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Exam 3 study guide

by: AJ Ponte

Exam 3 study guide PSYCH 1000 - 01

AJ Ponte
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This study guide includes text material that is need to know and all lecture material that will be covered on the exam. There are FOUR extra credit questions for Dr. Segert's class on the last page...
General Psychology
Ines Segert
Study Guide
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by AJ Ponte on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Ines Segert in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 241 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 12/05/15
Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology _______________________Text Material______________________ ----------Chapter 7 (p 289-301)---------- 7 Sins of Memory  Forgetting and remembering: o Transience  Forgetting over time o Absentmindedness  The inattentive or shallow encoding of events o Blocking  The temporary inability to remember something o Persistence  The continual recurrence of unwanted memories  Distortions of Memory o Misattribution: assigning a memory to the wrong source o Suggestibility: altering a memory because of misleading information o Bias: Vocab terms  Proactive Interference: Interference that occurs when prior information inhibits the ability to remember new information  Retroactive Interference: Interference that occurs when new information inhibits the ability to remember old information  Transience: forgetting over tie  Blocking: the temporary inability to remember something  Absentmindedness: the inattentive or shallow encoding of events Anterograde amnesia: the inability to form new memories  Retrograde amnesia: lost memory for past events  Amnesia: a deficit in long term memory  Persistence: the continual recurrence of unwanted memories NOT COVERED ON EXAM: p. 266-288 ----------Chapter 12 (p 495-542)---------- Vocab Terms  Social psychology: the study of how people influence other people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions  Aggression: any behavior that involves the intention to harm another  Prosocial behaviors: actions that tend to benefit others, such as doing favors Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology  Altruism: providing help when it is needed, without any apparent reward for doing so  Inclusive fitness: an explanation for altruism that focuses on the adaptive benefit of transmitting genes, such as through kin selection, rather than focusing on individual survival  Mere exposure effect: the idea that greater exposure to a stimulus leads to greater liking for it  Elaboration likelihood model: the idea that persuasive messages lead to attitude changes in two ways; via the central route or via the peripheral route  Prejudice: negative feelings, opinions, and beliefs associated with a stereotype  Discrimination: the inappropriate and unjustified treatment of people as a result of prejudice  Stereotype: a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing  Social identity theory: the idea that ingroups consist of individuals who perceive themselves to be members of the same social category and experience pride through their group membership Relationships  Passionate love: a state of intense longing and desire  Companionate love: a strong commitment based on friendship, trust, respect, and intimacy  Passionate love fades to companionate love  Men are attracted by physical signs of youth and fertility, women are attracted by signs of dominance, strength, and earnings potential ----------Chapter 14 (p 599-648)---------- Vocab terms  Etiology: factors that contribute to the development of a disorder  Psychopathology: sickness or disorder of the mind  Family systems model: a diagnostic model that considers problems within an individual as indicating problems within the family  Sociocultural model: a diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the result of the interaction between individuals and their cultures  Cognitive-behavioral approach: a diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the result of learned, maladaptive thoughts and beliefs  Major depressive disorder: a disorder characterized by severe negative moods or a lack of interest in normally pleasurable activities Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology  Dissociative disorders: disorders that involve disruptions of identity, of memory, or of conscious awareness o Dissociative amnesia: a person forgets that an event happened or loses awareness of a substantial block or time o Dissociative fugue: rarest and most extreme form of dissociative amnesia, loss of identity o Dissociative Identity disorder (DID): the occurrence of two or more distinct identities in the same individual Childhood Disorders  Autism spectrum disorder: a developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, by impaired communication, and by restricted interests o Symptoms: impairments in social interactions and restrictive or repetitive behaviors, interests, or activates, babies do not smile at caregivers, stop making eye contact at 6 months of age o Begins during early childhood o Biological basis of autism:  Parents are meticulous, introverted and highly intellectual (genetic)  Gene mutations  Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a disorder characterized by restlessness, inattentiveness, and impulsivity o Causes are unknown o Causes: poor parenting and/or disruptive home life o A child does not grow out of ADHD, the adult will likely reach a lower than expected socioeconomic level and change jobs more often than other adults ----------Chapter 15 (p 672-702)---------- Vocab terms  Applied behavioral analysis: an intense treatment for autism based on operant conditioning Effective treatments for disorders  Anxiety: cognitive-behavioral therapy and anxiety-reducing drugs  Specific phobia: systematic desensitization (fear hierarchy)  Panic disorder: cognitive therapy  OCD: drugs and cognitive-behavioral therapy  Depression: antidepressants and cognitive-behavioral treatment  Schizophrenia: antipsychotics Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology  Borderline Personality Disorder: dialectical behavior therapy, a form of therapy used to treat this disorder that combines elements of the behavioral and cognitive treatments with a mindfulness approach based on eastern meditative practices  Antisocial personality disorder: therapeutic approaches  ADHD: drugs i.e. Ritalin  Autism: applied behavioral analysis, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors _____________________Lecture Material______________________ ----------Memory: Why We Forget---------- 3 Sins of Memory Distortion 1. Memory Bias:  The changing of memories over time so that they become consistent with current beliefs or attitudes  Self-serving function  Emotional events  Flashbulb Memories: o Vivid episodic memories for circumstances in which people first learned a surprising, consequential, or emotionally arousing event o Study after 9/11 showed people who recalled the chain of events the next day and then two weeks later and then years later 2. Source Misattributions  Memory distortion that occurs when people misremember the time, place, person or circumstances involved with a memory  Types of source misattributions: o False fame effect: if you encounter a name frequently you don’t really know, you believe they are famous o Sleeper effect: initially the argument is not persuasive because the source is questionable, but becomes more persuasive over time o Cryptomnesia: when a person believes they have come up with a new idea, yet has only retrieved a stored idea and failed to attribute the idea to it’s proper source  Unconscious plagiarism o Source memory: a person shows memory for an event but cannot remember where they encountered the information 3. Suggestibility and Misinformation  The development of biased memories from misleading information Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology  Memories for inaccurate details due to reconsolidation o Ex. Retelling stories to police, friends, etc. Loftus Studies (3): (1) Car Accident Experiments  All subjects, college students, watched the same video of a car crash  After, they were split into two groups and the questions: o How fast were the cars going when they hit o How fast were the cars going when they smashed  2 weeks later the subjects were asked if they recall seeing broken glass in the video o Control group (not asked a leading question): 12% said yes o Group 1 (“hit): 14% said yes o Group 2 (“smashed”): 34% said yes  34% may not seem like a lot, but consider this false recall in a murder or rape trial in convicting a suspect (2) Eyewitness Testimony  Jurors, during a trial, love eyewitness testimonies  However, people tend to make poor eyewitnesses. The reasons for errors are: o They often fail to pay attention to the incidents and the people they observe because they were not expecting a crime to occur o They are suggestible to misleading questions after the event  75% of cases convict innocent people due to false eyewitness identification Eyewitness Confidence  Eyewitnesses who are wrong are just as confident or more confident than eyewitnesses who are right  Strong recall of memories for small details by an eyewitness are more likely to be inaccurate or even false How to improve eyewitness testimony  Don’t ask leading questions  Present suspects one at a time  Have presenter of suspects blind to condition  Ask for a quick response when identifying suspects, don’t let witness deliberate too long (3) False Memories Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology  Loftus: “Lost in the Mall Experiment”  Scenario: lost for an extended period in a mall, crying, aid and comfort from an elderly lady and finally reunited with the family  Loftus spoke with the families of her subjects, who didn’t has a lost in a mall event in their life, without them knowing  Subjects, families and Loftus would talk about past events in the subject’s life  Family would bring up lost in the mall  29% of subjects reported this false memory and even added details to the story like what the elderly woman was wearing False Confessions (in class video)  Chuck Erickson confessed to a murder, but police had to tell him every detail of the night to “jog his memory”  Ryan, Erickson’s friend, was also convicted due to Erickson saying he was there  Later, Erickson took back his testimony, but Ryan, an innocent man, was not freed until 10 years after being in prison  Kassin Studies o Studies to explore the induction of innocent suspects due to false confessions o Subjects asked to do a task on the computer o Subjects the are falsely accused of damaging the computer due to pressing a wrong key o Subjects initially deny the accusation, but then confess to the crime and even add details to the accusation ----------Social Psychology---------- Attribution Theory Definition: how we explain our behavior Types of Attribution: Personal/Internal or Dispositional: o Refer to things within people, such as abilities, moods, or efforts o Used when we do something good Situational/External: o Refer to outside events, such as luck, accidents, or the actions of others Studies with servers to explain why they got large tips vs. small tips: o Large tip: the server will say they gave great service o Small tip: the server will say the costumer was a jerk Fundamental Attribution Error Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology  Occurs when we try to explain someone else’s behavior  Consistent tendency to: o Overemphasize the importance of personal traits o Underestimate the importance of a situation when explaining another’s behavior  If another server got a bad tip, the other server would say they were a bad server Self-Serving Bias  Our failures are attributed to situational, unstable or uncontrollable factors in a way that casts us in a positive light  Our successes are attributed to personal, permanent factors in a way that gives us credit for doing well  Clinically depressed people are proven to switch these habits Power of the situation  Idea that behavior is influenced by environment factors, even though we focus on personal traits for explanation  Zimbardo Prison Study: test or situational vs. personal factors o College students were put into 2 randomly assigned groups, prison guards and inmates o Put into a simulated prison o Study only ended up lasting for 6 days because conditions got so extreme Summary of Study  Initially there were no differences between the two groups at the beginning  How the subjects developed identities: o Deindividuation o Risky shift/polarization (extreme ends) o Foot-in-the door o Conformity o Escalation  Implications for the real world: o Abu Ghraib prison tortured their prisoners o BBC did a similar study to the Stanford experiment and got different results  Attributions o Guards explained their behavior as they were just doing their job (external), or that the prisoners were weak o Prisoners explained the guard behavior by calling them jerks Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology o Prisoners explained their own behavior by they were being forced to do it o Guards explained the prisoners behavior as they were being passive  Conclusions o Was it just the situation? Or did different personalities take hold o Generalizability: would this always happen again? No. Conformity  Altering one’s behavior and opinions to match those of other people or to match other people’s expectations Asch Conformity Study  6 subjects, 5 actors and 1 real subject  All had to choose the correct size of line that matched the one shown  Results o The more people in the group, the more likely you are to conform o With actors present, 75% of subjects gave incorrect answers at least once o Control group (no actors present), 2% gave the incorrect answer Conditions promoting conformity  Social norms: expected standard of conduct  Larger group size  Group unanimity Reasons for Conforming  Normative influence: occurs when we go along with the crowd to avoid looking foolish  Informative influence: occurs when we assume that behavior of the crowd represents the correct way to respond Vocab terms  Compliance: agreeing to a request made by others o Ex. McDonalds strip search ordeal  Foot-in-the door: start with small tasks and increase to larger ones  Door in face: ask for a larger request then when refused, ask a smaller request that will very likely be accepted  Obedience: following orders of an authority figure o Ex. Stanley Milgram Experiment  Study to determine the effect of authority and obedience Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology  One subject in the experiment read a grouping of words for the learner, a confederate, and if they got the answer wrong, the subject must shock the learner  Over 50% of subjects gave the deadly shock to their “learner” Social Facilitation  Tendency for people to perform better on simple tasks when in the presence of others  Zajonc’s Model: o Presence of others can enhance or decrease performance o Enhance: if dominant response is relatively easy o Impair: if the dominant response is difficult Social Loafing  People work less hard when in a group than when working alone  Prevented by monitoring individual efforts  Ex. In tug of war, people pull less when they have more people on the team Deindividuation  A state of reduced individuality, reduced self-awareness, and reduced attention to personal standards  Increased when anonymity is present and responsibility is diffused  Ex. Yik Yak promotes anonymity Group Decision Making  Risky-shift Effect o Decisions made by a group tend to be more risky or extreme than ones made by individuals  Main and Walker 1973 Study o Analyzed 1500 decisions of Federal district court judges sitting either alone or in groups of three o Alone: extreme course of action was only taken 30% of the time o Groups of three: extreme action was taken 65% of the time  Group polarization o Exaggeration of initial position overtime o Group starts out neutral, then the initial attitude of one or a few members determines if the group position becomes riskier or more cautious  Group Think Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology o The fear of speaking out against the group decision o Ex. When the challenger exploded, later many said they did not agree with the launch, but did not speak out against the group decision Attitudes  People’s evaluations of objects, of events, or of ideas  Explicit: attitudes that a person can report  Implicit: attitudes that influence a person’s feelings and behaviors at an unconscious level  How are they formed? o Exposure o Condition: operant and classical o Socialization Cognitive Dissonance  An uncomfortable mental state due to a contradiction between two attitudes or between an attitude and a behavior  Ex. Smoking and running, people will justify their contradicting actions  Ways to reconcile dissonance: o Change attitude or behavior o Rationalize away the conflict Festinger Experiment  A study was done where participants had to perform an extremely boring task (moving pegs on a peg board) and then when asked, tell other participants how enjoyable the activity was  One group was paid $20 and the other only $1  Results: o $1 group said it was more interesting than the $20 group o $20 group:  Felt a conflict between attitude and behavior when they told others the boring task was exciting  No dissonance  Could rationalize behavior away because $20 was a reasonable explanation to lie o $1 group:  Felt a conflict between attitude and behavior when they told others the boring task was exciting  Produced dissonance because of insufficient justification, so they changed their attitude about performing the dull task instead of justifying their lying based on the money Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology  Could NOT rationalize behavior, so they changed their attitudes and rated the activity more exciting than the $20 group did Insufficient Justification  A way to change attitudes by changing behaviors first  Use as few incentives as possible Post-decisional Dissonance  Automatic process that we do all the time  We tend to focus on positive aspects of the chosen option and the negative aspects of the non-chosen option  Validates our decisions  Healthy people and amnesic patients do this o Ex. H.M. would do this without knowing he was doing it Justifying Effort  Dissonance: produced when people put themselves through pain, embarrassment, or discomfort to join a group  Resolve the dissonance: inflate the importance of the group and their commitment to it  Ex. When fraternities haze their pledges, but the pledges stay in it until they are initiated Bystander Apathy (model for helping behavior)  Kitty Genovese was a New York City woman who was stabbed to death while 38 bystanders did nothing  Bystander intervention effect: the failure to offer help by those who observe someone in need o 3 major reasons why it works  Diffusion of responsibility: bystanders expect other bystanders to help, thus the greater number of people who witness someone in need of help, the less likely it is that any of them will help  Social blunders (interpretation): people worry they make look foolish if they helped when help was not needed  Anonymous (identification): people are less likely to help when they know they are anonymous Bystander Intervention Model  “Before an individual can decide to intervene in an emergency, he must, implicitly or explicitly, take several steps” –Darley Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology  Step 1: notice the event  Step 2: interpret it as an emergency  Step3: decide that it is his personal responsibility to act Good Samaritan Study (Darley and Latane)  Studies the first step to the bystander intervention model  People were asked to give a seminar about good Samaritans  These people were then called being told they were late for their seminar  A confederate (actor) in need was placed on the path the person was taking to go give the seminar  Most subjects, while in a hurry, did not even notice, let alone help the person in need Smoke Filled Room Study (Darley and Latane)  Studies the second step to the bystander intervention model  Groups: o One subject alone in a waiting room filling out a questioner o 3 subjects in the waiting room o 1 real subject and confederates in the waiting room  Scenario: the room began to fill up with smoke, and in some trials the confederates would act afraid  Results: o Subject alone would seek help 80% of the time o 3 subjects, 40% of the time o Confederates and 1 subject, 10-15% Communication Study (Darley and Latane)  Studies the third step of the bystander intervention model  Subjects were recruited for a communication study and placed in individual rooms and had to communicate to others over an intercom, and then an emergency happened with one of the other “subjects” (a confederate/the victim)  Groups: o 1 subject + the victim o 1 subject + 1 confederate + victim o 1 subject + several confederates + victim  Measured how much time it took for a person to respond to the emergency  Results: o Alone: 85% of the time the responded o 1 and 1: 60% Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology o Several confederates present: 30%  This shows diffusion of responsibility Ingroup and Outgroup Bias  Ex. “Lord of the Flies”  Ingroup: groups to which we belong  Ingroup favoritism: we are more likely to be positively prejudiced towards members in our group and more willing to do favors for them  Outgroup: groups to which we do not belong  Outgroup homogeneity effect: tend to view outgroup members as less varied than ingroup members Robbers Cave Experiment  Method: o Two groups of 11 boys who were very similar and new to the area o Both groups were sent separately to a boy scout camp o Neither group knew the other group was there  Stage 1: Group Identification o Each group chose a name o At the end of week one they were notified of the other group o Each group began to plot to take down the other  Stage 2: Competition o A war broke out between the groups o Major hostility and fighting o Competitive tasks  Stage 3: Reconciliation o Non-competitive activities did not reduce the hostility o After given a common goal to work towards, hate between the two groups decreased ----------Psychological Disorders---------- Criteria for Diagnosis  Atypical (weird or rare)  Disturbing  Maladaptive (interfere with a person’s ability to live a normal life) Atypical  Statistically rare  Deviates fro cultural norms for acceptable behavior  Not all statistically rare behaviors are evidence of a mental disorder  Some mental disorders are not rare i.e. depression or anxiety Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology  Cultural norms change over time, so classifications of a mental disorder change overtime o Ex. Homosexuality used to be considered a mental disorder Disturbing  Behavior causing discomfort and concern to one’s self or to others  Impairs a person’s social relationships Maladaptive  Interferes with daily functioning  Self-destructive  Given the most weight when diagnosing a mental disorder DSM-5  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual  First DSM was made in 1950 and now we are on number 5  Consensus document  Categories of disorders  3 sections of the book: o Introduction with instructions o Diagnostic criteria  Similar disorders are grouped together o Guide for future research  Lists conditions that are not ye classified as disorders Problems with DSM approach  Doesn’t account for overlap or co-morbidity between disorders o Comorbidity: the overlap of psychological disorders o Ex. Many times people don’t JUST have depression, but anxiety too and alcoholism  Categorical diagnosis: either/or  Diagnosis can be subjective  Based on symptoms, not underlying causes  Labels can affect perceptions Rosenhan Study  Normal graduate psych students did not bathe or change clothes for 1 week, and then went to different mental hospitals claiming to have been hearing voices “hallow” and “thud”  All were admitted to the hospital  After in the hospital, they told the truth about family history, other symptoms etc. Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology  They then told the doctors this was all just an experiment and they were not actually crazy  The doctors just thought they were more crazy  The subjects normal behavior was seen as psychotic behavior  Average time in the hospital: 19 days  A number of different labels were given to the subjects while in the hospital Assessment of Psychological Disorders  Typically involves a mental status exam or a clinical interview  The goal is to make a diagnosis so that appropriate treatment can be provided  Prognosis of course of action and probable outcome Observation and Types of Testing  Behavioral Observation: demeanor, etc.  Psychological Tests: Beck Depression Inventory (survey)  Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory  Projective Tests: Rorschach and TAT Rorschach Test  Projective test: blob/picture on a piece of paper shown to a patient  Should help you see into your unconscious o Ex. If you see a butterfly in the blob rather than a spider  Absolutely useless, yet many psychologists use them Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)  Ask a person what is going on or what they see in an ambiguous picture  Also useless, but psychologists sill use them Choosing Assessments  Evidence Based o Supported by research o Beck Depression Inventory  Projective o Subjective, results can be biased o Not supported by research Diathesis-Stress Model  Need 2 things: Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology o Underlying vulnerability i.e. prenatal problem, genetic, childhood trauma, difference in brain structure, etc. o Stressful event (extreme)  Diathesis= underlying vulnerability  Stress= precipitating event  Living in a city gives you more chance of developing a disorder because of the constant stress of the city Sex Differences in Mental Disorders  There are gender differences in diagnosing mental disorders  Internalizing Disorders: o More common in females o Characterized by negative emotions o Ex. Depression, anxiety, panic disorder, etc.  Externalizing Disorders: o More common in males o Characterized by disinhibition (lack of control for behavior) o Ex. Alcoholism, conduct disorders, etc. Anxiety Disorders  **every heading in blue deals with anxiety disorders  Excessive anxiety in the absence of true danger  Charlie Beljan, Nov. 2012 o Professional golfer o Suffered from panic disorder o Had a panic attack during a golf game, had an ambulance follow him to every hole o Ended up winning the game o Example of how exposure therapy can help, he played through his panic attack Overview of Anxiety Disorders  Rates: 25% of people will get an anxiety disorder at some point in their life  Types of disorders (4): o Specific phobia o Social anxiety disorder o General anxiety disorder o Panic disorder More common in women Specific Phobia (phobic disorders) Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology  Fear of a specific object or situation  Effects 12-13% of population Social Anxiety Disorder  Fear of being negatively evaluated by others  Fear of public speaking, meeting new people, eating in front of others General Anxiety Disorder  A state of constant anxiety not associated with any specific object or event  Effects 6% of the population  Hypervigilance: results in distractibility, fatigue, irritability, sleep problems, restlessness, muscle pain, etc. Panic Disorder  Sudden overwhelming attacks of terror  Linked with a high suicide risk  Can be triggered by marijuana if you already have panic disorder  37% of population is effected  Agoraphobia: fear of not being able to escape a situation, fear of having a panic attack in a public place, fear of leaving home Anxiety disorders share some common factors  Cognitive: perception/memory of events/objects  Situational: learned factors  Biological: genetic temperament, brain activity Cognitive Components  Attention: focus excessive attetntion on perceived threats  Selective memory: recall threatening events more easily than nonthreatening events Pavlovian or Observational Learning  Learned fear can generalize to other situations Biological Components  Genetics  Inhibited temperamental style: o Tend to avoid unfamiliar people and novel objects  Brain differences: o Greater activation of the amygdala while viewing novel faces Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  Obsessions: recurrent, intrusive, and unwanted thoughts or ideas or mental images  Compulsions: particular acts that the OCD patient feels driven to perform over and over again Causes of OCD  Learning  Classical Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  Result behavior is negatively reinforced Biological Causes of OCD  Genetics- OCD runs in the family  Brain structures: o The caudate is smaller and has structural abnormalities in people with OCD  Environmental factors: o Strep infection Personality Disorders  **all headings in green deal with personality disorders  3 groups: o Odd or eccentric behavior: paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal o Anxious of fearful behavior o Dramatic, emotional, or erratic behavior Antisocial Personality Disorder  Marked by a lack of empathy and remorse  More common in men  50% of the prison population suffer from antisocial personality disorder  Appears early in adulthood  Symptoms decrease with age  Criteria: o Repeatedly performing illegal acts  Characteristics: o Charming, intelligent, lacking remorse, will lie and cheat Borderline Personality Disorder  Disturbances in identity and impulse control  More common in women Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology  Treatment: dialectical behavior therapy Schizophrenia  **all headings in red deal with schizophrenia  Alterations in thoughts, in perceptions, or in consciousness  Psychosis: split from reality  Not split personality  Affect men and women equally  Positive symptoms- abnormal behaviors that are gained: o Hallucinations: seeing something that is not really there o Delusions: a belief or impression that is firmly maintained despite being contradicted by reality o Excited motor behavior  Negative symptoms- results of lost functions: o Slow thought and speech o Emotional and social withdrawal o Blunted affect or emotional expression Biological Causes of Schizophrenia  Genetics, runs in the family  Neurochemistry: o Abnormal dopamine activity  Brain differences in anatomy: o Enlarged ventricles in the brain o Hypofrontality:  State of decreased cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex of the brain o Decreased grey mater Environmental Factors Influence Schizophrenia  Stress: being born or raised in an urban area doubles the risk  Schizovirus: o Findings that antibodies are in the blood of those with Schizophrenia but not with those not diagnosed o Could be more common in late winter and early spring births o Women in their second trimester of pregnancy during flu season when the fetal brain development occurs Treatments for Schizophrenia (prognosis)  For positive symptoms: typical anti-psychotics (block dopamine)  For negative symptoms: atypical anti-psychotics (affect multiple neurotransmitters) Study Guide for Exam 3 General Psychology EXTRA CREDIT QUESTIONS Where was she born: Riobamba, Ecuador Her cat’s name: relena Where did she go over thanksgiving break: Napa Valley Cali. If she wasn’t a psych professor what would she be: a pastry chef Happy studying :)


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