Quiz #1 review
Quiz #1 review SPAU 3301
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathy Hong on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SPAU 3301 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Michelle Ald in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Communication Disorders in Language at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
Intro to Comm. Disorders QUIZ #1 REVIEW CH 1-4 The quiz will be 25 questions (objective: Mult. Choice, true false), with 2 bonus questions that won’t count against you. You will not need a scantron. CH 1 What is ASHA o American Speech-Language-Hearing Association What do SLP’s and Audiologists do (in general) o Audiologists specialize in preventing and assessing hearing and balance disorders as well as providing audiologic treatment, including hearing aids. o Speech-language pathologists identify, assess, and treat speech and language problems, including swallowing disorders. What are some of the disorders you would treat in the fields…from infancy through adulthood o Articulation, fluency, coice disorders (nodules, glottal fry), hearing disorders, etc. o Autism, etc. CH 2 Communication (general Def.) o Communication or exchange b/w a sender and receiver. Difference between speech and language Phonology, morphology, morpheme, syntax, semantics, pragmatics (definitions) o Language: 1. FORM Phonology: Sound system of a language Phonotactic rules: How sounds may be arranged in words Morphology: The structure of words Morphemes: Smallest grammatical units does not equate to a word eg) cat – 1 morpheme cats – 2 morphemes “s” has to be bound to a free morpheme to have a meaning Free morphemes: May stand alone as a word Bound morphemes: Change the meaning of original words and can only be attached to free morphemes Syntax: How words are arranged in a sentence and the ways in which one word may affect another 2. CONTENT Semantics: The content or meaning of language Semantic features: The pieces of meaning that define a particular word 3. USE Pragmatics Refers to how and why we use language Pragmatic rules vary with culture o Speech Acoustic representation of language Articulation: The way speech sounds are formed Intro to Comm. Disorders QUIZ #1 REVIEW CH 1-4 Fluency: The smooth, forward flow of communication Influence by rhythm and rate (components of prosody) Pragmatic rules o Involves 3 major commincation skills Using language for different purposes like greeting, informing, demanding, etc. Changing language according to the needs of a listener or situation Talking differently to a baby vs an adult & talking to friends vs talking to a co-worker Following rules for conversation and storytelling Taking turns in a conversation, rephrasing when misunderstood, use verbal/nonverbal signs, body language, etc. Articulation, fluency, voice o VOICE: Can reveal things about the speaker and message Overall loudness and loudness patterns are important Pitch: Perception of how high or low a sound is Habitual Pitch: Basic tone an individual uses most of the time Intonation: Pitch movement within an utterance Dialects-definition, are they disorders etc o Differences that reflect a particular regional, social, cultural, or ethnic identity o Not impairment! Examps. of speech, language disorders o Language disorder: o Disorders of Form: Errors in sound use (phonology) Incorrect use of past tense or plural markers (morphology) Incorrect word order and run-on sentences (syntax) May be due to sensory limitations, perceptual difficulties, limited exposure to correct models, etc. • Disorders of Content Limited vocabulary, misuse of words, word-finding problems Difficulty understanding and using abstract language May be due to limited experience, concrete learning style, strokes, head trauma, or illness • Disorders of Use May stem from limited or unacceptable conversational, social, and narrative skills; deficits in spoken vocabulary; immature or disordered phonology, morphology, and syntax Might include difficulty staying on topic, providing inappropriate or incongruent responses to questions, or continually interrupting (trouble staying on topic – pragmatic) o Speech Disorders: o Disorders of Articulation Intro to Comm. Disorders QUIZ #1 REVIEW CH 1-4 Articulation: The actual production of speech sounds Differentiate between disorders of phonology Causes include neuromotor problems such as CP, physical anomalies such as cleft palate, and faulty learning Dysarthria: Caused by paralysis, weakness, or poor coordination of the speech musculature eg) slurred speech Apraxia: Due to neuromotor programming difficulties problems w/ sequencing (mouth/tongue) For kids – commonly have problems b/c of motor (control) problems eg) tongue misplacement -phonology is a conceptual/linguistic problem Current estimate of communication disorders (p.31) o 17% of total US population have some communication disorder o About 11% have hearing loss o Approx. 6% have speech, voice, or language disorder o About 3% have a swallowing or communicative disorder Communication impairment (defin.) o Disorders of speech (articulation, voice, resonance, fluency), oral neuromotor patterns of control and movement, language impairment, feeding and swallowing disorders, cognitive and social communication deficits, and hearing and processing difficulties. Includes reading and writing. Screening • Authentic data • Norm referenced tests • Criterion referenced tests • Dynamic assessment – therapy • Speech or language sampling • Evidence-Based Practice – ASHA assessment guidelines are discussed later Assessment goals o Determining what exactly is wrong 1. Does a communication problem exist? o Diagnostic therapy: Working with 2. What is the diagnosis? the client over time to better 3. What are the deficit areas? How determine strengths and consistent are they? weaknesses 4. What are the individual’s strengths? o Determine severity 5. How severe is the problem? o Etiology 6. What are the probable causes of the o Predisposing causes problem? o Precipitating factors 7. What recommendations should be o Maintaining or perpetuating made? causes 8. What is the prognosis (likely outcome) o Recommendations w/o and w/ intervention? o Prognosis Intro to Comm. Disorders QUIZ #1 REVIEW CH 1-4 General assessment procedures o A case history filled out by a parent, family member, professional, or the client o A questionnaire completed by a parent, family member, professional, or the client o An interview with a parent, family member, and/or the client o A systematic observation of the client’s communication skills o Testing with more than one assessment tool and including a hearing screening and an examination of the peripheral speech mechanism o Dynamic assessment o Communication sampling and analysis Objectives of intervention 1. The client should show improvement not just in a clinical setting; progress should generalize to his/her real-world environments, such as home, school, and work 2. The client should not have to think about what has been learned; in large part, it should be automatic 3. The client must be able to self-monitor. Although modifications should be automatic, they will still require monitoring. The client should be able to listen to and observe himself/herself and make corrections as needed, w/o the therapist’s being present. 4. The client should make optimum progress in the minimum amount of time. 5. Intervention should be sensitive to the personal and cultural characteristics of the client. Prognosis (p 35) o An informed prediction of the outcome of the disorder, both w/ and wo intervention, and is based, in part, on the nature and severity of the disorder; the client’s responsiveness to trial therapy during assessment; and the client’s overall communicative, intellectual, and personal strengths and weaknesses. Evidence-based practice 1. Developmental level Early identification Form of communication relative to child’s age and developmental status 2. Difference vs. Disorder Multi-lingual and dialectual variations in the child’s home will affect the way which language is learned and used Bilingual clients should be assessed in both languages to provide accurate data of speech and language strength and weaknesses 3. Format Assessment materials and strategies should reflect : the developmental lvl or condition of the client the culture and language of the client and family Setting of the assessment significant others who interact w/ the client on an ongoing basis should be included in the assessment process CH3 Intro to Comm. Disorders QUIZ #1 REVIEW CH 1-4 Basic components of the speech production mechanism (respiration, larynx, vocal folds, velum) o Respiratory system: driving force for speech o Larynx: generates the voice o Vocal folds: When vocal folds are open – abduction When vocal folds are apart – adducted o Velum Velum does move; can touch the pharyngeal cavity to cut off the air to make a nasal sound; to resonate through the oral cavity Speech breathing o shallow breathing CH 4 language impairments in childhood o risk factors are: o Male, ongoing hearing problems o Protective factors o Genetic factors o Late talkers in adolescence (24-31mths) Intellectual disability -what is it, what causes it, language characteristics o Aka Mental Retardation (MR) o Substantial limitations in intellectual functioning (cognitive impairment) o Significant limitations in adaptive behavior (grooming, etc) o Originates before age 18 ID is not truly “acquired” - Eg) cognitive impairment secondary to severe brain injury ≠ ID o Severity can be based on IQ and ranges from mild to profound o Newer severity ratings are based on the amount of assistance needed for daily tasks o Causes can be biological or socioenvironmental Biological cause - Eg) down syndrome – genetic syndrome that leads to ID o Doesn’t have to have dismorphic facial features - Eg) Fragile X – genetic syndrome Socioenvironmental cause - Eg) lead exposure, etc. o Various processing deficits Language Characteristics o Children with Down syndrome and Fragile X have moderate to severe language delays Girls can be carriers for Fragile X; boys are susceptible to Fragile X o Boys with FXS make phonological errors similar to younger TD children Intro to Comm. Disorders QUIZ #1 REVIEW CH 1-4 o Boys with FXS produce longer, more complex utterances than those with DS o Language comprehension and/or production can be below the level of cognition Syntactical structures, etc. o Children with ID produce shorter, more immature forms o Later, paths differ more from TD Learning disability-general characteristics, possible impact on language o Perception dyslexia o Symbol use o Memory o Attention ADHD o Emotion ED (emotional disturbance) o Motor coordination Language Learning disability-general characteristics o Heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the development and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities In any of those categories, you can have multiples in any of those categories Reception, reasoning, etc. o >75% have difficulty learning and using symbols o 3% of all individuals have LD o Six categories of characteristics 1)Perception – Eg) dyslexia 2)Symbol use 3)Memory 4)Attention – Eg) ADHD 5)Emotion – ED (emotional disturbance) 6)Motor coordination o 80% have some form of reading problem o Possible biological and neurological factors o Socioenvironmental factors Language Characteristics o All aspects of language can be affected o Deducing language rules is difficult o Cluttering Associated w/ finding words Intro to Comm. Disorders QUIZ #1 REVIEW CH 1-4 Common to LD but not exclusive to LD; depends what type of cluttering: written, oral, etc. o Overuse of fillers and circumlocutions associated with word-finding difficulties, rapid speech, and word and phrase repetitions, along with lack of awareness o Can occur in some children with LD Specific Language Impairment-general characteristics and impact on language eg) semantics, syntax, etc. - it’s pretty broad; no specific name for the type of SLI o Typical nonverbal intelligence but deficits in a variety of nonverbal tasks o Language performance is significantly lower than nonverbal intelligence o Affects more males than females o Increased prevalence in families o Do not have perceptual difficulties o May have marked deficits in working memory o Suggests limited capacity for language processing Autism-general characteristics of the ASD; effects on communication o Motor patterns – rocking, fascination with spinning objects o Certain routines, objects, foods, clothing o Adverse reactions to some sounds or textures o Incidence is 1 in 88 children (now is 1 in 68 kids) o Boys are 5 times more likely to exhibit ASD characteristics Probably a biological & neurological basis o Most have IQs above 70 o 25% also exhibit ID o Primary causes are biological o Eye and face detection processing may be delayed Eg) recognizing face in a crowd, using a facial expression @ the appropriate time, using exaggerated facial expression, etc. o Overall processing is gestalt Traumatic Brain Injury o Stroke, congenital malformation, convulsive disorders, or encephalopathy (myelin sheets) Specific Language Impairment o semantics, syntax, etc. - it’s pretty broad; no specific name for the type of SLI o Typical nonverbal intelligence but deficits in a variety of nonverbal tasks o Language performance is significantly lower than nonverbal intelligence o Affects more males than females o Increased prevalence in families o Do not have perceptual difficulties o May have marked deficits in working memory o Suggests limited capacity for language processing Intro to Comm. Disorders QUIZ #1 REVIEW CH 1-4 Neglect/abuse o Lack of maternal interaction rather than physical abuse is a significant factor in language impairment Fetal Alcohol Syndrome o One in every 500-600 live births is a child with FAS or other fetal drug exposure o Low birth weight and CNS problems o Hyperactivity, motor problems, attention deficits, and cognitive disabilities o Mean IQ is borderline ID o Effects of drugs on the fetus vary with drug, manner of ingestion, and the age of the fetus o Those exposed to crack have low birth weight, small head size, and are jittery and irritable o Mother who used alcohol during pregnancy affects their academic and language development that can be prevented. Persistent long lasting permanent effects of low IQ, etc.
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