Chapter 6 to 9 Cognitive Processes and Problem Solving
Chapter 6 to 9 Cognitive Processes and Problem Solving G101
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by KUMIKO Notetaker on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to G101 at Republic Polytechnic taught by Rumi Sastro in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 191 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Processes and Problem Solving in Education and Teacher Studies at Republic Polytechnic.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
Study Guide from Chapter 1 to 5 Chapter 3 Useful strategy in problem solving 0 Understanding the problem What is my relevant prior knowledge and observation of this problem What is the knowledge and information gap I have of this problem How do search for information that I need for this problem Getting useful and relevant information from observation of experiment Gathering all the information Deduction from the above information Explanation of Solution to the Problem Further Explanation Chapter 4 Scienti c Investigation Objectivity Validity Sufficiency Process of a Scienti c Investigation 0 Understand the difference between facts and opinionnonfactual claim 0 Understand the quality that you are trying to assess or measure 0 Design your investigative method such that your measurement is valid in assessing the entity and enables you to collect data objectively Decide on the sample size of your investigation keeping in mind that it should not be too small or it should be suf ciency Chapter 5 1 Analysing your data 2 Quality of your data 3 Making the right deduction Study Guide from Chapter 6 to 9 Chapter 6 Design Thinking Process 1 Understand Users Understand your users and what they want 1 DefinePurposeFunction De ne the purpose and function of our design 1 Understand constraints Understand the constraints that you have 1 Brainstorm Brainstorm creative ideas and solutions in your design 1 Prototype and test Prototype and test your design and gather feedback 1 Re ne and modify Re nemodify your design based on feedback Chapter 7 Thinking Process in Redesigning 1 Decide on things to access De ne the aspects of the design to be assessed and evaluated 1 Assessment Assess all the aspects of the design to be evaluated 1 Brainstorm to improve based on assessment Brainstorm on creative solutions and ideas to overcome the aws in design 1 Examine solution and its impact on others Examine the proposed solution to see if there is any negative impact on other aspects of the design Chapter 8 Rational Choice Theory 1 Assumption of completeness For example 3 options none of them are same value 2 Assumption of transitivity for example like math 3 options AgtBgtC so AgtC 3 Assumption of independence of irrelevant alternatives For example 3 options the new option will not change the order of how the rst 3 options ranked Exchange Theory 1 Assumption of people seek to rationally maximize their pro ts 2 Assumption of the interactions operate within the social norms 3 Assumption that the standards people use to evaluate interaction to change over time Irrational Choice of Behaviour Economics 6 Cognitive Biases 1 Anchoring bias Rely too heavily on the rst piece of information offered when making decisions 1 Choice architecture Tendency of people to be impacted by the different ways in which choices are presented to them 1 IKEA effect Tendency of people to place a disproportionately high value on products they partially created 1 Loss aversion Tendency of people to strongly prefer avoiding losses to acquiring gains 1 Paradox of choice Tendency of people to become less satis ed when they are presented with too many choices Bandwagon effect Tendency of people to do something primarily because other people are doing it regardless of their own beliefs Chapter 9 Types of Heuristic 1 2 3 Availability Heuristics A mental shortcut which helps us make a decision based on how easy it is to bring something to mind 0 recent events or information that can be easily recalled Representativeness Heuristics A mental shortcut which helps us make a decision by comparing information to out mental prototypes Baserate Heuristics A mental shortcut which helps us make a decision based on probability Heuristic Techniques 1 Trial and Error Finding out of the best way to reach a desired result or a correct solution by trying out one or more ways or means and by noting and eliminating errors or causes of failure Divide and Conquer Dividing an instance of a problem into smaller and smaller pieces until a solution can be found for the smaller pieces Working Backwards Finding a solution by literally using the end point to suggest connections to the starting point Brainstorming A strategy to develop large number of ideas for the solution of a problem Get Help Enlist the help of an expert peer book or other reference to generate ideas or solve the problem Detour Solutions Move away from the goal in the short term to make progress toward an ultimate goal MicroMacro Context Shift Probe extremes to uncover insights into problem boundaries side effects and implications AnalogyMetaphors Using an old solution to solve a new problem and nd a new solution Review Models Create models eg causeeffect diagram flow chart of the problem to look for intervention clues Test Assumptions Create and review the assumption list and look for solutions prematurely eliminated or missed by treating assumptions as facts or constraints Need answers Feel free to drop me an email 15043445 myrpedusg
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