Final Study Guide - HIST 1302
Final Study Guide - HIST 1302 Hist 1302
Popular in History of U.S. since 1865
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This 36 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Haynes on Saturday December 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 1302 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Ransom P. Cross in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see History of U.S. since 1865 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 12/05/15
HIST 1302 History of the U.S. Since 1865 Final Study Guide 1 I. Prosperity A. After World War I 1. The U.S. suffered from a short depression while the county was transitioning back to “normal” a) Industry and society had to adapt from wartime to “progressive” society B. Period of growth from 1922 to 1929 1. Industry shifted from capital goods (machinery, materials, etc.) to consumer goods 2. Lead to the birth of the commercial advertizing industry C. Demand of durables and perishables 1. Durables – permanent fixtures (furniture, radios, etc.) 2. Perishables – More temporary (aluminum foil, etc.) 3. Transformed American life a) Americans had spending money and a market geared towards them on which to spend it (1) Americans could buy their necessities as well as other things for entertainment, decoration, etc. b) Lead to competitions amongst neighborhoods as to who had the best stuff D. Stock buying increased in popularity 1. Bigger bang for your buck a) The rates of return on stocks were superior to bank accounts with low interest rates 2. Due to the rise in stock popularity, many Americans fell victim to “unscrupulous spectators” who often participated in ponzi games with their client’s investment 2 E. Birth of consumer credit 1. Designed to help customers buy things even when they didn’t have the money right then 2. Problem: People will spend more than they earn which leads to massive debt F. The poor were left out of this economic boom for the consumer 1. The poor were denied access to credit 2. Their wages did not increase in order to accommodate the increasing market prices G. Advertizing and mass marketing 1. Forces backing the consumer economy were advertizing and mass marketing 2. Industry believed that in order to meet the public’s wants, they needed to create demand for products that could, in turn, could make products a) In other words, the consumer doesn’t know what they want until they see it 3. Advertizing used people’s emotions as a huge selling point for the majority of products H. Evolving attitudes toward marriage and sexuality 1. Signaled the end of the Victorian era in the U.S. a) Before the 1900s, marriage was mainly used for practical purposes, such as uniting families, keeping lands, etc. 2. Society became more open to attitudes towards sex 3. Marriages became more focused on finding love than practicality 4. Rise of the flapper culture a) Several young women took advantage of the advertized products geared towards them and began to dress, look, and act differently (1) 3 quarter sleeves, knee length skirts, makeup, etc. 3 (2) Smoked cigarettes, drank alcohol, etc. I. The growth in popularity of celebrities 1. Large sporting events and professional athletes became extremely popular in American society a) Especially boxing b) Important to the economy also, due to the fact that the ticket sales increased the capital of the sporting events 2. Radio stations and radio promoters helped increase the popularity of such events J. Reverence of American business 1. Corporations were credited with the booming economy a) Viewed as perfect, sinless businesses 2. Growth of welfare capitalism a) Employers would reward their employees as well as provide benefits in order to keep their employees within the company K. Industrial workers 1. The demand for industrial labor within the U.S. slowed significantly due to the fact that most of those positions had been filled 2. The workforce grew to the point where the working environment became an employers’ market a) This caused competition among possible employees which, in turn, increased the number of educated workers in the workforce 3. Unions lost power a) The government grew very suspicious and wary of organized labor unions (1) Pro – Corrupt labor unions were dismantled (2) Con – The government is within the economy, which is not someplace it should be 4 II. Women Workers A. Many women workers were paid less than their male counterparts for doing the exact same job simply on the aspect of being women 1. This still occurs today B. Many women started white collar positions because of their better opportunities 1. Most women were put into, what was deemed, “female professions” a) Teachers, secretaries, etc. C. The amount of women enrolling in college increased by 50% during this time frame III. Politics of Business A. President Warren G. Harding 1. President Harding was a Republican who was easily controlled by his party 2. He was well aware if his shortcomings therefore, he appointed several excellent cabinet members to help him a) Some of the cabinet members were not so great due to the fact that President Harding followed cronyism 3. Ended his term in office clothed in scandal B. President Calvin Coolidge 1. Unaffected by the Harding scandals 2. President Coolidge was the only president who was not an empire builder a) He believed in a minimalist government b) He worked extremely hard to get the governments hands out of the economy 3. Revenue Act of 1926 5 a) This act reduced the taxes on inheritance money as well as income taxes b) In addition, the excise posts were cancelled and the public’s access to income taxes was ended C. President Herbert Hoover 1. Held the position of Commerce Secretary for Harding and Coolidge 2. Most known for his quote “The business of America is business” a) Saw the government as dynamic and progressive 3. Hoover unified functional groups to manage the economy IV . Farmers, Protestants, and Moral Traditionalists A. Farmers 1. Due to the fact that the industrial industry was booming, the agricultural industry went into a depression during the 1920s a) Urban centers had a lot of access to produce therefore, farmers had to compete b) NonPartisan League of North Dakota Cooperation published the plight faced by farmers (1) A rural cooperation of farmers is the equivalent of an urban labor union c) The Farm Bureau faced a cultural crisis 2. Farmers faced with a cultural crisis a) The census of 1920 revealed that most of the population of the U.S. lived in cities b) Therefore, the economic and social focus was on the cities c) This caused many farmers to work tirelessly to preserve their way of life (1) Through social gatherings like “square dances” 6 B. Moral Traditionalists 1. These Christians believed that, because Christianity was the majority in the U.S., everyone should follow their beliefs and standards 2. They tried to force their beliefs on everyone else 3. 18 Amendment – Prohibition of all alcoholic drinks a) Initially supported by the majority of Americans due to the fact that alcohol was viewed as the source of all family destruction in the U.S. (1) However, all this law did was create more organized crime and lawlessness (2) This was due to the fact that if people want to drink, they will drink. Even if it is illegal to do so b) Rural people still supported the 18 amendment, even after it was annulled (1) Viewed alcohol as destructive to their way of life 4. Ku Klux Klan (KKK) a) The original KKK died out after the 1880s due to restrictions b) The rebirth of the KKK started in the North during the 1920s (1) Added Jews and Catholics (minorities) to the original focus on African Americans c) These internal terrorists preached about an “Anglo – Saxon” racial party, Protestant majority, and traditional morality d) WASP 5. Immigration restrictions a) Johnson – Reed Immigration Restriction Act (1924) (1) Imposed quotas on immigration from anywhere outside the Western Hemisphere 7 (2) Showed favoritism towards “old immigrants” (Irish, English, German, etc.) as opposed to “new immigrants” (Greeks, Italians, etc.) C. Protestant Fundamentalism 1. They believed their bible should be interpreted word for word a) This came about in response to liberal Protestant ideas and modern science 2. Scope’s Trial / “Monkey Trial” a) This trial became the preliminary case on the basis of fundamentalism versus science b) Made leaps and bounds for modernists V . Ethnic and Racial Communities A. European Americans 1. These immigrants lived, primarily, in the cities in the Northeast and the Midwest 2. These communities of immigrants kept their heritage and customs alive and, therefore, had flourishing ethnic communities 3. They also had a tremendous desire to become citizens 4. Due to their massive size, they had massive power a) Alfred E. Smith (1) Emphasized his lowly beginnings and identified with immigrants in order to be elected B. African American 1. African Americans continued their migration north from the south in search of better jobs and better lives a) They were often faced with housing and job discrimination 8 2. That all changed when America began to recognize African Americans’ cultural lives a) Harlem Renaissance (1) Jazz (2) African American literature and art (3) Harlem became the entertainment capital of New York b) These advancements caused African Americans to be depicted as “productive and future oriented” C. Mexican Americans 1. After the Johnson – Reed Act, labor sources had to come from the Western Hemisphere a) The Mexican Americans filled in the empty labor positions (1) Mostly agricultural, construction, and manufacturing jobs 2. While other immigrants who came to the U.S. to live and, eventually, become citizens, the Mexican Americans did not share that view a) They saw the U.S. as a “place to work” b) Mexico was home VI . The “Lost Generation” and Disillusioned Intellectuals A. World War I created a generation of alienated writers and artists who were disappointed that World War I had not resulted in the U.S. becoming a communist state 1. Alienated and left the U.S. B. After World War I, they focused their attention on the “psychological toll of living in a postwar period” 1. Commonly referred to as “Whiners” C. After being rejected from many democratic countries based on their beliefs, these individuals began to question the democratic system itself 9 VII . What Caused the Great Depression (1929)? A. Increase in stock market speculators 1. Why? a) Due to the fact that America was on a wage system, the public began to have spending money and take an interest in buying stock 2. Marginal buying was common within the stock market B. Rise of broker firms 1. These firms served as the middle man between Americans and the stock market a) These companies would buy stocks for people who could not afford them and allow these people to pay installments on the stock b) They took the stock as collateral 2. Stock prices went out of control due to this and stock market speculators C. Federal Reserve Bank mistakes 1. The Federal Reserve tried to stop the economy from deteriorating by enacting tight money policies (1930–1931) which kept people from taking out loans 2. These policies only caused the economy to deteriorate faster and made it harder for the economy to recover D. The Tariff of 1930 1. This act raised tariffs of more than 20,000 goods a) Due to the outrageous tariffs, other countries in the world refused to buy or sell goods to the U.S. 2. This tariff was extremely poorly conceived however, one must consider the fact that the politicians of this time frame did not know what to do to get the economy out of its depressive state 3. Hawley–Smoot Tariff (1930) a) This tariff was based on protectionism 10 b) Other countries struck back against the high tariff c) This act seriously reduced international trade (1) One must realize that, during this time frame, the U.S. was a world power therefore its economy was intertwined with the rest of the world (a) U.S. economy hurt = The rest of the world’s economies’ hurt E. Poor distribution of wealth and resources 1. This uneven wealth distribution was caused by Republican policies that taxed the poor more than the rich a) Why? (1) The rich provided jobs and capital for election campaigns 2. This, in turn, caused the consumption of goods to be significantly decreased and stunted “consumer driven growth” VIII Herbert Hoover’s Fall from Grace A. Creation of the “Bonus Army” (1932) 1. Americans were drafted into the U.S. army and they were promised a large bonus after their service a) Many soldiers invested in things, such as houses, which relied heavily on that bonus 2. Several World War I veterans required and requested their promised bonuses early in order to pay off their debt a) When they did not receive their bonuses, thousands of individuals picketed and camped out in Washington D.C. b) Instead of following through on his promise, Hoover approved the use of force to disperse the crowd (1) Thousands of people were injured or killed in the process 11 3. This event of brutality angered many Americans and as such, guaranteed that Hoover would not be re–elected into office in the election of 1932 IX . Democratic President Theodore Roosevelt A. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) 1. Before becoming president, FDR was governor of New York (1929 – 1933) 2. Created the “Welfare State: B. Eleanor Roosevelt 1. FDR’s wife 2. Eleanor was a college graduate that played an integral part in the social sphere of society during Roosevelt’s presidency C. During the 1920s, the Democratic Party was divided on how to deal with the depression 1. Farmers, ranchers, and rural communities believed the government should regulate the economy as well as people’s lives a) In order to avoid “price fixing” 2. Urban people wanted the government to stay out of their lives D. FDR was a proponent of a new reform movement known as “liberalism” 1. This reform focused on government regulation of capitalism a) This went completely against the Republican Party’s ideals (1) They believed in Adam Smith’s interpretation of government intervention in the economy in The Wealth of Nations 2. The reform, however, agreed that the government should not tell people how to live their lives X . The 1 New Deal (1933 – 1935) A. This governmental action saved the trustworthy banks and let the others collapse 12 B. Started several organizations 1. Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) a) This governmental program released loans to the states for relief programs to get them out of the depression b) This program is still at work today 2. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) (1933 – 1942) a) This program was created to find or create jobs for unemployed, unmarried men from “relief families” 3. Civil Works Administration (CWA) a) This program created jobs of manual labor just to get “America back to work” C. Repairing the Economy 1. Agriculture a) The Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) (1) The U.S. government paid farmers not to produce (2) This lead to farmers not overproducing which in turn, kept the prices of agricultural goods the way they were (price – fixing) (a) Please note that tenant farmers and sharecroppers were left out of this governmental action (3) Ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court (1935) due to price fixing b) Social Conservation Services (SCS) (1) This program worked to help farmers overcome the drought and erosion of the Mid – West (Dust Bowl) 2. Industry a) National Recovery Administration (NRA) (1) This program limited industrial production 13 (2) In addition, this program enforced certain regulations on industry (a) Building and safety codes, wages, work hours, etc. (3) Ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court (1935) b) Public Works Administration (PWA) (1) This program worked to put people to work through development (a) Especially in Washington, California, and Arizona (2) They built bridges, dams, roads, and more XI . Political Unrest and Mobilization (1934 – 1935) A. There were many individuals, dubbed populists, who criticized the new deal 1. Huey Long a) He wanted the government to take a Robin Hood approach to the economy (1) “spread the wealth among all our people” (2) “a chicken in every pot” 2. Father Charles Coughlin and the National Union for Social Justice 3. Francis Townsend a) He believed the elderly should be supported by the government through taxes on the rich B. The New Deal’s affects on labor 1. National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) a) This organization helped protect the rights of workers from being exploited by their employers b) The employers refusal to follow the codes and regulations set by the government led to strikes and violence 14 C. The Mid – Term Elections of 1934 1. The Democrats won landslide victories over Republicans due to the fact that the public blamed them for the start of the Great Depression 2. This, in turn, caused many radicals to be elected to Congressional positions D. Political movements and radical 3 parties 1. The parties included a) Minnesota Farmer Labor (MFL) Party b) End Poverty In California (EPIC) Party (1) This party wanted to implement socialist ideals to society c) Communist Party in America (1) Growth in the communist party increased due to the Great Depression (2) Communists used this to put down capitalism and further promote their ideas XII 2 New Deal (1935 – 1937) st A. This program was created due to the fact that the 1 New Deal had worked so well that they needed to create a modified 2 New Deal in order to accommodate the change in times B. This program included 1. Social Security Act a) This act provided for the elderly through taxes 2. National Labor Relations Act a) This act helped to improve the relations between the managers and their employees 3. Rural Electrification Administration 15 4. Works Progress Administration a) This administration helped unemployed married men find work C. FDR won the election for his second term of office by a landslide 1. During his campaign, FDR was a proponent of anti – corporate ideas a) FDR said he was a proponent of anti – corporate ideas because that was what the public wanted to hear and therefore what would win him the election 2. FDR began to give the Democratic Party a reputation as the “party of reform and the common American” D. FDR election campaign versus his actions 1. FDR wasn’t as radical as his campaign made people believe a) This is due to the fact that both Republicans and Democrats receive a considerable amount of support (AKA funds) from powerful capitalists (1) Therefore, if they want to continue receiving funds, they better do what the capitalists want E. The advisors of FDR 1. FDR’s advisors all shared 3 qualities a) Idealism b) Dedication c) Confidence 2. Unlike former presidents, not all of FDR’s advisors were men of privilege 3. In addition, not all his advisors were men (women typically worked “behind the scenes” as it were) a) Frances Perkins (1) U.S. Secretary of Labor (1933 – 1947) st (2) 1 women in a presidential cabinet 16 4. Unfortunately, women’s rights were not the focus of this time frame due to the fact that the government was still trying to get the economy back on track and everything back to some semblance of normal F. FDR’s administration did support organized labor 1. Founded the Congress of Indentured Organization (CIO) 2. Laborers’ Non – Partisan League (LNPL) a) Both these organizations gave workers a voice in Congress XIII Minorities and the New Deal A. Eastern and Southern European Ethnicities 1. Due to their sheer size, they had a tremendous voice that the Democratic Party listened to 2. Due to their political power, they received aid within the New Deal that were aimed towards their ethnic enclaves B. African Americans 1. They still faced mass discrimination a) Marian Anderson was a famous African American singer who sold out opera houses b) Yet, because she was African American, she was not allowed to perform at a White House event 2. The New Deal just further ingrained the discrimination against African Americans a) Their main focus was money, not race C. Mexican Americans 1. From the Hoover administration onwards, the public called to deport illegal immigrants 2. The New Deal did not touch on this facet however, thousands were deported anyway 17 a) Illegal immigrant parents would be deported along with their citizen children (1) Logic: let customs sort them out D. Native Americans 1. John Callier at the Bureau of Indiana Affairs a) His goal in that position was to improve the Native Americans situation and preserve their culture 2. Indian Reorganization Act (1934) a) This ensured Native Americans certain rights under the law (1) This act gave the Native Americans back some of their land (2) In addition, this act abolished the allotment of land practice (3) Finally, it redistributed the land to the tribe 3. Overall, the New Deal did not focus on the needs of the Native Americans XIV . The New Deal Abroad A. The U.S., after trying out nationalism, maintained their isolationist ideas 1. They did, however, foster diplomatic relations with Russia 2. In addition, they created the “good neighbor” policy with Latin America 3. They also accepted trade agreements from other countries 4. The goal behind all these things was to boost the economy using international trade a) Unfortunately, the U.S.’s high tariffs caused trade to become much more difficult XV . The Stalemate (1937 – 1940) A. The New Deal began losing momentum between 1937 and 1938 18 1. This was caused by the fact that it was working and the economy was almost back on track B. Court – Packing Fiasco and Cronyism C. Recession (1937 – 1938) 1. The improvements within the economy caused the government to become complacent which lead to the recession 2. This caused the economy to go back to depression conditions 3. This in turn caused Democrats to have difficulties winning the next election a) The public did not trust either party with their lives 4. World War II brought the economy out of the recession (1939) XVI . Road to War A. Increase in aggressive actions of states 1. Emperor Hirohito expanded Japanese forces and government into Asia in order to get the resources Japan required 2. Adolf Hitler formed Nazi Germany 3. Benito Mussolini ran Fascist Italy B. American isolationism and neutrality sentiments spread throughout the U.S. 1. Nye Committee a) Analyzed World War I (WWI) and questioned the reasoning behind entering the fight 2. Neutrality Acts (1935 – 1937) 19 a) These acts stipulated that the U.S. could still conduct trade with both sides of the conflict while remaining neutral b) Don’t want a repeat of WWI 3. The U.S. remained neutral in Spanish Civil War (1936) a) Franco, with Germany’s support, took over Spain C. Interventionist thinking grows 1. Resulted in a series of debates a) Common argument – Britain and France are our allies therefore, we have a duty to aid them in the war b) Still heavily neutral 2. Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s (FDR’s) Quarantine Speech (October, 1937) a) Reaffirmed that the U.S. will let Europe settle its own issues D. The Axis Alliance (November, 1936) 1. Germany, Italy, and Japan left the League of Nations after the approval for an alliance between them was denied 2. Made the alliance anyway E. Japan invaded China (summer, 1937) F. Nazi Germany confiscates and 1. Germany conquered and annexed Austria and Anschluss a) Claimed that the land belonged to Germany in the first place therefore it was justifiable, in their eyes, that they take it back (1938) 20 2. To try an appease Hitler’s desire for land, they gave Germany Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia a) Germany took all of Czechoslovakia G. The path towards war 1. The Munich Conference in September of 1938 failed to satisfy Germany 2. NaziSoviet Pact (August 1939) a) Germany took control of Poland using lightning warfare, known as Blitzkrieg, in 2 weeks b) Germany and the Soviet Union split Poland between the two of them (1) They would continue to coexist peacefully so long as Germany did not invade the Soviet Union H. Germany’s invasion of Poland (September 1, 1939) 1. The Blitzkrieg on Poland instigated a war between Germany and Britain 2. This lead to Germany’s seizure of most of Europe by the mid1940s I. America’s response to the events in Europe 1. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) a) Supplied almost everything to our allies, short of U.S. involvement in the war 2. FDR couldn’t get involved in the war due to the fact that America was largely isolationist 21 a) America’s isolationism severely limited FDR’s administration’s policies (1) America First Committee protested any involvement in the war and proclaimed isolationism (2) The rise of AntiSemitism in America didn’t allow the U.S. to aid persecuted Jews in Europe J. Wagner–Rogers Bill defeated (1939) 1. This bill would a) Admit 20,000 Jews into the U.S. from Nazi Germany 2. This bill was sponsored by Senator Robert Wagner and Representative Edith Rogers a) After polls were taken across America, this bill was dropped due to the fact that the poll stated America did not want more foreigners to immigrate to the U.S. 3. American Jewish Organization a) Stayed quiet during this time frame due to America’s AntiSemitist beliefs 4. Not all of America was opposed to the war a) Military Training Camps Association (1) Members of this association, along with many others, traveled across the border between the U.S. and Canada to enlist in the Royal Airforce 22 (2) This committee was dedicated to defending America and aiding the Allies in the fight against Germany 5. The presidential campaign for the election of 1940 was very limited a) FDR was very conservative in his election campaign (1) Didn’t want to lose the votes of antiwar voters b) After FDR was successfully reelected (1) Went back to promoting the war effort and aiding out allies K. Undeclared Naval War in the North Atlantic 1. The German UBoat (AKA submarines) wolf packs attacked any vessels in the North Atlantic L. FDR believed that entering the war in Europe was inevitable by the Fall of 1941 M. The U.S. entered the war in response to an attack in the Pacific 1. The U.S. had stopped selling steel and oil to Japan at the start of the war 2. Japanese retaliation a) The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor (1) They destroyed the entire U.S. Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor to cripple the U.S. (a) This would cause the war to become significantly shortened (2) They did this because they were desperate for oil and steel 23 b) Japan’s success was contributed to the negligence on the part of FDRs administration for leaving Pearl Harbor vulnerable (1) There were multiple warning signs before the attack took place (2) They were ignored N. Congress declared war on Japan (December 8, 1941) 1. In response, Japan’s Axis ally, Germany, declared war on the U.S. XVII . The War in Europe – U.S. Troop Involvement in the Fighting A. The Allies had several disagreements on the style of military strategy they should implement against the Axis powers 1. They finally agreed on their first strategy a) Move across the Pacific, conquer an island, build and airfield, repeat 2. The Allies still disagreed on how to put the strategy into action B. Hitler invades the Soviet Union 1. Violated the NaziSoviet Pact 2. Soviet Union created a second flank to fend of German troops a) It was successful until 1944 C. The campaigns of North Africa and Italy 1. Unanimous agreement that Germany would have to surrender unconditionally in order to end the war 24 a) No treaty or cease fire will be procured XVIII Creation of a National Security State (1945 – 1949) A. This was created to secure the U.S.’s National Security 1. Reasoning a) At the time, the U.S. was the only country to know the secret of the atom bomb b) Therefore, the U.S. was paranoid that other countries would steal the secret from them c) Irony behind National Security for the atom bomb (1) The U.S. was too late to prevent other countries (mainly Russia) from learning the secret to the atom bomb (a) There were Russian spies who helped build the atomic bomb in the Manhattan Project (b) Intel was already forwarded to Russia d) Everyone was thought to be a spy during that time B. The beginning of the Cold War 1. Many different theories a) Traditional theory: Soviet expansion is the focus of the Cold War b) Revisionist theory: Soviet vulnerability is the focus of the Cold War 25 c) Other theories: Soviet – American rivalries is the focus of the Cold War (1) Communist ideology clashed with other beliefs C. Truman administration followed a strict policy 1. A little bit about Truman a) Truman was unaware of the Manhattan project and did not know a lot about politics (1) Asked for advice from political experts b) When Truman made a decision, he stuck with it 2. Truman suspended the LendLease policy of FDR 3. Truman linked the decreased in good prices to Eastern Europe 4. From 1947 onwards, the Truman administration set its focus on National Security D. Background of the Age of Containment 1. Greece was in a state of civil war between communism and de3mocracy a) The U.S. was unsure of what to do (1) Just finished with World War II (WWII) (2) Did not want to get involved in another conflict so soon 2. Greece’s government was influenced by Western actors 3. Britain had intervened and tried to stop the civil war 26 a) By 1947, Britain could not stay any longer due to economic constraints E. Truman’s decision 1. Truman decided to intervene after the British left Greece a) The U.S. was able to help Greece establish a democratic society (1) They still are a democratic society today 2. Truman faced extreme public opposition to this action F. The Idea of Containment 1. George Kenan Foreign Affairs (1947) a) This book provided answers on how to solve the communist threat by the Soviet Union 2. Soviet influence “containment” a) Became the catchphrase of this time frame b) The U.S. was so terrified of the influence of the Soviet Union that (1) They affiliated all leftist movements as communism G. Loyalty review boards were established 1. These boards would evaluate an employee to ensure that they were not a “security risk” to the U.S. H. Attorney General’s List of Subversive Organizations 1. Senator Eugene McCarthy stated that the Bible contained anticommunism ideologies 27 I. The National Security position was based on 1. The belief that there were Soviet spies in the U.S. stealing their secrets a) True – Soviets were conducting espionage (1) ESPECIALLY when nuclear weapons were involved J. National Security Act Created new bureaucracies The government took actions that would lead to the Department of Defense These organizations only answer to the president Created the National Security Council (NSC) Morphed into today’s National Security Association (NSA) Created the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) This semiautonomous agency is the most flexible of all the other security bureaucracies Run spy operations world wide K. Berlin Crisis 1. Soviets decide to play brinkmanship (play chicken) with the Allies 2. The recovery of the Western hemisphere after World War II was dependent on Germany’s recovery 3. Britain, America, and France united their currency in their sections of Germany 28 a) This one of the first steps to unifying all their zones into one half of Germany (Soviet Union had the other half) 4. Soviets cut off West Berlin from the outside world a) Berlin Wall 5. Americans responded by airlifting supplies 24 hours a day to West Berlin a) The Soviet Union couldn’t do anything about this because the U.S. stated that if the Soviet Union shot down one aircraft, it would be an act of war b) The Soviet union were still developing their nukes at the time therefore, they did not want to go to war 6. The Soviet Union deserted their blockade in 1949 XIX . Election of 1948 A. Truman had a colossal political comeback against all odds B. The Democratic party was divided 1. Some thought the containment measures the U.S. was undertaking were too militant a) The American people disagreed 2. Some backed the States’ Rights Party a) AKA: Dixiecrats = Ku Klux Klan (KKK) C. Truman won the election 29 XX . Korean War Era (1949 – 1952) A. NATO 1. This organization were committed to defending against the Soviet Union B. China 1. In the Chinese civil war against communism, the U.S. supported the non – communist government a) Unfortunately, the Nationalist Chinese were defeated in 1949 2. Truman was blamed a) Common belief was that, at that rate, Truman would start World War III C. The bomb 1. The Soviet Union exploded their first atomic bomb in September of 1949 2. Thus ended the U.S.s monopoly of nuclear weapons XXI . Korean War A. Fun fact, the U.S. never declared war on Korea however, we were heavily involved in the Korean war B. The start of the Korean war 1. North Korea (Communist) attacked South Korea in June of 1950 a) North Korea wanted to unify North and South Korea into one country, Korea 30 b) Korea was never unified before North and South Korea were formed (1) Divided into 13 kingdoms before they were conquered and converted into North and South Korea 2. Truman viewed this sudden invasion as the work of Soviet hands C. Background of North and South Korea 1. Japanese Occupation (19051945) 2. The region was divided at the 38 Parallel D. Fighting within the country grew so large that the UN called for “Police Action” E. U.S. Goals of the Korean War? 1. Unclear a) Push the invasion back into North Korea? b) Defeat communism utterly and reestablish the noncommunist leadership? 2. The war was problematic due to the fact that the U.S. had allies that had different views, fighting styles, and strategies from one another F. Course of war increased and decreased the U.S. 1. Led the U.S. forces 2. Truman fired the popular General Douglas MacArthur a) MacArthur wanted to nuke China th G. The war was pushed up to the 38 parallel 31 1. Both sides agreed to a cease fire a) Never resolved that cease fire still exists today H. The Korean War was justified by the National Security Council 1. To contain communism I. The administration took steps to ensure communism was contained in only the countries where they already exist 1. Increase in nuclear budgets a) RAND (1946) (1) Established by the U.S. Army Air Force and under the contract of the Douglas Aircraft Company (a) Build the best air force in the world (b) Research and develop new and better aircraft J. Due to the communist threat 1. America was opposed to any leftist views in the U.S. a) Demonized as communist K. The U.S.’s efforts to contain communism were justified as defensive L. 1946 – The U.S. focused on global interests M. Anticommunism and the labor movement 1. Labor Management Relations Act / Taft–Hartley (1949) a) Labor unions were hindered during this time frame due to this act b) This act forced union leaders to disprove their ties to communism 32 2. Truman vetoed this act however, Congress overruled his veto a) Justified that communists in labor unions were national security risks XXII . Containment at Home A. House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC) 1. This committee probed into the film industry for communism a) Blacklisted “Hollywood Ten: (1) Producers and consumers who were fired and utterly destroyed for being, or thought to be, communist leaning b) Studios created a blacklist of “subversives” to save themselves from the government’s wrath (1) Anyone on the blacklist would not be hired ever (2) Vindictive movie producers put people they did not like on the blacklist B. Alger Hiss Case 1. A U.S. State Department official, who helped establish the United Nations (UN), was accused of being a Soviet spy a) Convicted of perjury (1950) (1) That’s all they could pin on him C. Truman’s Loyalty Program 33 1. This program allowed the government to detain individuals on a list of subversives without out writ of habeus corpus a) National security justified this act as well D. The FBI 1. Assembled mass amounts of documents, known as dossiers, on artists and intellectuals E. McCarran Walter Act (1952) 1. Limited immigration a) Justified under Title 8 of the U.S. Code F. Homosexuals 1. Targets for communist allegations a) Deviants from “normal” were considered untrustworthy G. The Rosenburg Case 1. The U.S.’s atomic secrets were leaked from the U.S. a) Rosenburg accused and executed 2. Rosenburg’s innocence debated even today H. Government pursuance of communism 1. Dennis v. U.S. a) Supreme Court case dealing with first amendment rights (1) The court ruled that first amendment rights can be suspended when the issue of national security occurs 34 2. McCarrer International Security Act (1950) a) This act called for detention facilities for subversives b) Truman vetoed this act but once again it was overruled by Congress I. McCarthyism 1. McCarthy charged that communists were at work in the State Department a) Known to attack people who criticized his methods and himself b) Had support of very influential people 2. Results: booted from political spotlight in shame XXIII . Changing Culture A. Then 1. Everyone’s lives revolved around automobiles B. Now 1. Everyone’s lives revolve around cell phones and social media C. Daily life fell back into segregated spheres – not for long 1. Changing roles for women in society a) Not all women remained in the home b) Many entered the workforce (1) Even married women (2) Unfortunately, the faced a lot of prejudice that limited their job searches significantly 35 2. Baby boom a) Effects felt in the next decade XXIV . Truman to Eisenhower A. Election of 1952 1. Democrats ran Adlai Stevenson a) Took anticommunist stance 2. Republicans ran Dwight D. Eisenhower 3. Eisenhower won B. Eisenhower in office 1. Advocated “moderate Republicanism” 2. Finished the War in Korea 3. Stopped McCarthy from using his anticommunism tactics 4. Increased executive power 36
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