Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide JOUR 101 001
Popular in Media and Society
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
JOUR 201 001
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eliza Lynch on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to JOUR 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Chris Huebner in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Media and Society in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 12/05/15
JOURNALISM 101 FINAL STUDY GUIDE Advertising Notes a sharp and swiftly acting tool of business the media have the capacity to multiply or broadcast impressions to bombard the public w facts and ideas TO STIMULATE ACTION Acts as mediated persuasion aimed at an audience Brandr to mark Consumer Culture Mass production the continuous process machinery peak efficiency Mass consumption stimulates demand Need BOTH for a consumer culture Advertising was a way for businesses to create new priorities leisure time amp consumer market consumer society buying and selling of mass produced goods is promoted through mass media shift from immediate purchase of particular items TO arousal of free floating desire Trade Advertising business to business promotion Early Advertising display ads print ads that include artwork and or fancy type faces to capture the reader s a en on trade cards illustrated cards with a business message on one side and artwork on the other The Role of Branding industrialization led to modernization advertising created mass demand and manufacturers were able to meet those demands functional benefits to emotional benefits impact of the Industrial Rev in 18303 logos were tailored to evoke familiarity and folksiness in an effort to counteract the new and unsettling anonymity of packaged goods The First Agency as ad brokers began to develop design competencies they created agencies that handled both the selling of ads and the design By the end of the 18603 there were approx 30 major advertising agencies NW Ayer and Son 1869 Principles of Selling E St Elmo Lewis 1887 National Cash Register credited with developing the first sales manual containing scripts for salesman Developed ADA A Attention l Interest D Desire AAction By the end of the 18203 advertising went from an 800 million to 3Billiondollar industry Puffery exaggeration in advertising 1906 Pure Food and Drug act was passed to combat the wild health claims being made 1914 the Federal Trade Commission was established to act as a watchdog to businesses and ad industry 1924 the American Association of Ad Agencies is established to distance themselves from marketers and hucksters and the code of ethics is published National Advertising Review Council Salesmanship in Print Claude Hopkins 1924 Lord amp Taylor Scientific advertising An advertisement exists for no reason other than to sell A good salesman is serious and respectable He does not entertain Headlines should hail a few people only Pictures should only be used when they can provide more info than can be said accurately in words Unique selling proposition the one reason why the consumer should buy your product over the competition slogans Rosser Reeves 1950s The Bates Agency First TV commercial 1941 advertisers were slow to TV because radio was a much more tested medium 1948 the 30 second spot was standard form of ad Delivery The Creative Revolution David Ogilvy 1950s Ogilvy amp Mather if it doesn t sell it isn t creative defined by a youth led diversification of agency and its structure every ad should be thought of as a contribution to the complex symbol which is the brand image Motivational Research Ernest Dichter 1950s Bates Agency Motivated by emotion security status sex Freud Psychologist look at consumer behavior Cable TV 1980s cable was segmenting channels catered to very specific audiences Internet Advertising 1994 first internet ad appeared ability to hyper target audiences had arrived double click an all online ad agency is launched in 1996 pay per click model is adopted 2007 popularity of Facebook lead to social media advertising 2010 internet ad Spending reaches 24 billion How it Works SCIENCE rational persuasion based on propositions ART seducing the subconscious images symbols meanings emotions SALIENCE PT Barnum fame creating share of voice famous appearing ubiquitous amp popular SOCIALidea that ad Works between people Attention Technology Trust We are exposed to over 3000 brand related messages each day As exposure has increased so has our ability to tune out these messages Recall comprehension People engage in content that adds value to their lives amp are skeptical of branded content Advertising can now show USPfunctionality instead ofjust delivering a message Time context interest The Structure of Ad Agencies Account planning market research 0 Aid in the development of strategy using views of the client the creative team and consumers 0 creative development creatives tasked with graphics storyboards copy amp scripts Media Planning 0 Media planners media buyers 0 Chose and purchase the types of media that are best suited to carry a client s ads and reach the target audience 0 Measure effectiveness of ad placements Account Management 0 client services 0 new business development manage accounts become voice of the client Public Relations Define mutually beneficial relationship between an organization and its publics Leadership management function to achieve organizational objectives define philosophy and facilitate organizational change Persuasive amp Purposive Communication internal vs external publics what was the organization goal Who were the publics involved Social amp Cultural Circumstances during the turn of the 20th century rise of newspaper and magazines created a social conscious among the middle and working class media was thought of as more than simply means of communication large corporations controlled many aspects of Americans lives muckrakers big business were painted as henchmen who were a threat to the common good of American life How ATampT used PR to solve its curse of bigness james ellsworth was hired by ATampT to mount a public campaigned switched Bell System to Bell companies image management framing independent phone companies threatened their market began directing and revenues to newspapers media relations broke the ice employed women operators to create a user friendly interface consumer relations ma bell employee relations ran ads describing pay and employee bene ts corporations must learn to present themselves THROUGH THE EYES OF THE PUBLIC George Creel committee on public information PR Crisis Management removed all products from selves and stopped advertising told consumers to seize all consumption of any type of Tylenol products News Management issued national alert via media sent pretaped daily messages w updated statements held major press conferences Jim Burke gave statements on diff talk shows Johnson amp Johnson Community relations established 1800 hotline first product in industry to use new tamper resistant packaging Used crisis as an opportunity through the actions of JampJTylenol the conversation focused on the increased safety measures not deaths The evolvinq role of iournalism 1920 presidential elections are covered by Frank Conrad to a mass audience announced Warren G Harding as our next president Press Radio War newspapers threatened by radio Publishers began to cut coverage of radio which put pressure on AP to stop providing service to radio Biltmore agreement radio networks could only air 5 min newscasts Newscasts could not air before 930 am or after 900 pm Hindenburg explosion marked the beginning of eye witness news accounts First regularly scheduled news program aired on TV was anchored by Lowell Thomas on NBC Radio provided live long distance listening Credibility gap the difference between what a gov says and what the public believes to be true The depth of the onscene reporting made it difficult to manage the news Coverage of the Vietnam war brought horrors of war into American homes if I ve lost Cronkite I ve lost the American people each new medium has changed the way news was presented and defined News the process of gathering info And making narrative reports edited by individuals for news organizations that offer selective frames of reference within those frames news help the public make sense of important events political issues cultural trends prominent people and unusual happenings in everyday life news is both a PRODUCT broadcastedpublished and a PROCESS signifies what is culturally importantvalued Neutrality journalists should be neutral observers who present facts without passing judgments on them getting just the facts vs editorializing Ethnocentrism news reporting judge other cultures based on the basis of how they live up to American practices and values Individualism individuals who overcome adversity Fragmentation of News today s media marketplace has become fragmented No longer does it make economic sense to appeal to the widest audience 0 Ex muting political learnings to reach a mass audience doesn t produce the same return We don t consume media in a way that supports this model anymore Selective Exposure lndividual s tendency to favor info Which reinforces their pre existing views while avoiding contradictory info Confirmation bias individual s tendency to search for info In a way that confirms their current beHeves Conflict of Interest Media corporate interests Privacy or publics right to know What public good is being served What is the significant info gained through this private moment Citizen journalism participatory journalism describes citizens playing an active role in the process of collecting reporting and analyzing or disseminating newsinfo Seen as a common good and a benefit to the collective Wrestle away control from big six Allow common man to tackle social issues JOURNALISM EXAM REVIEW Covers Advertising PR journalism 40 questions truefalse mult Choice short answer December 8 730 Advertising uses media to broadcast messages seeking impressions know the goal Know the ultimate goal of advertising phrase Stimulate action Advertising media persuasion aimed at an audience very much a tool of business Define consumer society 0 The need to mass consume what is mass produced 0 two forces needed to create a consumer society mass production amp mass consumption Advertising s goal is to stimulate action how do they do this Create a need Ex advertisement of woman sitting by herself as man hugged another create envy for others Created the idea that product would increase class or social mobility Desirability Puffery ads that made wild claims Processes put in place to combat advertising puffery the pure food amp drug act the American Association of Ad Agencies was created KNOW THESE E St Elmo Lewis AIDA item model Claude Hopkins salesmanship in print first guy that thought advertising should be boiled down to a science Rosser Reeves unique selling proposition what makes your product unique David Ogilvy advertising as an art creativity y can grab attention of consumer Ernest Dichter motivational research motivated by money sex status Eye patch ad showed working class male how a shirt can transform him into a man of status 4 ways in which advertising is thought to work 1 Science 2 Art 3 Salience keeping it top of mind of consumer more person seeshears about it the more likely it ll have an effect 4 Social advertising works between people acts of badges of reference points seeing someone else with what you have leads you to believe you ve made the correct purchase 2 functions of PR 1 Leadership acts as an advisement to those who make managerial decision represents the voice of the public which that organization serves 2 Management manages people budgets etc 0000 Public Relations mutual beneficial relationship between and organization and its many publics lnternal public ex USC faculty members students External public alumni parents community around USC campus From a big business perspective why did the need for PR arose What were some of the social circumstances that aided in the practice of PR The more people are educated through media the more we are going to need to manage the relationship between the business amp its employees with members of the community became more important Muckrakers painted the meat packing industry poorly exposed the unfair treatment etc As corporations were painted in poor light by journalists the need to maintain effective relations w employees and their public became more important Functions of PR research counselingadvising gov affairs development of fundraising multicultural affairs issues management what are important issues that may affect your organization ex ATampT telephones were not seen favorably so they needed to paint ATampT in a pos light media relations public affairs community relations employee relations publicity events that are meant to gain the public39s attention marketing communication promotion Planning Process 4 ways to think about research 1 brand 2 category 3 consumer understanding how consumers make decision consumers being labeled often as irrational beings comes from the field of economics which says we do not make decisions in a bounded manner and we strictly base it on utility 4 culture have an understanding essentially about what each one means heuristic cognitive shortcut which seeks to explain how we make decisions 0 7 ways on blackboard The effect of new media on the practice ofjournalism discuss the definition of news what does it mean when we say its both a product and a process neutrality ethnocentrism individualism values KNOW ALL DEFINITIONS quot Fragmentation of news Consumption habits as it relates to news How we consume contentnews has removed the need to appeal to a mass audience makes more economic sense to appeal to more specific audiences because we create the same consumption patterns over and over again explains why we have organizations that cater toward specific ideologies etc
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