Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide PSYC-1000-01
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This 159 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha R on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC-1000-01 at Tulane University taught by Fabian, Melinda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 392 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Chapter 5: Developing Through The Life Span Sunday, September 27, 20159:42 PM Developmental Issues, Prenatal Development, & the Newborn • Developmental Psychology's Major Issues Developmental Psychology: A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, & social change throughout the lifespan. ○ Nature & Nurture How does our genetic inheritance (nature) interact with our experiences (nurture) to influence our development? ○ Continuity & Stages What parts of development are gradual & continuous? What parts change abruptly in separate stages? Stage theories contribute a developmental perspective on the whole life span, by suggesting how people @ one age think & act differently when they arrive @ a later age. To the right are some of the prominent stage theories in psychology→ ○ Stability & Change Which of our traits persist through life? How do we change as we age? As we grow older, our personalities tend to stabilize Some traits such as temperament is much more stable, while our social attitudes tend to change as we age. This balance of stability & change gives us our identity (stability) while it also gives us the potential to adapt & change. • Prenatal Development & the Newborn ○ Conception (Sperm makes contact with the egg) ○ Prenatal Development Zygote: The fertilized egg □ The zygote enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division & develops into an embryo □ Week 1: 100 identical cells produced □ Week 2: Cells begin to differentiate & specialize in structure & function Embryo: The developing human organism (2-9 weeks after conception) □ Inner zygote cell→ Embryo □ Outer zygote cell→ Placenta Placenta: Transfers nutrients & oxygen from mother to embryo ◊ Teratogens: Agents, such as chemicals & viruses that can reach the embryo/fetus & cause harm Ex.) Alcohol – Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): Physical & cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant women's heavy drinking. In severe cases, signs include a small, out-of-proportion head & abnormal facial features Has an epigenetic effect: Leaving chemical marks on DNA that switches genes abnormally on or off □ 3-9 Weeks: Embryo's organs begin to form & function; heart begins to beat. Fetus: The developing human organism (9 weeks after conception-birth) □ 6th Month: Organs have developed enough to give the fetus a good chance of survival if born prematurely Responsive to sound □ 7th Month: Adapts to vibrations & can recall the sound/vibration □ Stress Stress hormones can create a survival threat & produce an early delivery Substantial prenatal stress puts a child at increased risk for: ◊ Hypertension ◊ Heart Disease ◊ Obesity ◊ Psychiatric Disorders ○ The Competent Newborn Newborns are equipped with primitive reflexes that aid in their survival (Ex. Feeding, pulling back limbs if in pain, etc.) Habituation: Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. □ As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a stimulus, their interest wanes & they look away sooner. Newborns are attracted to sights & signals that facilitate social responsiveness. Newborns have been imprinted with the smell of their mother's body within days after birth. □ This preference stays with us even as toddlers Infancy & Childhood ○ Maturation: Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively influenced by experience. • Physical Development ○ Overview of the Brain When born, you possessed most of the brain cells you would ever have. (Still underdeveloped) Branching neural networks enabled you to talk, walk, & remember. Age 3-6 your frontal lobes (rational planning) experience rapid growth. The association areas (thinking, memory, & language) are the last cortical areas to develop. Fiber pathways supporting agility, language, & self-control proliferate into puberty. "Use it or Lose it"- Pruning/shutting down of unused synapses ○ Motor development Sit→Crawl →alk Ru→ □ These abilities are not acquired through imitation, but maturing of the nervous system st □ 50% of babies walk within a week of their 1 birthday. (25% by 11 months ; 90% by 15 months) Neural & muscular maturation produces other skills, such as bowel & bladder control. □ Neither pleading nor punishment will produce successful potty training ○ Brain Maturation & Infant Memory Our earliest conscious memory seldom predates our 3rd birthday. The brain areas underlying memory, such as the hippocampus & frontal lobes, continue to mature throughout adolescence. • Cognitive Development Cognition: All mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, & Unit2 Page 1 Cognition: All mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, & communicating. Children reason differently than adults ○ Piaget's Theory & Current Thinking Intellectual progression reflects an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences. □ Maturing brains build schemas Schema: A concept/framework that organizes & interpret information Assimilation: Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas. Accommodation: Adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. Children construct their understanding of the world while interacting with it. 4 Major Stages □ Sensorimotor Stage (Birth→2 Years) Infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions & motor activities. Object Permanence: The awareness that things continue to exist even when not CONSERVATION: THEORY OF MIND: perceived ◊ This develops during this stage □ PreoperationalStage (2 → Years) A child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. Conservation: The principle that properties such as mass, volume, & number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects. Egocentrism: Difficulty taking another's point of view ◊ The child assumes that other people see, hear, & feel exactly the same as the child does. Theory of Mind: People's ideas about their own & others' mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, & thoughts—& the behaviors these might predict. ◊ Children with autism spectrum disorder experience great difficulty in understanding concept □ Concrete Operational Stage (7→11 Years) Children gain mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events. Understands conservation & mathematical transformation □ Formal Operational Stage (12→Death) People begin to think logically about abstract concepts. Potential for mature moral reasoning ○ An Alternative Viewpoint: Lev Vygotsky Emphasized how the child's mind grows through interaction with the social environment □ *Piaget focused on physical environment Claimed that by age 7, children increasingly thought in words & used them to solve problems □ By internalizing their culture's language & relying on inner speech □ Mentally or verbally, speaking to themselves help children control their behavior & emotion & master new skills. Language provides the building blocks for thinking □ (Think of the power of language exhibited in 1984: The more sophisticated the vocabulary, the more sophisticated the thoughts & vice versa) ○ Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A disorder that appears in childhood & is marked by significant deficiencies in communication & social interaction, & by rigidly fixated interests & repetitive behaviors. 1 in 68 American children are diagnosed by age 8. □ This increase in ASD diagnosis is offset by a decrease in the number of children diagnosed with "cognitive disability" or "learning disability." Suggesting a relabeling of children's disorders that made ASD a more broad diagnosis 4x more common in males Poor communication among brain regions that normally work together to let us empathize ASD is caused by many different genes • Social Development Stranger Anxiety: The fear of strangers that infants commonly display □ Begins @ 8 months of age ○ Human Bonding Attachment: An emotional tie w/ another person □ Young children seek closeness to their caregiver & showing distress when separated by them↓ In a study with monkeys, they placed a robotic figure in the room with a feeding bottle as well as a figure covered in comfy cloth (no bottle). The monkeys preferred contact with the cloth "mother" even while feeding from the mother who offered them nourishment. Familiarity □ Critical Period: An optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development. Attachments are likely to form based on familiarity during this period. ◊ Imprinting: The process by which certain animals form strong attachments during early life. While this does not occur in children, they still show a fondness for familiarity for it resembles safety. ○ Attachment Differences 60% of infants show secure attachment explore their environment happily in the presence of their mother. □ Other infants with insecure attachment (showed anxiety or avoided trusting relationships) are less likely to explore surrounding environments & even cling to their mothers. Common with unresponsive mothers □ Both show distress when the caregiver departs Parental Presence □ "Maternal deprivation" & "father absence" are experienced if a child is separated from one of their parents Anxiety over separation peaks around 13 months □ Studies show that those who had more involved fathers tended to achieve more in school. Attachment Styles & Later Relationships □ Basic Trust: A sense that the world is predictable & trustworthy. Formed during infancy by appropriate experiences & responsive caregivers. □ Our early attachments form the foundation for our adult relationships & comfort with Unit2 Page 2 □ Our early attachments form the foundation for our adult relationships & comfort with affection & intimacy ○ Deprivation of attachment Most children growing up under adversity show resilience. Child Abuse Victims □ 30% will abuse their own children. (4x the average person) □ Many have higher activity in threat-detecting areas of the brain. □ @ increased risk for psychological disorders, health problems, substance abuse, & criminality. 84% experience psych disorders □ 8% of population undergoes physical abuse before age 18 ○ Self-Concept Self-Concept: All our thoughts & feelings about ourselves By age 12 most have developed a self-concept Children's views of themselves affect their actions. ○ Parenting Styles 3 Types: □ Authoritarian: Coercive; Impose strict rules & expect obedience without questioning. □ Permissive: Unrestraining; Make few demands & use little punishment. May show indifference, unresponsiveness, or unwillingness to set limits. □ Authoritative: Confrontive; Both demanding & responsive. Exert control by setting rules, but, especially with older children, encourage open discussion & allow exceptions. Correlation does not indicate causation. □ A child's traits may influence parenting. Adolescence ○ Adolescence: The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence. • Physical Development ○ Puberty: The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing. ○ "Early Vs Late" Maturing: What are the pros & cons? ○ The Teenage Brain Frontal lobe continues to develop→improved judgement, impulse control, & long-term planning □ Frontal lobe maturation lags behind maturation of the limbic system (emotion) Juvenile delinquents show more immaturity in the frontal lobes • Cognitive Development ○ Developing Reasoning Power Piaget referred to this intellectual summit as the formal operations Ability to debate morality & values & fairness ○ Developing Morality, Moral Intuition, & Moral Action 3 Levels of Moral Thinking: □ Preconventional Morality: Focus: Self-interest. Obey rules to avoid punishment/get rewarded. □ Conventional Morality: Focus: Gain social approval/maintain social order by upholding rules. □ Postconventional Morality: Focus: Actions reflect belief in basic rights & self-defined ethical principles Delay Gratification: Pass on small rewards now for bigger rewards later □ This concept fosters success • Social Development ○ Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development ○ Forming an Identity Identity: Our sense of self □ According to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing & integrating various roles. Social Identity: The "we" aspect of our self-concept that comes from our group memberships Self-Esteem tends to fall during early-mid teen years Erikson claims that following identity formation is developing a capacity for intimacy in adulthood. □ Intimacy: The ability to form close, loving relationships. A primary developmental task in young adulthood ○ Parent & Peer Relationships Adolescence is typically a time of diminishing parental influence & growing peer influence. • Emerging Adulthood: A period from about age 18-mid20s, when many are no longer adolescents but have not yet achieved full independence from their parents. Unit2 Page 3 □ Intimacy: The ability to form close, loving relationships. A primary developmental task in young adulthood ○ Parent & Peer Relationships Adolescence is typically a time of diminishing parental influence & growing peer influence. • Emerging Adulthood: A period from about age 18-mid20s, when many are no longer adolescents but have not yet achieved full independence from their parents. ○ This period is being stretched→ Marrying later Pursuing more advanced education (grad school, etc.) Adulthood ○ Cross-Sectional Study: A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another. ○ Longitudinal Study: A study in which the same people are restudied & retested over a long period of time. • Physical Development ○ Changes in Middle Adulthood Gradual decline in fertility, athletic ability, sexual activity, etc. Menopause: The natural cessation of menstruation. (Infertility) ○ Changes in Late Adulthood Life Expectancy □ Telomeres (tips of chromosomes) wear down. → This is accelerated by smoking, obesity, etc. □ Death rate increases after birthdays & big life milestones Visual sharpness, muscle strength, reaction time, & stamina decrease. Health □ Immune system weakens □ Lifetime's accumulation of antibodies make short-term ailments much less common Brain □ Take more time to react, solve problems, & recall names. □ Speech slows □ Brain weight reduces by 5% ○ Exercise slows aging • Cognitive Development ○ Aging & Memory Prospective Memory ("remember to…") □ Teens & young adults surpass children & elderly at prospective memory □ Elderly's prospective memory remains strong when an event helps trigger a memory Much more variability among elderly in their learning & memory abilities Exercising your working memory can sharpen your mind Age is less indicative of mental ability than proximity to death (how long they have left) ○ Neurocognitive Disorders & Alzheimer's Disease Neurocognitive Disorders (NCDs): Acquired (not lifelong) disorders marked by cognitive deficits. □ In older adults these were formerly referred to as dementia □ Alzheimer's Disease: A neurocognitive disorder marked by neural plaques. Commonality ◊ 3% of population by age 75 & percentage doubles with every 5 year age increase ◊ Often with an onset after age 80. Symptoms & Functions ◊ Causes progressive decline in memory & other cognitive capabilities. After 5-20 years: Person becomes emotionally flat→discontent →isinhibited →ncontinent →entally vacant ◊ Loss of brain cells & deterioration of acetylcholine producing neurons Acetylcholine is vital to memory and thinking • Social Development ○ Ages & Stages Midlife Crisis not real? □ Studies show no evidence that distress peaks anytime during the midlife time range Social Clock: The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, & retirement ○ Commitments 2 basic aspects of our lives dominate adult hood: □ Intimacy: forming close relationships □ Generativity: being productive & supporting future generations Love □ Adult bonds of love are most satisfying & enduring when marked by a similarity of interests & values, a sharing of emotional & material support, & intimate self-disclosure. □ Heightened divorce rates reflect increased female economic independence □ Children can lead to decline in spousal relationship ○ Well-Being Across the Life Span By midlife, you have strengthened your sense of identity, confidence, & self-esteem General happiness tends to remain @ the same level throughout life Adults tend to have a relatively smaller social networks & fewer friendships Less Negativity with Age □ With age we become more stable & accepting □ Brain scans of older adults shows the amygdala (center for emotion) responds less actively to negative events □ Brain-wave reactions to negative images also diminish Unit2 Page 4 ○ Death & Dying Typically the death of one's partner is most difficult □ 67% more likely to be hospitalized (3%) Contrary to Popular Opinion… □ Terminally ill people do not go through identical predictable stages (anger, denial, etc.) □ Those who openly grieve & those who grieve privately adjust to their experience at the same pace □ Those who don't express as much grief (stay strong) don't get over things faster. Unit2 Page 5 Chapter 7: Learning Friday, October 2, 20152:10 PM Classical Conditioning: Basic Learning Concepts & Classical Conditioning • How We Learn ○ Learning: The process of acquiring through experience, new information, or behaviors. ○ Associative Learning: Learning that certain events occur together. Conditioning: The process of learning associations The events may be 2+ stimuli→Anticipation (RespondentBehavio(Classical Conditioning) □ Respondent Behavior: Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to a stimulus □ Stimuli: Any event/situation that evokes a response Operant Conditioning The events may be a response/behavior & its consequences (Operant Conditioning) □ Operant Behavior: Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences ○ Cognitive Learning: The acquisition of mental information through various cognitive functions. Can acquire this information through observing events or others & language (Observational Learning) • Classical Conditioning ○ This reflects a behaviorist perspective Behaviorism: The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. □ Most scientists today agree with (1) but not (2). ○ Classical Conditioning: A type of learning that involves linking 2+ stimuli & anticipated events. ○ Pavlov's Experiments→ Neutral Stimulus (NS): A stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning Unconditioned Response (UR): An unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditional stimulus. Unconditioned Stimulus (US): A stimulus that unconditionally (naturally) triggers an unconditional response (UR) Conditioned Response (CR): A learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus. Conditioned Stimulus (CS): A stimulus that has come to trigger a conditioned response. ○ Acquisition: The linking of a neutral stimulus to an unconditioned response so that the stimulus begins to triggering a conditioned response. In operant conditioning acquisition is the strengthening of a reinforced response High-Order Conditioning: The linking of the conditioned stimulus in one conditioned experience is paired with a new neutral stimulu→ A 2nd (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. ○ Extinction: The diminishing of a conditioned response. Disappearance of CR (classical); Response is no longer reinforced (operant) ○ Spontaneous Recovery: The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response. ○ Generalization: The tendency (once a response is conditioned) for similar stimuli to elicit a similar response. ○ Discrimination:The learned ability to distinguish between conditioned stimulus & stimuli that don't signal an unconditioned stimulus. ○ Pavlov showed us… Many other responses to many other stimuli can be classically conditioned in many other organisms How a process such as learning can be studied objectively ○ Application of Classical Conditioning Shows how certain environments & stimuli can trigger certain behaviors □ Ex) Drug users should avoid environments & people that could trigger cravings There has been research done in training our immune systems through classical conditioning Operant Conditioning ○ Operant Conditioning:A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. ○ Skinner's Experiment Law of Effect: Behaviors followed by favorable/unfavorable consequences become more/less likely. Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. Shaping Behavior □ Shaping: A procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer & closer approximations of the desired behavior. Ex) Only give the mouse a treat when it's 5 feet away from the ball, then only when it's 2 feet away, etc. ○ Types of Reinforcers Positive Reinforcement: Increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcement □ Positive Reinforcer: Any stimulus, when presented after a response, strengthens the response. □ Ex) Pay the person who paints your house. Negative Reinforcement: Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. □ Negative Reinforcer: Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (NOT PUNISHMENT) □ Ex) Fastening seatbelt to end loud beeping Primary Reinforcer: An innately reinforcing stimulus. (Biological) Unit2 Page 6 Primary Reinforcer: An innately reinforcing stimulus. (Biological) □ Ex) Eating food to end hunger Conditional Reinforcer: A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer. (AKA: Secondary Reinforcer) □ Ex) Pressing the room service button when hungry (so you can eat some food). ○ Reinforcement Schedules Reinforcement Schedule: A pattern that defines how often a desired response will be Partial Reinforcement Schedules reinforced. Continuous Reinforcement Schedule: Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs. Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement Schedule: Reinforcing a desired response only part of the time. □ Result: Slower acquisition of the response but much greater resistance to extinction. □ Fixed-Ratio Schedule: A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. □ Variable-Ratio Schedule: A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. □ Fixed-Interval Schedule: A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. □ Variable-Interval Schedule: A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals. ○ Punishment Punishment: An event that tends to decrease the behavior that follows. □ Positive Punishment: Administer something undesired Ex) Spraying water on barking dog □ Negative Punishment: End something that's desired Ex) Take away phone from grounded teen. Drawbacks of Physical Punishment of Children □ Punished behavior is suppressed, not forgotten. This temporary state may (negatively) reinforce parents' punishing behavior. □ Teaches discriminationamong situation. □ Can teach fear. Generalization can occur. □ May increase aggression by modeling aggression as a way to cope with problems. • Skinner's Legacy ○ We use operant conditioning in our own lives to reinforce our own desired behaviors & extinguish undesired behaviors Contrasting Classical & Operational Conditioning Biology, Cognition, & Learning • Biological Constraints on Conditioning ○ Limits on Classical Conditioning John Garcia found that sick rats couldn't develop aversions to sights or sounds, only taste. (You're supposed to be able to use any 2 stimuli) □ Taste Aversion: When a certain food makes you sick you might have a hard to eating it again due to association. ○ Limits on Operant Conditioning Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive. □ Ex) You can teach a hamster to dig using food as a reinforcer because digging is a natural food-searching behavior (creating a natural association between digging & food). But teaching a hamster to wash its face using food as a reinforcer wouldn't be successful. • Cognition's Influence on Conditioning Unit2 Page 7 • Cognition's Influence on Conditioning ○ Cognitive Processing & Classical Conditioning An animal can learn the predictability of an event by relying on the most constant predictor. □ The more predictable the association, the stronger the conditioned response One's cognitive awareness can limit the strength of the conditioning. □ Ex) If someone drinks milk with laxatives in it, they are aware that the laxative caused the nausea not the milk. So milk won't become associated with nausea because you're cognizant of the fact that the milk isn't the cause. Pavlov & Watson underestimated the biological constraints & the effects of cognitive processes. ○ Cognitive Processes & Operant Conditioning Cognitive Map: A mental representation of one's environment □ Ex) After walking around campus the first weekend we started developing a sense of where everything was Latent Learning: Learning that occurs but isn't apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it. Intrinsic Motivation: A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake. Extrinsic Motivation: A desire to perform a behavior to receive a reward or avoid punishment. • Learning by Observation Observational Learning: Learning by observing others Modeling: The process of observing & imitating a specific behavior When observing a model we experience vicarious reinforcement or vicarious punishment ○ Mirrors & Imitation in the Brain Mirror Neurons: Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions when observing another doing so. The brains mirroring of another's actions may enable imitation & empathy. ○ Applications of Observational Learning Prosocial Behavior: Positive, constructive, helpful behavior. (Opposite of antisocial) □ Prosocial Effect Observational learning may have antisocial effects □ Ex) Abusive parents Unit2 Page 8 Chapter 8: Memory Sunday, October 4, 20152:16 PM Studying & Encoding Memories • Studying Memory Memory: The persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, & retrieval of information. ○ Measuring Retention Recall: A measure of memory in which one must retrieve information learned earlier. □ Ex) Fill-in-the blank Recognition: A measure of memory in which one only needs to identify previously learned items. □ Ex) Multiple Choice Relearning: A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again. □ Ex) Studying for a Cumulative Exam Tests of recognition & time spent learning demonstrate that we remember more than we can recall. ○ Memory Models Information-Processing Model □ Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system. □ Storage: The process of retaining encoded information over time. □ Retrieval: The process of getting information out of memory stage. Parallel Processing: The processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's MEMORY PROCESSING MODEL natural mode of information processing for many functions. Memory-Forming Process Model □ Sensory Memory: The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system. □ Short-Term Memory: Activated memory that holds a few items briefly. □ Long-Term Memory: The relatively permanent & limitless storehouse of the memory system. WORKING MEMORY Working Memory: A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory & visual-spatial information, & of information retrieved from long-term memory. • Encoding Memory ○ Dual-Track Memory: Effortful Versus Automatic Processing Explicit Memory: Memory of facts & experiences that one can consciously know & "declare." (declarative memory) Effortful Processing: Encoding that requires attention & conscious effort. Automatic Processing: Unconscious encoding of incidental information(Ex. the ti& well learned information. Implicit Memory: Retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of conscious recollection. (nondeclarative memory) ○ Automatic Processing & Implicit Memories Think of all the things you simply knew how to do by recalling a random time you observed it. ○ Effortful Processing & Explicit Memories Ex) Learning to read Sensory □ Sensory memory feeds our active working memory. (think back to memory processing) □ Iconic Memory: A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli. Lasts no more than about 0.3 seconds □ Echoic Memory: A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli. Capacity of Short-Term & Working Memory □ Without the active processing (working memory), short-term memories have a limited life. □ Young adults have a higher working memory capacity. Better at multitasking □ Unlike short-term memory capacity, working memory capacity appears to reflect intelligence level. Those with a high capacity tend to also retain more information after sleep & tend to be creative problem solvers. □ Effortful Processing Strategies Chunking: Organizing information into organized, manageable units. Mnemonics: Memory aids. ◊ Vivid imagery or organizational devices ◊ Ex) Rhyming, Acronyms into sentences, etc. Hierarches: Gradually dividing broad concepts into narrower concepts and facts □ Distributed Practice Spacing Effect: The tendency for distributed studying/practicing to yield better long- term memory. ◊ Ex) Studying a little bit every day Testing Effect: Enhanced memory after being required to retrieve rather than just rereading. □ Levels of Processing Shallow Processing: Encoding based on basic structure or appearance of words. Deep Processing: Encoding based on the meanings of words. ◊ Yields best long-term retention □ The amount remembered depends on both the time spent learning it & the level of meaning it is given for deep processing. Storing & Retrieving Memories • Memory Storage ○ Retaining Information in the Brain The brain distributes the components of a memory across a network of locations. Explicit Memory System (Frontal Lobes & Hippocampus) □ Hippocampus: Helps process explicit memories for storage. The hippocampus temporarily holds information until it is processed elsewhere in the brain. □ The Frontal Lobes are sent input for working memory processing The right & left lobes differ in the nature of the memory/information received. □ Memory Consolidation: The neural storage of a long-term memory. Unit2 Page 9 □ Hippocampus: Helps process explicit memories for storage. The hippocampus temporarily holds information until it is processed elsewhere in the brain. □ The Frontal Lobes are sent input for working memory processing The right & left lobes differ in the nature of the memory/information received. □ Memory Consolidation: The neural storage of a long-term memory. Implicit Memory System (Cerebellum & Basal Ganglia) □ If cerebellum is damaged, people can't developed certain conditioned reflexes (Blinking) □ Basal Ganglia facilitates the formation of our procedural memories for skills. (Bike riding) □ Infantile Amnesia: Our conscious memory of 0-3 years is fuckin blank man. WHY? Much of our explicit memory uses words that we hadn't learned yet. The hippocampus is one of the last brain structures to mature. Emotions & Memory (Amygdala) □ Stress provokes the amygdala (therefor more stress the more focused the memory) □ Emotional events create tunnel vision, recalling high priority information while reducing what is irrelevant. Emotional arousal can nail in certain memories while disrupting neutral ones. □ Flashbulb Memories: A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event. Ex) First kiss ○ Synaptic Changes Long-Term Potential (LTP): An increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. □ This is believed to be a neural basis for learning. • Memory Retrieval ○ Priming: The activation (often unconsciously) of particular associations in memory. ○ Encoding Specificity Principle: Cues & contexts specific to a particular memory will be most effective in helping us recall it. Ex) Take a test in the same room you learned the info Mood Congruent Memory: The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current mood. If you're currently mad at a friend, you're more likely to recall negative memories of them than positive (even if you have both at your disposal) ○ Serial Position Effect: The tendency to better recall the first (primary effect) & last (recency effect) Storage Decay items on a list. Forgetting, Memory Construction, & Improving Memory • Forgetting ○ Forgetting & the 2-Track Mind Anterograde Amnesia: Inability to form new memories. Retrograde Amnesia: Inability to retrieve past information. ○ No Encoding = No Memory Age can effect encoding efficiency ○ Storage Decay The course of forgetting is initially rapid & then levels off with time. □ The initial decrease likely occurs because that information was never fully encoded. ○ No Retrieval = No Memory (well at least one that is accessible at the moment) Retrieval failure occasionally stems from interference & motivated forgetting. Interference □ Proactive Interference: The forward-acting disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information. □ Retroactive Interference: The backward-acting disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information. □ Positive Transfer: When previously learned information facilitates learning of new information. Ex) Learning Spanish might help you lean French since they're so similar. Motivated Forgetting □ Repression: The basic defense mechanism that banishes from anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, & memories from our conscience. • Memory Construction Errors Reconsolidation: A process in which previously stored memories (when retrieved) are potentially altered before being stored again. ○ Misinformation & Imaging Effects Misinformation Effect: When misleading information has corrupted one's memory of an event. Imagination Inflation:When one repeatedly imagines nonexistent events (maybe due to misinformation) it can create false memories ○ Source Amnesia Source Amnesia: Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced/heard or read about/imagined. □ Ex) When you think of an idea that you actually had already heard. Déjà Vu: When cues from current situation unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience, causing a sense that an event has occurred before. ○ Children can give accurate recounts of previous events if they are asked in a neutral manner. • Improving Memory ○ Rehearse Repeatedly ○ Make the Material Meaningful ○ Activate Retrieval Cues ○ Sleep More ○ Minimize Interferences ○ Test your Knowledge Unit2 Page 10 Chapter 10: Intelligence Friday, October 9, 2012:44 AM What is Intelligence? ○ Intelligence: The mental potential to learn from experience, solve problems, & use knowledge to adapt to new situations • Spearman's General Intelligence Factor & Thurstone's Response ○ Spearman General Intelligence (g): A factor that (according to spearman and others) underlies specific mental abilities & is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test. Argued that those who tested high in one area would also score higher in other areas. ○ The idea of a general mental capacity measured by a single score was controversial in his day. ○ Thurstone Gave 56 different tests. Did not rely on just one scale. BUT, they found that individuals who scored well on a cluster of these tests, had the tendency to do well on the others. ○ Mental abilities are like physical abilities, although running fast & hand eye coordination are distinct from each other, there remains some tendency for certain skills to be packaged together ○ Kanazawa General intelligence correlates with how well someone solves novel (new/different) problems while common problems require a different sort of intelligence • Theories of Multiple Intelligences ○ Gardner's Multiple Intelligences H. Gardner identified 8 relatively independent intelligences (verbal, mathematical, etc.) assessed by standard tests. □ Different kinds of people have different kinds of intelligence. th He then proposed 9 possible intelligence, Existential Intelligence: The ability to ponder large questions about life, death, & existence. Savant Syndrome: A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill. □ 4 in 5 people with savant are males □ Many have autism spectrum disorder ○ Steinberg's Three Intelligences Triarchic Theory: 1. Analytical Intelligence-academic problem-solving Tested by presenting well-defined problems with one right answer. Effective in predicting school performance. 2. Creative Intelligence-innovation Ability to develop novel ideas 3. Practical Intelligence Required for every-day tasks Less based on academic problem solving skills and more based on the ability to manage yourself, tasks, & others. ○ Criticisms of Intelligence Theories Success & performance is not just predicted by/based on ability but environment as well. □ There is a correlation (NOT CAUSATION) between wealth & intelligence Abilities are something that can be achieves □ 10 Year Rule: 10 years of intense daily practice will result in mastery. • Emotional Intelligence ○ Social Intelligence: The know-how involved in social situations & managing one's self successfully ○ Emotional Intelligence: The ability to perceive, understand, & use emotions. Emotional Intelligence consists of 4 abilities: □ Perceiving emotions (Recognizing them in faces, music, tones, etc.) □ Understanding emotions (Predicting them & how they may transform) □ Managing emotions (Knowing how to express them in different situations) □ Using emotions to enable adaptive/creative thinking. ○ Emotionally intelligent people are both socially-aware & self-aware. Assessing Intelligence ○ Intelligence Test: A method of assessing an individual's mental aptitudes & comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores. ○ Achievement Test: A test designed to assess what a person has learned. ○ Aptitude Test: A test designed to predict a person's future performance Aptitude: Is the capacity to learn ○ The SAT has a +.82 correlation with general intelligence.→ Is this because people can afford SAT tutors. So really there is a correlation with wealth & intelligence? • Early & Modern Tests of Mental Abilities ○ Francis Galton: Belief in Hereditary Genius Found there is no connection between intellectual ability & inherited evolutionary favorable traits (such as reaction time, body proportions, muscular power, etc.) ○ Alfred Binet: Predicting School Achievement Mental Age: The chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. □ A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet. Believed children who acted older (had a higher mental age) would score higher & vice-versa □ Made no assumptions as to why a particular college was more intelligence. The purpose of this test was to help identify children who needed special attention, NOT to label children & limit their oportunities (he feared this would happen). ○ Lewis Terman: The Inmate IQ Stanford-Binet: The widely used American revision (by Terman at Standford University) of Binet's original intelligence test. □ This was modified to become the… Intelligence Quotient (IQ): Defined originally as ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) mutliplied by 100. Negative Repercussions: □ Terman essentially promoted an intelligence darwinist attitude (only those with high intelligence should reproduce) □ US gov. began administering IQ tests to immigrants & army recruits during WWI, cutting the immigration quota down by 50% Wouldn't let unintelligent immigrants in ○ David Wechsler: Separate Scores for Separate Skills Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): The most widely used intelligence tests; contains verbal & performance (nonverbal) subtests. □ The latest WAIS consists of 15 subtests ○ Standardization Standardization: Defining uniform testing procedures & meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group. Normal Curve: The bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical & Unit2 Page 11 verbal & performance (nonverbal) subtests. □ The latest WAIS consists of 15 subtests ○ Standardization Standardization: Defining uniform testing procedures & meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group. Normal Curve: The bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical & physiological attributes. ○ Reliability: The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores. (Does the test measure what it says it measures?) ○ Validity: The extent to which a test measures/predicts what it is supposed to. Content Validity: The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest. Predicitive Validity: The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict □ This is assessed by computing the correlation between test scored & the criterion behavior Criterion: a principle or standard by which something may be judged or decided The Dynamics of Intelligence • Stability or Change? ○ Aging Phase I: Cross-Sectional Evidence of Decline □ Comparing different people of different ages □ It supported the idea that mental ability does decline with age Phase II: Longitudinal Evidence of Decline □ Retested the same group of people (cohort) at different ages Cohort: A group of people sharing a common characteristic (Ex. From same time period) □ Supported the idea of stability in intelligence Phase III: It All Depends □ The ones who survived until the end of the longitudinal study could have less of a tendency to decline in intelligence than the average person □ We might decline in some areas of intelligence while gaining in others Crystalized Intelligence: Our accumulated knowledge & verbal skills ◊ Tends to increase with age Fluid Intelligence: Our ability to reason speedily & abstractly ◊ Tends to decrease with age ◊ Despite a decrease in fluid intelligence, those of age display greater wisdom in viewing from multiple perspectives, compromise, & self-awareness of the extent of their own knowledge Intelligence Over the Life Span □ INTELLIGENCE DOES ENDURE :) □ Those with higher IQ's tend to live longer ○ Extremes of Intelligence Low Extreme □ Intellectual Disability: A condition of limited mental ability (mental retardation) 2 Criteria: ◊ Low test score (≥70 IQ) ◊ Poor Adaptation to Independent Living Poor Computational, Social, & Practical skills □ Down Syndrome: Mild Sev→re intellectual disability & associated physical disorders; caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 High Extreme □ Children with extraordinary academic gifts are sometimes isolated & shy, but most thrive Genetics & Environmental Influences on Intelligence • Twins & Adoption Studies ○ Heritability: The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. This is still a rather Low correlation • Environmental Influences ○ Early Environmental Influences Negative Influences: □ Sensory Deprivation (nothing to engage the child) □ Social Isolation Unresponsive parenting (doesn't answer child's cries, does not interact with child) □ Poverty-related stress □ Infant malnutrition While preschool experiences matter, stressing over getting your child special education is a waste of time. There is no sure-fire way to turn a child into a genius ○ Schooling & Intelligence Education can aid in developing cognitive & social skills. Some believe intelligence is changeable & you can foster a growth mind-set. □ Praise effort as opposed to ability, it helps foster hard-work & success. Ability + Opportunity + Motivation = Success Unit2 Page 12 waste of time. There is no sure-fire way to turn a child into a genius ○ Schooling & Intelligence Education can aid in developing cognitive & social skills. Some believe intelligence is changeable & you can foster a growth mind-set. □ Praise effort as opposed to ability, it helps foster hard-work & success. Ability + Opportunity + Motivation = Success • Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores ○ Gender Similarities & Differences More gender equity in a societ→ Smaller gap between genders in intelligence ○ Racial & Ethnic Similarities & Differences 2 Disturbing but True Facts □ Racial & Ethnic groups differ in their average intelligence test scores □ High scoring groups/people are more likely to attain higher levels of education Individual differences are clearly genetic Group differences may be heritable or environmental. (we don't know for sure) □ Genetics reveals that races are incredibly alike □ @ different eras different races have experienced golden ages • The Question of Bias ○ Are intelligence tests inappropriately biased> ○ 2 Meanings of Bias Scientific: The test's validity □ Does it predict future behavior only for some groups? Cultural: Do the questions have any cultural pretenses? □ Do the questions make sense to everyone? Does the question makes assumptions about our knowledge or customs ○ Test-Takers' Expectation Stereotype Threat: A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype If one expects to do poorly they will under-perform (vice versa) Unit2 Page 13 Chapter11: What Drives Us: Hunger, Sex, Friendship, & Achievement Monday, October 19, 2015 10:58 PM Basic Motivational Concepts ○ Motivation: A need or desire that energizes & directs behavior. • Instincts & Evolutionary Psychology ○ Instinct: A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species & is unlearned ○ Genes do dispose some species-typical behavior Instinct theory has failed to explain most human motives. • Drives & Incentives ○ Drive-Reduction Theory: A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. This idea replaced instinct theory ○ The physiological aim of drive-reduction is homeostasis: maintenance of a balanced internal state ○ Incentive: A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior ○ Incentive provides a push; Drive provides a pull • Optimum Arousal ○ Some motivated behaviors actually increase arousal (as opposed to maintaining homeostasis) Human motivation aims--not to eliminate arousal but--to seek optimum levels of arousal ○ Yerkes-Dodson Law: The principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases • Hierarchy of Motives ○ Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow described various human needs in order of importance & claimed that a need could not be met(or even active) until all the more important needs are met. There are instances where this is not the case (Ex. hunger strikes) ○ Gaining & retaining mates & producing offspring are universal human motives. (Evolution) ○ In different environments different standards of satisfaction Ex: College student is financially satisfied if they can afford shopping and lunch. Adult is financially satisfied when they can afford a car & home. • Hunger ○ Physiology of Hunger Body Chemistry & The Brain □ Organisms automatically regulate their caloric intake to prevent energy deficits & maintain a stable body weight. Our brain automatically monitors our body's internal state & blood chemistry to determine how hungry we are. ◊ Our stomach, intestines, & liver send signals to the brainvia hormones to motivate eating or not. Stomach G→relin (appetite increase) Digestive Trac→ PYY (appetite decrease) ◊ Blood Sugar Glucose: A form of sugar that circulates in the blood & provides energy for body tissues Insulin: A hormone that helps converts glucose to fat (diminishing glucose levels); secreted by pancreas. – Fat cells secrete Leptin; when there are abundant fat cells, enough
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