible given the story, in which case they were to accept the first two and reject the last. Reder tested participants immediately after studying the story, 20 min later, or 2 days later. ○ Describe the results. ■ Participants’ response times increased with delay in the exact condition. the response times however, actually decreased in the plausible condition. they started out slower in the plausible condition than in the exact condition, but this trend was reversed after two days. Reder argues that participants respond more slowly in the exact condition because the exact traces are getting weaker. a plausibility judgment, however does not depend on any particular trace and so is not similarly vulnerable to forgetting. participants respond faster in the plausible condition with delay because they no longer try to retrieve facts, which are not there. Instead they use plausibility, which is faster. ■ Dependent variable ● time required to make exact versus plausible recognition judgments ■ Independent variables (there are two) ● exact retrieval of information ● plausible retrieval of information ■ How did the dependent variable change as a function of independent variables? ● the results of time required to make exact versus plausible recognition judgments of sentences are plotted as a function of delay since study of a story ● in the Exact recall: Reaction time increased as the delay increased ● in the Plausible retrieval, reaction time decreased as the delay increased. ■ How do you explain the above results? ● participants respond faster in the plausible condition with delay because they no longer try to retrieve facts, which are not there. Instead they use plausibility, which is faster. ● People will often judge what plausibly might be true rather than try to retrieve exact facts. Elaboration ● What would be positive effects of elaborating and making inferences during study? ○ when participants elaborate on material while studying it, they tend to recall more of what they studied and also tend to recall the inferences that they did not study but made themselves. ○ we might question whether participants really benefited from their elaborations, because they also misrecalled many things that did not occur in the story. However, it is wrong to characterize the intruded inferences as errors. Given the theme information, participants were perfectly right to make inferences. In a nonexperimental setting, such as recalling information for an exam, we would expect these participants to recall such inferences as easily as material they had actually read. Eyewitness testimony *** One situation in which i is critical to separate inference from actual experience is in eyewitness testimony. it has been shown that eyewitnesses are often inaccurate in the testimony they give, even though jurors accord it high weight. one reason for the loaw accuracy is that people confuse what they actually observed about an incident with what they learned from other sources. Loftus showed that subsequent information can change a person’s memory of an observed event. *** ● Describe Loftus’ car crash study. ○ Loftus asked participants who had witnessed a traffic accident about the car’s speed when it passed a Yield sign. Although there was no Yield sign, many participants subsequently remembered having seen one, confusing the question they were asked with what they had actually seen. ● Results ● Implications: ○ Serious errors of memory can occur because people fail to separate what they actually experienced from what they inferred, imagined, or were told. False Memory ** there are circumstances in which we need to be able to separate what we actually saw and heard from our inferences. the difficulty of doing so can lead to harmful false memories ● What is the cognitive basis of false memory? Explain with one of inclass demonstrations, which is also Roediger & McDermott’s paradigm. ● In an fMRI study, Cabeza and his colleagues showed false memory may have a neural basis that is different from true memory ○ Which brain regions are differently activated with false versus true memory? ■ In the fMRI: in the hippocampus proper, true words and false words produced almost identical fMRI responses, which were stronger than the responses produced by the new words. Thus, these hemodynamic responses appear to match up pretty well with the behavioral data where participants cannot discriminate between true items and false items. However, in the parahippocampal gyrus, both false and new items produced weaker responses than the true items. the parahippocampus is more closely connected to sensory regions of the brain, and Cabaez suggested that it retains the original sensory experience of seeing the word, whereas the hippocampus maintains a more abstract representation and this is why true items produce a larger hemodynamic response ■ Bilateral hippocampal regions were more activated fro true and false items than for new items, with no difference between the activations for true and false items. ■ A left posterior parahippocampal region ( parahippocampal gyrus) was more activated for true items than for false and new items, with no difference between the activations for true and false items ○ What would be implications of these regions being differently involved? ■ the hippocampus responds to false memories with as high activation as it responds to true memories and so fails to discriminate between what was experienced and what was imagined. . ■ people can be trained to pay more attention to these distinctive sensory features and so improve their resistance to false memories. as one application, distinctiveness training can be used to help elderly patients who have a particular difficulty with false memories. for instance, older adults sometimes find it hard to remember whether they have seen something or just imagined it. Encoding and Retrieval ● The main question in this section is how the contextual information can be encoded and what its role would be in retrieval. ● What are the contexts? External context? Internal contexts? Examples? ○ context effects are often referred to as encoding effects because the context is affecting what is encoded into the memory trace that records the event ○ External context ( physical) : Godden and Baddeley( 1975) had divers learn a list of 40 unrelated words either on the shore or 20 feet under the sea. the divers were asked to recall the list either in the same environment or in the other environment. Participants showed superior memory when asked to recall the list in the same environment in which they studied it. so it seems that contextual elements to get associated with memories and that memory is improved when participants are provided with these contextual elements when being tested. ○ Internal contexts ( emotional): emotional context can have the same effect as physical context. Bower ( 1978) instructed participants to learn two lists. For one list, they hypnotically induced a positive state by having participants review a pleasant episode in their lives; for the other, they hypnotically induced a negative state by having them review a traumatic event. a later recall test was gien under either a positive or a negative emotional state. better memory was obtained when the emotional state at test matched the emotional state at study. ● What is statedependent learning and what does it tell us about the importance of contextual information? ■ People show better memory if their external context and their internal states are the same at the time of study and the time of test ○ Godden and Baddeley (1975), external environment ■ Results of study to investigate the effects of context on participants’ recall of words. the mean number of words recalled is plotted as a function of the environment in which learning took place. Participants recalled word lists better in the same environment in which they were learned. ***experiment Explained above ○ Eich et al. (1975), internal environment ■ participants learned a freerecall list after smoking either a marijuana cigarette or on ordinary cigarette. Participants were tested 4 hours lateragain after smoking either a marijuana cigarette or a regular cigarette. ■ two effects were seen, both of which are typical of research on effects os psychoactive drugs on memory. ● First, there is a statedependent effect reflected by better recall when the state at test matched the state at study ● second, there is an overall higher level of recall when the material was studied in a nonintoxicated state ● Encoding specificity principle ○ Explain with Tulving and his colleagues’ studies. ■ Memory for material can also depend heavily on the context of other material to be learned in which it is embedded. a series of experiments ( like Tulving’s ) has illustrated how memory for a word can depend on how well the test context matches the original study context. ■ the results can be understood in terms of the similarity of the test context to the study context. the test context with the word “white” and its associates was quite different from the context in which “black” had originally been studied. in the cuedrecall test context, by contrast, participants were given the original context ( train) with which they had studied the word. Thus, if the contextual factors are sufficiently weighted in favor of recall, as they were in these experiments, recall can be superior to recognition. ■ ****Turving interprets these results as illustrating what he called the “encodingspecificity principle”: the probability of recalling an item at test depends on the similarity of its encoding at test to its original encoding at study Amnesia ● Define retrograde and anterograde amnesia ○ Retrograde amnesia: refers to the loss of memory for events that occurred before the injury ○ Anterograde amnesia: refers to an inability to learn new things ● How are they different in terms of recovery? ○ It is characteristic that retrograde amnesia is for events close in ime to the injury and that events just before the inury are never recovered. in general, anterograde and retrograde amnesia show this pattern of occurring and recovering together, although in different patients either the retrograde or the anterograde symptoms can be more severe. ○ anterograde amnesia can occur along with some preservation of long term memories ( ex: HM who remembered many things from his youth but was unable to learn new things) this indicates that the neural structures involved in forming new memories are distinct from those involving in maintaining old ones. it is thought that the hippocampal formation is particularly important in creating new memories and that old memories are maintained in the cerebral context ○ it is thought that events just prior to the injury are particularly susceptible to retrograde amnesia because they still require the hippocampus for support ○ also:: memory deficit is not complete and there are certain kinds of memories the patient can still acquire. patients can remember things for short periods but then forget them thus the problem in anterograde amnesia is retaining the memories for more than 5 or 10 seconds. ● Anterograde amnesia also indicates dissociation of implicit from explicit knowledge. How so? Use the example of Knowlton et al. study. ○ Explicit memory is what we can consciously recall, and implicit memory is what we remember only in our actions ( procedural?) ○ we all have implicit memories for things that we cannot consciously recall. however, because there is no conscious involvement, we are not aware of the extent of such memories. ( ex. location of the keys of a computer keyboard; many proficient typists cannot recall the arrangement of the keys except by imagining themselves typing. clearly their fingers know where the keys are, but they have no conscious access to this knowledge. ○ dissociations between explicit and implicit memory: in the keyboard example, explicit memory shows no knowledge, while implicit memory shows total knowledge. Implicit Memory ● Graf et al. (1984) ○ Word completion study ○ Amnesics and normal controls ○ Describe and explain the results ● Jacoby (1983) ○ Implicit task (perceptual identification) ○ Explicit task (recognition) ○ Three context condition ○ Describe and explain the results Procedural Knowledge ***Implicit memory is defined as memory without conscious awareness. By this definition, rather different things can be considered implicit memories. sometimes, implicit memories involve perceptual information relevant to recognizing the world. these memories result in the priming effects we saw in Figure 7..15. In other cases, ilicit emoris involve knowledge about how to perform tasks. an important type of implicit memory involves procedural knowledge, such as riding a bike. most of us have learned to ride a bike but have no conscious ability to say what it is we have learned… Memory for such procedural knowledge is spared in amnesic individuals. ● Berry & Broadbent (1984) ○ Sugar factory problem ■ asked participants to try to control the output of a hypothetical sugar factory ( which was stimulated by a computer program) by manipulating the size of the workforce. ■ participants would see the month’s sugar output of the factory in thousands of tons and then have to choose the next month’s workforce in hundreds of workers. They would then see the next month’s output of sugar and have to pick the workforce for the following month. ■ the goal was to keep sugar production within the range of 8,000 to 10,000 tons ○ Results and explanation ■ one can try to infer the rule relating sugar output to labor force; it is not particularly obvious. the sugar output in thousands of tons was related to the workforce input in hundreds, and the previous month’s sugar output in thousands of tons. ■ Oxford students were given 60 trials at trying to control the factory. voer those 60 rials, they got quite proficient at controlling the output of the sugar factor. However, they were unable to state what the rule was and claimed they made their responses on the basis of “some sort of intuition” or because it “ felt right” ■ thus participants were able to acquire implicit knowledge of how to operate such a factory without acquiring corresponding explicit knowledge Amnesic participants have also been shown to be capable of learning this information. ● Niseen & Bullemar (1987) ○ Sequence learning task ○ Consistent versus inconsistent sequences ○ Amnesics, Parkinson’s disease patients, and normal controls ○ Results and explanation Knowlton, Mangels, & Squire (1996) Two systems of memory ● Define and characterize explicit memory ○ what we can consciously recall ○ association learning, declarative ○ impaired with hippocampus damage ○ intact with basal ganglia damage ● Define and characterize implicit memory ○ what we remember only in our actions. ○ habit learning, procedural ○ impaired with Basal Ganglia damage ○ intact with hippocampal damage ○ Hipp BG Explicit Implicit Y Y Intact Intact Y N Intact Impaired N Y Impaired intact N N impaired impaired ● What is double dissociation? ○ Be able to explain what it is ■ double dissociations between implicit and explicit memory ■ Research comparing implicit and explicit memory suggests that the two types of memory are realized rather differently in the brain ■ different retrieval conditions reveal different memories if each of two consequences results from a different cause, the two consequences depends on separate, independent mechanisms ■ ex: no hippocampus but BG results in impaired explicit memory but intact implicit memory functioning. ■ new explicit memories are built in hippocampal regions, but old knowledge can be implicitly primed in cortical structures ○ What has been found in animal research in relation to explicit implicit memory? ■ The results from the animal research suggested that the hippocampus is critical to place learning, and the basal ganglia was important for response learning; damage to these regions would result in impairments in the respective learning methods. ○ Considering the animal research, why do you think that Knowlton and her colleagues decided to contrast Amnesics with Parkinson’s disease patients? ■ they wanted to see if the results obtained from the animal research should be applied at the human level ■ they decided to contrast the Amnesics and Parkinson’s disease patients because Amnesics are missing the function of hippocampus ( which is responsible for Implicit memory-association learning/declarative) and the Parkinson's’ patients are missing the function of a basal ganglia ( which is responsible for explicit memory-habit learning, procedural) ■ if the animal study results are true and applicable to humans, these are the perfect participants to assess that. if the results were true, they would see an impairment in the amnesics’ performance in task that involved association/declarative learning associated with implicit memory. likewise the parkinson's patients would not be able to perform tasks associated with habit learning/procedural which is a form of explicit memory. ● Probabilistic classification task ○ Describe what the task is ■ the probabilistic classificationlearning task tested the participants’ habit learning ability. they were shown 13 cues presented side by side and were asked to predict whether the outcome would be sunny or rainy. ■ feedback was given as to whether they were right or wrong through a highpitched or lowpitched sound. ○ Why is the knowledge required for this task “implicit”? ■ it is implicit because it tested their habit learning & procedural learning ability ■ each cue was independently related to the weather outcome so they were able to incrementally learn by association without trying to deliberately memorize connections between cues and outcomes. ○ There were two measures in this study. Learning of the task and postlearning recognition. Contrast performance of amnesics and Parkinson’s disease patients in these two measures with the performance of control participants. ■ The Parkinson’s patients performed normally on the test that assessed declarative memory for the classification task. The amnesic patients however performed more poorly than each of the other groups. In the second task, the Amnesic and control groups, learning increased with practice. However, the participants with Parkinson’s do not have a functioning basal ganglia and therefore not able to complete the task. The basal ganglia is important for implicit memory tasks, which is why only the Amnesic and control groups were able to perform this task The Parkinson’s; due to impairment in their BG, their performance in the probabilistic task decreased and did not show any learning. This double dissociation shows that the hippocampus regions damaged in amnesia and the basal ganglia damaged in Parkinson’s disease support separate and parallel learning systems. Chapter 8: Study Guide Nature of problem solving ● What is problem solving? What makes a problem a problem? ○ Problem solving is a goaldirected behavior that often involves setting subgoals to enable the application of operators. ○ there are three essential features that qualify an episode of problem solving ■ goal directedness: the behavior is clearly organized toward goal. ■ subgoal decomposition: ■ operator application: an action that will transform the problem state into another problems tate. the solution of the overall problem is a sequence of those known operators ● What is a problem space? ○ often, problem solving is described in terms of searching a problem space, which consists of various states of the problem. a state is a representation of the problem in some degree of solution. the initial situation fo the problem is referred to as the start state; the situations on the way to the goal, as intermediate states; and the goal, as the goal state. Operator acquisition ● Different ways of finding an operator (instruction, discovery, analogy) ○ instruction: ■ we can acquire new operators by being told about them or by observing someone else use them. these are examples of social learning. “ ○ discovery ■ although it involves complex reasoning in humans, it is the only method that most other creatures have to learn new operators, and they do not engage in complex reasoning. ○ analogy ■ process by which a problem solver extracts the operators used to solve one problem and maps them onto a solution for another problem. ● Gick & Holyoak’s (1980) analogy study ○ Military problem and radiation problem ○ How did they conduct the study? ○ What was the result? ○ Conditions for analogical transfer ○ “Worked out” examples ○ Superficial similarity and structural similarity ○ Transparency problem ● Christoff et al. (2001) ○ Relational problems ○ 0, 1, 2 dimensional ○ Which brain region was activated revealing the dimensional differences? ○ Any laterality (difference between left and right hemispheres)? Operator Selection ● Difference Reduction (Hill Climbing) ○ Define this method ■ this is particularly done in unfamiliar domains; try to reduce the difference between the current state and the goal state. ○ Use examples from the textbook ■ ○ What is the nature of difficulty when solving a problem with the difference reduction method? For example, what is local minimum and why is this a problem? Take an example of Atwood & Polson (1976) study. ● MeansEnds Analysis ○ Describe this method ■ can be viewed as a more sophisticated version of difference reduction. like difference reduction, it tries to eliminate the differences between the current state and the goal state. meansend analysis will also identify the biggest difference first and try to eliminate it. ■ means=ends analysis offers a major advance over difference reduction because it will not abandon an operator if it cannot be applied immediately. ( ex if the car did not work,, difference reduction would have one start walking to the nursery school ■ the essential feature of meansends analysis is that it focuses on enabling blocked operators. the means temporarily becomes the nd. the problem solver deliberately ignores the real goal and focuses on the goal of enabling the means. ○ Take the example of Tower of Hanoi and try to set differences, subgoals, operator, and so on. ○ In this method, what poses as a source of problem difficulty? ○ What did Goel and Grafman (1995) study and Fincham et al’s (2002) study show? Set effects ● Einstellung effect is a negative set effect. Why is this negative? ○ because the first 5 problems created a powerful bias for a particular solution that hurt the solution of problems 6 through 10. ○ so the knowledge relevant to solving other problems was weakened ○ inhibited problem solving ● Semantic priming is a positive set effect. Why is this positive? ○ the participant's factual knowledge about spellings of associatively related words strengthened. ○ facilitated problem solving ● How do they work? ○ set effects occur when some knowledge structures become more available than others. they can be either procedures, as in the water jug problem, or declarative information,a s in the anagram problem. if the available knowledge is what participants need to solve the problem, their problem solving will be facilitated. if the available knowledge is not what is needed, problem solving will be inhibited. Incubation effect people often report that after trying to solve a problem and getting nowhere, they can put it aside for hours, days, or weeks and then, upon returning to it, they can see the solution quickly. ● Silveira (1971) ○ Cheap necklace problem ■ used to investigate the incubation effect ■ participants were told: given 4 separate pieces of chain that are each three links in length. it costs 2 cents to open a link and 3 cents to close a link. all links are closed at the beginning of the problem. thier goal is to join all 12 links of chain into a single circle at a cost of no more than 15 cents. ○ How did participants solve this problem after the break? ■ for one experimental group, the half hour spent on the problem was interrupted by a half hour break in which they did other activities; 64% of these participants solved problem. . a second experimental group had a 4 hour break; 85% of these participants solved the problem ○ She collected verbal protocol before and after the break. Based on the protocol result, what did she conclude about the incubation effect and why? ■ she found that they did not come back to the problem after a break with solutions completely worked out. Rather, they began by trying to solve the problem much as before. this result is evidence against a common misconception that people are subconsciously solving the problem during the period that they are away from it ● Smith & Blankenship ○ What was the hypothesis they tried to examine? ■ sought to test the hypothesis that incubation effects occur because people “ forget” inappropriate ways of solving problems. ○ How did they manipulate? ■ they provided half of their participants, the fixation group, with inappropriate ways to think about the problems. thus they deliberately induced incorrect sets. ■ half of both the fixation and control participants worked on the problems for a continuous period of time, whereas the other half had an incubation period inserted in the middle of their problem solving efforts. ○ Results? ■ The fixation participants showed a greater benefit of the incubation period. when they asked the fixation participants what the misleading clue had been, they found that more of the participants who had an incubation period had forgotten the inappropriate clue. thus, the incubation effect for the fixation participants occurred because they had forgotten the inappropriate way of solving the problem ■ incubation effects occur when people forget the inappropriate strategies they were using to solve a problem Insight problems ● How do you define insight problems as opposed to routine problems? Examples of routine problems are arithmetic problems, Tower of Hanoi, Hobbits and Orcs, etc.. An example of insight problem is the twostring problem. ○ an insight problem is one in which people are not aware that they are close to a solution. proposed that problems like the cheapnecklace problem are insight problems, whereas problems requiring multi step solutions, like the tower of hanoi problem are noninsight problems. ● What are the major findings of Metcalfe study? What can we conclude from this study? ○ asked participants to judge every 15s how close they felt they were to the solution. fifteen seconds before they actually solved a noninsight problem, participants were fairly confident they were close to a solution. in contrast with insight problems, participants had little idea they were close to a solution, even 15s before they actually solved the problem. ○ conclusion: insight problems are ones in which solvers cannot recognize when they are getting close to the solution vs. noninsight routine problems where you are confident in knowing whether you are close to solving or not. Chapter 10: Study Guide What is a valid conclusion? ● What is a believable conclusion? How are different types of reasoning implicated in the brain? How would content affect the reasoning process? Conditional Reasoning 4 modes of conditional reasoning ● Modus ponens ● Modus tollens ● Affirmation of the consequent ● Denial of the antecedent which modes are valid and why? ● Modus ponens & Modus Tollens ● Modus Ponens: ○ if Joan understands this book, then she will get a good grade Joan understands this book. Therefore, Joan will get a good grade this example if an instance of valid deduction. By valid, this means that if the first two premises are true, then the final conclusion must be true ● Modus Tollens: ○ If joan understands this book, then she will get a good grade. Joan will not get a good grade Therefore, Joan does not understand this book This conclusion might strike the reader as less than totally compelling because, again, in the real world such statements are not typically treated as certain *** Modus ponens allows us to infer the consequent from the antecedent; modus tollens allows us to infer the antecedent is false if the consequent is false. Which modes are invalid and why? ● affirmation of the consequent & denial of the antecedent ○ Fallacy: Affirmation of the Consequent ■ If Joan understands this book, ten she will get a good grade. Joan will get a good grade. therefore, Joan understands the book ○ Fallacy: Denial of the Antecedent ■ If Joan understands this book then she will get a good grade Joan does not understand this book. therefore, Joan will not get a grade. in both?
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