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Philosophy 1030 Final Review!

by: Emily Mason

Philosophy 1030 Final Review! PHIL 1030

Marketplace > Clemson University > PHIL 1030 > Philosophy 1030 Final Review
Emily Mason
Introduction to Ethics
Dr. Hannen

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This is the completed Study Guide given to us in class with everything you need to know for the Philosophy 1030 Exam
Introduction to Ethics
Dr. Hannen
Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Mason on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 1030 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Hannen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views.


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Date Created: 12/05/15
Philosophy 1030 Final Exam Review Dr Hannen State of Nature Hobbes39s theory that says without a common power the state of man is anarchy every man for himself Our natural state is bad Hobbes39s Social Contract Theorv 3 Main Points I give up my right to govern myself to the assembly of men if everyone does the same war against all is in nobody39s interest SCT secures peace No right or wrong in the state of nature Morality comes from more than just survival Prisoner Thouoht Experiment Two spies are captured and are being held prisoner in a jail If both adherecooperate both receive four months in prison If one adheres and the other violates the one that adheres gets no time and the other gets 9 years If both violate each get 6 years The idea is that what is most bene cial to an individual is not necessarily the best thing for everyone Rawl39s social contract Social Institutions are not made under the duress of the state of nature Must use the veil of ignorance Made up of two principles the equal liberty principle and the difference principle Veil of ionorance part of Rawl39s social contract You must choose social institutions not knowing about what one39s position will be Must ignore things like race gender and social status Edual libertv principle part of Rawl39s social contract that says we can39t all have the maximum amount of freedom We must have an equal amount when your liberty hurts mine it39s too far Difference principle part of Rawl39s Social Contract that says inequalities are ok if they work out in everyone39s advantage Ex If everyone has the same power as the President society would not function correctly Ex nobody would be a doctor if they have to put in more work just to end up being equal Ethical Egoism one oughtto act in such a way as to secure one39s own best interest If Psychological Egoism is true then Ethical Egoism is necessarily true Altruism doing something for the sake of others This is a counterexample to Psychological Egoism because you are acting for others However Psychological Egoism says that Altruism is really people acting for their own satisfaction Psvcholooical Eooism you cannot act for others The quotoughtquot in Ethical Egoism implies you can where quotcannotquot in Psychological egoism leaves no obligation Strict Psychological Egoism We are motivated predominantly by selfinterest Partial Altruism because we sacri ce sometimes Aroument aoainst altruism Undermines the development of selfworth always sacri cing is not a good way to live your life Arouments aoainst ethical eooism inconsistent outcomes Pubicity paradox of ethical egoism counter intuitive results Saving a drowning child would be wrong Evolution and Altruism There is an evolutionary basis for apparently altruistic behavior bee stinging to save hive Bioogical Altruism weakens case for psychological egoism Divine Command Theorv if morality depends on religion then ethical principles are the commands of God Autonomy Thesis if morality does not depend on religion then moral rightness gives us reasons for action that may be known independently of God39s will 2 Objections to the Divine Command Theory The arbitrary objection if God said harming is true then it would be right The redundancy objection quotGod is goodquot is not a statement that is always known to be true vacuous The problem of evil If God is omnipotent then why does evi even exist Augustine39s proposed solution for the problem of evil Says that evil exists only as a corruption of goodness Goodness aows evil to exist only through human error Since we were given free will we have the choice between good and evil Obiection of OmnipotenceFree Wi Omnipotence does not imply free will One cannot change what has already happened in the past So if God believed 80 years ago that you would do quotxquot today that belief would have to be true Therefore you cannot change God39s belief 80 years ago and you were unable to not do x today Existentialism The belief of Kierkegaard which is the rejection of the notion that there is human essence to be discovered Existence precedes essence Gives more weight to decision making that the decision itself Kierkegaard39s quotThe leap of faithquot part of existentialism Faith is risky because it precedes reason Empirica inquiry is never nished so the total commitment of religious faith requires disregarding the risk of error Sometimes you must believe rst then the evidence comes into existence ex trying to get someone to like you Major difference between Kierkegaard and Augustine Kierkegaard says that faith is irrational which is why you must use the leap of faith Augustine says that claims of faith and claims of reason can harmonize Henrv Sedgwick Establishes utilitarianism on the intuitionist basis Says utilitarianism should focus on helping only those directly around you The isouoht gap What is right vs what should be right The problem is that you cannot derive normative statements from descriptive statements and vice versa Prudence principle part of Sidwick39s utilitarianism that says a smaller current good is not to be preferred to a greater future good Rational benevolence principle part of Sidwick39s utilitarianism that says each person is morally bound to regard the good of any other individual as much as his own The desirable consciousness principle part of Sidwick39s utilitarianism that says desirable consciousness must be regarded as the ultimate good The iustice principle part of Sidwick39s utilitarianism that says we judge an action to be right for ourselves and others WD Ross on Prima facie duties vs actual duties Revises deontology by saying that we cannot intuit which type of duty is right It is which in the circumstances is more of a duty GE Moore Asks if the desirable consciousness is the ultimate value and uses the intuitionist approach Ex beautiful world vs lthy world Do they have the same value Is it beautiful because we give it value or is it valuable because it is beautiful Desirable Consciousness Things are desirable because we make them desirable GE Moore39s de nition of Goodness the good Goodness is only goodness itself its inde nable We de ne things by being familiar with their parts Example can39t de ne yellow because there are no parts to yellow Philippa Foot Virtues are what they are because we are the kind of beings we are Virtues correct human impulses Must be able to act with intention rather than just having the intention Wisdom is the most important virtue must use inductive reasoning for normative statements Ethical Naturalism Foot says moral truths are necessarily connected to human bene t and harm value judgments can be justi ed by quotisquot statements Aristotelian necessitv what you must do to have a good life Ex quotemployees MUST was handsquot Foot39s criticism of Kant There are different kinds of dif culty in acting virtuously Ex person who acts does not have temptation vs person with temptation who does the right thing Some acts are in accord with duty but requires no virtue others accord with both L Mackie Skeptic There are no objective values they are invented Focuses on the problematic status of normative language and con icting quotdirection of tquot Mackie on action a reasons for acting are based on the agent39s desires there are no objective requirements of action so there is no categorical imperative Mackie on moral discourse Morality is a way to encourage certain behavior traits and these traits are in our interest However still no answer to quotwhy should i be moralquot Morality has to do with the kinds of people we want to be Bernard Williams Focused on the metaphysics of morality Bernard Williams on Ethical Skepticism No philosophical justi cation of ethics No justi cation one can give to someone who does not perceive morality Accepting skeptical arguments like phrenology leads to discontinuing relative activities Archimedean point A point outside of the topic in which justi es that topic What are the 2 maior efforts to nd the Archimedean point as discussed bv Williams 1 Kantian tried to explain that moral truths are truths of reason 2 Aristotelian Tried to explain that moral truths are truths about the objective good of human life Thomas Hill on Preserving the Environment Asks at rst why should we preserve the environment Cannot intuit the answer because intuitions can con ict Cannot use religion because again there is too much con ict Cannot use deontology because it does not seem we have any natural rights towards plants since they are not scentient beings Rephrases the question quotWhat kind of person would do thisquot This causes one to approach the question in terms of character instead of the nature of the act Says the destruction of nature troubles us because it seems some people are missing traits that are necessary for all moral virtues Ex laughing at a car crash There is something just wrong about it concudes we must use virtue ethics with an emphasis on the virtues of gratitude and humility towards nature


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