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Final Exam Study Guide

by: LSTEARNS Notetaker

Final Exam Study Guide PSYC-1000-02

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Here is a study guide for the Final Exam on Wednesday, December 9th. Good luck!
Introductory Psych
Hebert, Thomas
Study Guide
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This 78 page Study Guide was uploaded by LSTEARNS Notetaker on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC-1000-02 at Tulane University taught by Hebert, Thomas in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 12/06/15
Intro To Psych FINAL Study Guide CHAPTER 1: Introduction and Research Methods Introducing Psychology - Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes (hard vs. soft science) o Hard science – natural science (chemistry, physics, biology, etc.)  Can be directly measured o Soft science – social sciences (ex. psychology)  Cannot be directly measured Psychology focuses on critical thinking the process of objectively evaluating, comparing, analyzing and synthesizing information - Pseudopsychologies (ex. Psychics, mediums) are nonscientific o Are unreliable approaches that do not use the scientific method  Ex. Astrology, Palmistry, Psychokinetic (humans can move objects through mental concentration), Follicology (personality characteristics are related to hair color)  - Scientific: collects and evaluates information using systematic observations and measurements  - Behavior: anything we do that can be directly observed and recorded- talking, sleeping, texting - Mental Processes: private, internal experiences, thoughts, perceptions, feelings and memories Psychology’s Four Goals 1. Description: tells “what” occurred 2. Explanation: tells “why” a behavior or mental process occurred 3. Prediction: identifies conditions “under which a future behavior or mental process is likely to occur” 4. Change: applies psychological knowledge to prevent unwanted behavior or to bring about desired goals The largest group of PHD recipients in psychology is in Clinical and Counseling psychology What is the difference between a psychiatrist and a clinical/counseling psychologist? Psychiatrist:  medical doctors  have an MD  have a license to prescribe meds and drugs Clinical Counseling Psychologist:  degrees in human behavior and methods of therapy  often work with psychiatrists Origins of Psychology - Wilhelm Wundt: “father of psychology” Leipzig, Germany 1879 o Preformed the first lab in psychology - Structuralism: focused on sensations and perceptual experiences; sought to identify the basic building blocks, or structures, of the mind through introspection (the contents of the conscious brain; basic sensations and feelings based off of a simple noise, smell, sound, etc.) o Wundt used trained subjects (which was a flaw) to look at apples through a small hole in order to describe the small amounts that they saw, structuralism o Wundt and Titchener key leaders - Functionalism: studies how the mind functions to adapt organisms to their environment o William James key leader 1875  Studied how the mind functions to adapt organisms to their environment o Modern psychology would be closest to functionalism - Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective: unconscious processes and unresolved past conflicts (Freud was the founder) o Changed his theory so he could never be wrong o Doesn’t lend itself to testability o Not much science involved in his ideas o Modern perspective: unconscious processes unresolved past conflicts - Gestalt psychology emphasized perception; the notion that the whole is more than the sum of the parts (Wertheimer) More Recent Schools of Thought - Behavioral perspective: objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior (Watson, Pavlov, and Skinner were leaders) o Watson found that fears could be conditioned o Skinner thought that environment determines everything: given any child, he could train them to be any person or type of person- lawyer, doctor, beggar, thief - The behavioral perspective has had a great and continuing influence on modern psychology o Behaviors stress observable and quantitative aspects of science - Humanist perspective: free will, self-actualization, and a positive growth-seeking human nature (Rogers and Maslow were key figures)  We can choose how to act  Stresses free will  All individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and move toward self-actualization (state in which we realize our highest potential)  Rogerian Therapy  Maslow talks about the hierarchy of needs o Opposition to psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective (Freud)  Freud is pessimistic saying we are constantly in conflict and trapped by the animalistic aspects of the brain - Cognitive perspective: thought, perception, and information processing o Thinking, perception, memory, language, and problem solving  They would be interested in how you interpret the meaning of her words o Information processing: likening the mind to a computer that takes in info, processes it and then produces a response o Serial processing: parallel learning. Original way of thinking before info processing-thought process is quicker o Reaction time is measured - Neuroscience/Biopsychology perspective: genetics and other biological processes in the brain and other parts of the nervous system o Brain Differences  The difference between the brains of men and women is quite small. Only a few areas have been reported to differ significantly  Society paints a pictures that female and male brains are much more different than they actually are  Females have more connectivity between the two sides of the brain - Evolutionary: natural selection, adaptation, and evolution o Female spiders can mate with multiple male spiders, separately store the sperm, and then choose which sperm she would like to put in her reproductive system  Mate choice  Natural selection  E. O. Wilson - Sociocultural: social interaction and cultural determinants “Sociobiology” o Mamie and Kenneth Clark o Ethnicity, religion, occupation, socioeconimic More Psychology Views - Psychoanalytic view emphasizes the unconscious mind (Freud) - Behaviorism focuses on objective and measurable behaviors (Watson/Skinner) - Humanistic psychology emphasizes the inner-self and the importance of subjective feelings (Maslow) - Cognitive psychology focuses on mental function and reasoning (Ebbinghaus) The Science of Psychology - Psychological (as well as all) research can be either: o Basic: conducted to advance scientific knowledge; seeks answers for theoretical questions  Ex. How is hunger controlled by the brain? o Applied: designed to solve current practical problems; seeks answers for specific application problems  Ex. Organizational psychology studies leadership, job satisfaction, job training, and development  Alcohol abuse combines basic and applied research The Scientific Method: - Thomas Kuhn o Paradigm Shift: a change in the basic assumptions, or paradigms, within the ruling theory of science. It is in contrast to his idea of normal science. o Normal Science: the regular work of scientists experimenting within a settled paradigm or explanatory framework. o Revolutionary Science: the transformation from one paradigm to another. Contrasts with normal science Ethical Guidelines in Psychology Key issues for Human Research Participants - Informed consent - Voluntary participation - Restricted use of deception - Debriefing - Confidentiality - Alternative activities Respecting the rights of human research participants involves: - Informed consent is an explanation of a study and the responsibilities of experimenter and participant - Deception involving the subjects must be justified - Freedom to withdraw must be available - Confidentiality of study information must be maintained - Debriefing explaining the research process to subjects at the end of the study o Animal research must be justified and must minimize discomfort to participants Research Methods in Science Major Research Methods: 1. Experimental – Manipulation and control of variables a. Used to identify cause and effect (meets the explanation goals of psychology) 2. Descriptive – Naturalistic observation, surveys, case studies a. Used to observe, collect, and record data (meets the descriptive goal of psychology) 3. Correlational – Statistical analyses of relationships between variables a. Used to identify relationships and how well one variable predicts another (meets the predictive goal of psychology) 4. Biological – Studies the brain and other parts of the nervous system a. Used to identify causation, description, and prediction (meets one or more of the four goals of psychology) The Experiment - Experimental Research – carefully controlled scientific procedure that manipulates variables to determine cause and effect - Key Features – a. Independent variable (factor that is manipulated) versus dependent variable (factor that is measured: operational definition) b. Experimental group (receives treatment) versus control group (receives no treatment) - John Stuart Mill: Joint method agreement and difference. Experimental groups allow the ‘agreement’ while the control group represents the ‘difference.’ Research Considerations - Controls are important for determining causality o The only difference between the experimental and control groups is the presence or absence of the IV o All other aspects are the same o Gives the experiment an advantage over other forms of inquiry - Placebo effects behavioral changes relative to expectations of a treatment as opposed to actual treatment o Greater placebo effects with  Bigger, expensive, painful  Administered by MD - Only an experiment can determine cause and effect Potential Researcher Problems: - Experimenter Bias: researcher influences the research results in the expected direction o Refers to preconceived expectations that influence data collection  Can be controlled using blind procedures  Experimenters and subjects are ignorant of treatment conditions  Blind data collection by assistants  Inadvertent research by assistants o Ethnocentrism: believing one’s culture is typical of all cultures Potential Participant (subject) Problems: - Sample Bias (Non-representative Sample) o Research participants are unrepresentative of the larger population – must use random or representative sample) - Participant Bias (Act different) o Research participants are influenced by the researcher or experimental conditions; reveal only as much as necessary to collect data Research Method – Descriptive Research - Descriptive Research: observe and record behavior without interfering and does not produce casual explanations Types: - Naturalistic Observation – observation and recording of behavior in natural state or habitat o Refers to the systematic recording of data in a subjects natural state or habitat  Ex. Jane Goodall observing apes in the wild - Survey – assessment of a sample or population o Written instruments designed to sample attitudes or behaviors  Representative sample: asking persons at a PETA rally how they feel about animal rights issues  Must ask right questions; Likert Scales - Case Study – in depth study of a single participant or subject o Freud used the case study method to probe anxiety o Sample representation o Often used when subjects are rare Research Method: Correlations - The researcher observes or measures (without directly manipulating) two or more variables to find relationships between them o Correlations characterize ongoing phenomena. Very helpful in areas where it is unethical/immoral to do an experiment. However, because there is no control group, we are limited in determining a causal relationship between correlated variables. - The correlation technique indicates the mathematical association between variables - Correlations indicate the corresponding changes in variables o Positive correlation: changes in the value of variable 1 are associated with similar changes in the value of variable 2  Two variables move (or co-vary) in the same direction —either up or down. Research shows there is a positive correlation between hours studying and overall GPA. o Negative correlation: changes in the value of variable 1 are associated with opposite changes in the value of variable 2  Two variables move (or co-vary) in the opposite direction. The higher the interest rate, the fewer loans a bank makes. o No correlation: values of variable 1 are not related to variable 2 values  No mathematical relationship between two variables. - Correlations also indicate the degree to which the variables co- vary, or ‘follow’ each other o No correlation: no relationship between the 2 variables and correlation coefficient is close to 0 o Strong correlation: Knowing the value of one variable permits one to accurately estimate the value of the other variable and coefficient is closer to 1 or -1  Strong correlation can be positive or negative  Correlation coefficients are influenced by the slope of the regression line and how closely the data points fall next to the regression line  Typical correlations in Psychology would vary from weak correlations of 0 - 0.2 to moderate correlations of 0.3 - 0.4 and strong correlations of greater than 0.4. In biology, a strong correlation might be .6 or 0.7 and in physics a strong correlation might be 0.8 or better. - Correlations can be seen in scatter plots o The terms positive and negative correlation are used because of the slope of the data scatterplots - Regression line (line of best fit) - Physical, Biological, and Psychological Sciences Correlational Research - Correlation cannot show cause and effect. If stress and cancer are positively correlated, then does the cancer cause the stress or does the stress cause the cancer? o Correlation is NOT causation Research Methods- Biological Research - Scientific study of the brain and other parts of the nervous system - Lesions - DNA expression - Cell/protein labeling - Electrical recording - Electrical stimulation - Microdialysis - Drug administration - PET scan - MRI scan - FMRI Chapter 2- Neuroscience and Biological Functions Neural Bases of Psychology - Neuroscience: interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavioral and mental processes o The nervous system consists of neurons (receive and transmit electrochemical information) and neuroglia, which serve a supporting role - Primary Brain Cells: comes from the glial cells -cancer that starts in the brain. Very rare, but always fatal o Glial Cells in the periphery nerves can regenerate The Structure of a Typical Neuron - Dendrites: receive information from other neurons and sensory receptors - Cell Body: receives information from dendrites, and if enough stimulation is received, the message is passed to the axon o Cell body is covered in synapses and also received information - Axon: carries neuron’s message to other body cells o Axon Hillock (initial segment) at the beginning of the axon, region closest to the soma. Different in that the ion channels here are voltage gated (they open in response to a voltage increase on the inside of the hillock)  Each axon hillock has a threshold for opening the ion channels o Connections closer to the hillock are stronger o Na+ and K+ ion channels are located along the axon - Myelin Sheath: covers the axon of some neurons to insulate and help speed neural impulses - Terminal buttons of axon: form junctions with other cells and release chemicals called neurotransmitters o Some neurotransmitters are formed at the cell body, others formed at the axon terminal - Typical flow of information is from dendrites/soma to axon to terminals - The neuronal membrane is a bi-layer of two sheets of amphiphilic molecules. The cholinephosphate head group is hydrophilic but the cholesterol tail is hydrophobic. They arrange themselves accordingly such that the head groups are facing both the aqueous interior and exterior of the neuron. o Membranes are semi-permeable: some things can cross and others cannot o Uses ion channels to allow electrical communication o Ions are unevenly distributed across membrane and can cross membrane only when stimulated. There is some leak: sodium-potassium pump  Ion channels allow two forces to redistribute ions when channels are open  Concentration gradient – more Na+ outside and more K+ inside  Electrostatic pressure – inside negative while outside positive o Used in graded and action potentials - Graded potentials occur on dendrites and soma. What happens when a neurotransmitter binds a receptor o Relative: weaker or stronger o Result from receptors opening or closing ion channels on the dendrites and soma; ligand gated o Fast but strength decreases with distance o Can be excitatory (Na+; increase rate of action potentials) or inhibitory (Cl-; decrease rate of action potentials) o Will summate  Spatial Summation: synapse 1, 2, or 3 alone did not reach threshold, but because of location when they fired together it summated to reach threshold  Temporal Summation: synapse 1 fired with longer time breaks will not reach threshold; Synapse 1 fired repeatedly will reach threshold - Action potential occurs on an axon o Not relative: full strength or not at all  All or none law  Larger diameter axons have faster potentials  Action potential reaches the axon terminals, which causes neurotransmitters release Neural Communication - Within/along a neuron, communication occurs through graded and action potentials - Graded and action potentials work together to get information along the neuron - Synapse: Between neurons, communication occurs through transmission of neural information across a synapse by neurotransmitters (chemicals released by neurons that alter activity in other neurons) - Axon terminals send neurons to almost completely cover the cell body of the receiving neuron Types of Synapses - Excitatory synapses depolarize: Inhibitory synapses hyperpolarize - Ionotropic synapses act fast but abruptly while metabotropic synapses act slower for longer - Spatial and Temporal Summation make it all quite complex Enrichment Experiments - Rats raised in enriched environments show increased dendritic branching when compared to rats raised in impoverished environments Neurotransmitters have multiple receptor subtypes Major Neurotransmitters: • Serotonin (5-HT) - depression, sensory experiences • Acetylcholine (ACh) - movement, learning, memory • Dopamine (DA) – mood, movement, reward pathway • Norepinephrine (NE) – emotion, arousal • Glutamate – excitatory, memory • GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) – inhibitory, movement, anxiety • Most prevalent neurotransmitter in the brain The synapse is a place of action: - The nervous system often uses an increase or decrease in neurotransmitter release or receptor number to affect behavior. And all neurotransmitter systems have a quick method for deactivation within the synapse. Receptor Sites - Normal message = proper shape; lock and key hypothesis - Blocked message = wrong shape, but blocks any neurotransmitters from getting in the receptor - Agonistic drugs mimic shape and enhance neurotransmitter - Antagonistic drugs fill the site and block neurotransmitter o Don’t bind well enough to induce biological action Endocrine System - Collection of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones - Hormones often travel great distances thru the bloodstream to reach a target area - Have both rapid and longer lasting effects Nervous System Organization - Central Nervous System: includes the brain and spinal cord- everything encased in bone o Drives mental and basic life processes - Peripheral Nervous System: includes all nerves and neurons connecting CNS to the rest of the body o Carries information to and from the central nervous system o Subdivided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems  Both systems are equally as important  Somatic: innovates the muscles  Conveys sensory information to the CNS and sends motor messages to muscles  Autonomic regulates internal organs in homeostasis, sweating, and digestion. Controls involuntary basic life functions such as heartbeat and response to stress  Sympathetic Nervous System: Arouses body to expend energy and respond to threat o Operates at a time of acute stress  Parasympathetic Nervous System: Calms body to conserve energy and restore the status quo o Designed for ongoing normal regulation  Opposites Both CNS and PNS work together - Spinal Cord transmits information into and out of the brain o Injuries often involve both o Dorsal (back) vs. Ventral (front)  Motor stimulus through the ventral  Causes us to move - Spinal cord is responsible for involuntary, automatic behaviors called reflexes. Some reflexes are controlled by medulla and midbrain o Medulla vs. Midbrain Peripheral Nervous System - Somatic Nervous System: connects to sensory receptors The Brain - Grouped into: o Forebrain- quality of life, thinking  Collection of upper-level brain structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system  Thalamus: relays incoming sensory messages to the cerebral cortex  Hypothalamus: responsible for emotions, drives, hormone interactions, and homeostasis o Located below the thalamus  Limbic System: associated with emotional expressions, learning and memory o Midbrain – collection of brain structures in the middle of the brain that coordinates movement patterns, sleep, arousal, and reflexes  Reticular formation: runs through the hindbrain, midbrain, and brainstem and screens incoming information and controls arousal o Hindbrain  Medulla: life survival functions  Pons: respiration, movement, waking, sleeping, and dreaming  Bridging the left and right sides of the cerebellum  Cerebellum: “little brain” - coordination of fine muscular movements, balance, and some aspects of perception and cognition  Coordinated movements  Affected by alcohol - If someone is brain dead in a hospital, their cerebral cortex is not working o Lose the quality of life that you associate with being human - Cerebral Cortex: (makes up most of the brain) 6 cell layers on the surface of left and right cerebral hemispheres o Regulates most complex behaviors, including sensations, motor control, and higher mental processes Lobes of Cerebral Cortex: - Frontal Lobe: largest lobe, receives and coordinates messages from other lobes, motor control, speech production, and higher functions o The greatest difference between humans and other animals is the complexity of the frontal lobe What separates the human brain from other animals/individual personality is located? Frontal Lobe - Personality changes when frontal lobes are damaged - Parietal Lobe: receives information from the skin about pressure, pain, touch, and temperature, position of limbs in space o Located on top of the brain directly behind frontal lobes - Temporal Lobe: hearing, language comprehension, memory, and some emotional control - Occipital lobe: vision and visual perception Body proportion to how much cortex connections (brain power) they each get Why is the face so sensitive? - Very close to brain and major sensory organs - Gives us the ability to display emotions Lateralization of function: Split-Brain Research - Severing the corpus callosum provides data regarding the functions of the brain’s two hemispheres - Connects the left and right sides of the brain o Left side = Language (L = L) o Right side = Mathematic, emotions Genetic Inheritance - To answer questions about the influence of nature versus nurture, psychologists use behavioral genetics research - Behavioral Genetics: studies the relative effects of nature (heredity, genes, and chromosomes) and nurture (environment) on behavior and mental processes - The nucleus of every cell in our body contains genes, which carry the code for hereditary transmission. These genes are arranged along chromosomes (strands of paired DNA) - Reciprocal relationship between genes and environment - Concordance Rate: the percent of twins showing the same characteristic. Many psychological variables have a greater concordance rate for monozygotic twins as opposed to dizygotic twins - Evolutionary Psychology: studies how natural selection and adaptation help explain behavior and mental processes o Sex differences in lateralization  Activation is confined to only one hemisphere in the male brain, occurs on both hemispheres on the female brain o Neuroplasticity: brain’s lifelong ability to reorganize and change its structure and function o Neurogenesis: the division and differentiation of non- neuronal cells to produce neurons o Stem Cells: Precursor (immature) cells that have yet to differentiate into a particular cell type Chapter 4 – Sensation and Perception Sensation: process of receiving, converting, and transmitting raw sensory information from the external and internal environments to the brain - Raw data is processed by sensory receptors – eyes, ears, nose, skin, tongue Perception: process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information Sensations are processed in the brain - Interpret that you are hearing a song, seeing a bug, touching something sharp, etc. - Represents a continuum from the biological to the psychological Sensation is to biology as perception is to psychology Selective attention determines which sensations get further processed Importance of Sensory receptor - Processing - sensory organs contain receptors that receive sensory information from the environment, often responds to only a limited range of the stimulus, no receptor – no perception o You can’t hear high pitch dog whistles Three Types of Processing - Transduction: converts energy in the environment into neural impulses - Sensory Reduction: filters and analyzes incoming sensations before sending on to the brain (selective attention) - Coding: routes particular sensory input to different parts of the brain - Transduction, sensory reduction, and coding all occur simultaneously as messages are sent to the brain - Johannes Muller: Doctrine of specific nerve endings o Messages are the same, different experiences occur because message is routed to different brain areas  Experiments with frog retina Thresholds - Psychophysics: testing limits and ability to detect changes o Absolute Threshold: smallest amount of a stimulus we can detect (single stimulus presented)  Method of Limits –  Ascending and descending trials  Simplest but predictable procedure  Method of Constant Stimuli  Randomized order, no prediction of procedure  Subject cannot predict the pattern  Staircase Method  Subjects response determines next stimulus value  Best for testing changes in sensitivity o Difference Threshold: minimal difference needed to detect a stimulus change, also called the just noticeable difference (JND), two stimuli presented  Musician doesn’t have better overall hearing, but can determine the difference between notes better than an average person  Weber’s Law: Change in Intensity / Original Intensity = K  The larger the initial stimulus values require larger changes in intensity to make a noticeable difference (JND) - Relationship between psychical stimulus magnitude and psychological magnitude varies for the sensory modalities o Large changes in the output of a light are associated with relatively small changes in brightness, while small changes in the output of a shock generator will result in a relatively large change in the perception of pain Understanding Sensation: Thresholds - Sensory Adaptation: decreased response to continuous stimulation, sometimes at receptor, sometimes due to attention o Smell adapts the quickest o Pain adapts the slowest Vision: how we see - Light is a form of electromagnetic energy that moves in waves - Many lengths of electromagnetic waves form the electromagnetic spectrum - Light waves vary in: o Length (wavelength) which determines frequency: hue (objective) or color (subjective) o Height (amplitude) which determines strength: intensity (objective) or brightness (subjective) - Anatomy of the Eye: o Cornea and Lens: capture light waves and focus them on receptors in the retina o Receptors for vision are the rods and cones located in the retina  Cones High degree of visual acuity Wired to brain in one-to-one fashion Located in the center of the retina Dominant in normal viewing conditions Associated with color vision  Rods High degree of visual sensitivity Wired to brain in several-to-one fashion Located in periphery of retina Dominant in low light viewing conditions Associated with black/white vision o Normal vision: image is focused on the retina o Nearsightedness (myopia): image is focused in the front of the retina o Farsightedness (hyperopia): image is focused behind the retina How We Hear: Audition - Sound results from a movement of air molecules in a wave pattern o Compression and rarefaction - Sound waves vary in: o Length (wavelength) which determines pitch (highness or lowness, frequency) o Height (amplitude) which loudness (intensity of the sound)  The loudness of a sound is measured in decibels (logarithmic scale)  Prolonged exposure above 90 decibels can cause permanent nerve damage to the ear - Anatomy of the Ear o Receptors for hearing are hair cells located in the cochlea Olfaction (Sense of Smell) - Our sense of smell is called olfaction - Receptors for smell are embedded in a nasal membrane, the olfactory epithelium Gustation (Sense of Taste) - Receptors for gustation are taste buds, located in the papillae (bumps) on the surface of the tongue The Body Senses - Skin senses involve three basic sensations – touch (pressure), temperature, and pain - Receptors for these sensations occur in dermatomes and in various concentrations and depths in the skin Other Senses - Vestibular sense (sense of balance) involves the vestibular sacs and semicircular canals located in the inner ear - Kinesthesia provides the brain with information about bodily posture and bodily movement o Receptors found throughout the muscles, joints, and tendons of the body Understanding Perception - Illusions: false or misleading perceptions help scientists study the processes of perception o Horizontal v vertical line illusion o Public event – we all see it o Reflects normal brain processes o Many illusions trick the brain into thinking that the stimulus is farther away --> perceptual enlargement  Ames Room Perception’s three basic processes: 1. Selection 2. Organization 3. Interpretation - Selection: choosing where to direct attention o Selective Attention – filtering out and attending only to important sensory images o Feature Detectors – specialized neurons respond only to certain sensory information o Habituation – brain’s tendency to ignore environmental factors that remain constant  Kittens raised with only vertical visual stimuli fail to develop the ability to detect horizontal lines  They are missing neurons - Organization: assembling of information into patterns that help us understand the world o Sensory information is organized by:  Form  Constancy  Depth  Color o Form Perception: “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts”  Figure and ground  Proximity – location of objects in comparison to each other  Continuity  Closure  Similarity o Perceptual Constance: Tendency to perceive the environment as remaining the same even with changes in sensory input. Brings stability to the world around us  Best known constancies:  Size  Shape  Color  Brightness o Depth Perception: ability to perceive three dimensional space and accurately judge distance  Involves both binocular (two eyes) and monocular (one eye) cues  Two binocular cues for depth  Retinal disparity – separation of the eyes causes different images to fall on each retina  Convergence – The closer the object the more the eyes turn inward  Monocular Depth Cues  Linear perspective  Interposition  Relative Size  Texture Gradient  Aerial Perspective  Light and Shadow Theories of Color Vision - Color Perception – a combination of two theories o Trichromatic – color perception results from mixing three distinct color systems (red, green, and blue)  Occurs at the level of the eye  Cones in the eye distinguish color o Opponent-process – color perception results from three systems of color opposites (blue-yellow, red-green, and black-white); occurs in brain  Flag example Factors in Interpretation - Interpretation – how we explain sensations Four Major Factors: 1. Perceptual Adaptation – brain adapts to changed environments 2. Perceptual Set – readiness to perceive in a particular manner, based on expectations 3. Frame of Reference – based on the context of the situation 4. Bottom-up or top-down processing – information either starts with raw sensory data or with thoughts, expectations, and knowledge - Subliminal Perception may occur, but there is little or no evidence of subliminal perception - Extrasensory Perception (ESP) – supposed ability to perceive things that go beyond the five normal sense o Research is criticized due to lack of experimental control and replicability Chapter 5 – States of Consciousness Understanding Consciousness - Consciousness – an organism’s awareness of its own self and surroundings o Reflects a continuum that is most readily associated with activity of the cerebral cortex - Alternate States of Consciousness (ASCs): mental states (other than ordinary waking consciousness) found during sleep, dreaming, psychoactive drug use, hypnosis, etc. Circadian Rhythms - Circadian Rhythms are biological changes occurring on a 24- hour cycle o Energy level, mood, learning, and alertness all vary throughout the day o Sections of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the pineal gland regulate these changes - Disrupted circadian rhythms, through shift work, jet lag, and sleep deprivation may also cause mood alterations, reduced concentration and motivation, increased irritability, lapses in attention, and reduced motor skills. Sleep and Dreams - Scientists study sleep with a EEG measuring device that measures net output of nervous system, not individual neurons - Stages of sleep are characterized by patterns of brain activity and internal physiological conditions o NREM (Non-Rapid-Eye-Movement) Sleep:  Slower more coordinated brain waves (lower- frequency, greater amplitude) decreased pulse and breathing, occasional, simple dreams  Serves a biological need (NREM needs to be met before REM needs)  1 – lightest sleep  Stage 2 – deeper sleep  Stage 3 – deeper sleep  Stage 4 – deepest sleep o REM (Rapid-Eye-Movement) Sleep:  High-frequency brain waves, increased pulse and breathing, paralysis of the large muscles and dreaming  Serves a biological need and may help with learning and consolidating new memories (REM Rebound effect)  Dreaming o We typically have 4-5 dreams per night, with each successive one lasting longer o Everyone dreams o Dreaming increases during times of stress and is decreased by alcohol and barbiturates o Humans spend less average time in sleep as we age Why Do We Sleep? - Repair/Restoration Theory: sleep helps us recuperate from daily activities - Evolutionary/Circadian Theory: sleep evolved to conserve energy and as protection from predators - Cognitive Theory: dreams are an important part of information processing of everyday experience - Psychoanalytic Theory: dreams are disguised symbols of repressed desires and anxieties (manifest versus latent content) - Biological Theory: (activation-synthesis hypothesis) dreams are simple bi-products of random stimulation of brain cells Sleep Disorders - Dyssomnias – problems in amount, timing, and quality of sleep o Insomnia: persistent problems in falling asleep, staying asleep, or awakening too early o Sleep apnea: repeated interruption of breathing during sleep o Narcolepsy: sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking hours - Parasomnias – abnormal disturbances during sleep o Nightmares: anxiety-arousing dreams occurring near the end of sleep, during REM sleep o Night terrors: abrupt awakening from NREM sleep accompanied by intense physiological arousal and feelings of panic Psychoactive Drugs 1. Psychoactive Drugs – chemicals that change conscious awareness, mood, or perception 2. Drug Abuse – drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the individual or others 3. Addiction – compulsion to use a specific drug or engage in a certain activity 4. Psychological Dependence – desire or craving to achieve the effects produced by a drug; the person thinks that they need the drug (ex. LSD) 5. Physical Dependence – bodily processes have been so modified by repeated drug use that continued use is required to prevent withdrawal symptoms; your body actually needs the drug 6. Withdrawal – discomfort and distress experienced after stopping the use of addictive drugs 7. Tolerance – decreased sensitivity to a drug brought about by its continuous use Psychoactive Drugs are broken into four categories 1. Depressants: act on the CNS (GABBA receptors) to suppress bodily processes; slowing down of brain activity/thought process a. Complete CNS (alcohol; you can die)/Incomplete CNS (valium; you can not overdose to die) b. All anti-anxiety drugs bind with GABBA receptors i. Ex. Alcohol, valium 2. Stimulants: act on the CNS (DA, NE) to increase bodily processes a. Ex. Caffeine, nicotine, cocaine b. Key ingredient is methamphetamine which destroys the teeth and gums of chronic users 3. Opiates: act as an analgesic or pain reliever; strong euphoric effects a. Ex. Morphine, heroin 4. Hallucinogens: produce sensory or perceptual distortions called hallucinations a. Ex. LSD, marijuana How Psychoactive Drugs Work 1. Alter the production or synthesis of neurotransmitters 2. Change the storage or release of neurotransmitters 3. Alter the reception of neurotransmitters 4. Change the deactivation (block the reuptake or break-down) of excess neurotransmitters 5. Synapses can be either directly coupled to ion channels (fast synapse; inotropic) or indirectly coupled to ion channels (slow synapse; 2 ndmessenger; metabotropic) - Agonist Drug “Mimics” Neurotransmitter - Antagonistic Drugs fill the space of the receptor, but it is not a perfect fit so no reaction takes place Healthier Ways to Alter Consciousness - Meditation: group of techniques designed to refocus attention, block out all distractions, and produce an ASC - Hypnosis: trancelike stage of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, and intense focus; you need an agreeable subject, not everyone can be hypnotized o Therapeutic uses: treatment of chronic pain, severe burns, dentistry, childbirth, and psychotherapy o Myths and Controversies:  Forced hypnosis  Unethical behavior  Exceptional memory  Superhuman strength  Fakery Chapter 6: Learning Definitions - Learning: relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes resulting from practice or experience o Excludes situational variables (ex. being upset in the moment) and maturational variables (developmental) o Typically repeated experiences with the environment o Influenced by “motivation” of subject - Conditioning: process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses (learning) - Associations: we learn by making associations o Condition stimulus and unconditioned stimulus in classical conditioning o Behavior-consequence in operant conditioning Classical Conditioning - Learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus (NS) becomes paired (associated) with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) – unlearned response, to elicit a conditioned response (CR) – learned response o Stimuli occur before responses o UCS associated with UCR (reflex arc) o CS associated with CR (learned response) o No ‘cross-talk’; U-U and C-C - Pavlov’s Contribution o Studied digestion/ physical reflexes o Noticed that dogs would salivate to a white lab coat: changed his research to study this phenomena  Psychic Secretions - Basic form of learning that occurs with or without our awareness o Taps into reflexes which can occur without out awareness - Neutral Stimulus (NS): stimulus that before conditioning doesn’t naturally bring about the response of interest o Ex. Lab coat in Pavlov’s experiment (lab coat would not typically cause a dog to salivate) - Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): stimulus that elicits an UCR occurring without previous conditioning o Food - Unconditioned Response (UCR): unlearned reaction to a UCS occurring without prior conditioning o Salivation - Conditioned Stimulus (CS): previously NS that, through repeated pairings with an UCS, now causes a CR o White lab coat - Conditioned Response (CR): learned reaction to a CS occurring because of previous repeated pairings with an UCS o Salivation - Acquisition: the phase in the process in which initial learning occurs (first phase) o When the UCS is paired with the CS o In CC, acquisition occurs through the association between the USC and the CS o “During conditioning” Order or Pairing UCS and CS - Delayed Conditioning (most effective): NS presented before UCS and remains until UCR begins o Tone presented before food - Simultaneous Conditioning: NS presented at the same time as UCS o Tone and food presented simultaneously - Trace Conditioning: NS presented and then taken away, or ends before USC presented o Tone rang, but food presented only once the sound stops - Backward Conditioning (least effective): USC presented before NS o Food presented before the tone o Ex. Pushing a begging dog away from food before saying “No” Studies often report that approximately ½ a second is the optimal time between the NS (which becomes the CS) and UCS parings. Classically Conditioned Emotions - Conditioned Emotional Response (CER): Watson demonstrated how emotions can be classically conditioned to a previously neutral stimulus (NS) - Watson and Rayner created a fear of rats (a CER) in his baby, Albert o Watson’s experiments were the first to systematically show a learned fear response  Paired a loud sound with a white rat appearing  Learned to cry in response to the rat appearing, would originally only cry from the sound of the cymbals  Subsequent studies have indicated that emotional responses can be conditioned to words, objects, or symbols  UCS: cymbals, CS: white rat, UCR & CR: crying/fear Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Not specific to any type of conditioning) - Stimulus Generalization: learned response to stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimuli (CS) o Generalized responses taper off as we decrease similarity from original stimulus o Ex: “All snakes are bad”  Occurs in both classical conditioning and operant conditioning - Stimulus Discrimination: learned response to a specific stimulus, but not to other, similar stimuli o With continued training, the subject responds only to stimuli very similar to original stimulus o Ex: “Only some snakes are bad” Acquisition -> Generalization -> Discrimination - Extinction: gradual weakening or suppression of a previously conditioned response (CR). CC-CS repeatedly presented without USC; OC – withhold reinforcement o Active process where you learn to not respond o The response of an animal salivating with a white lab coat will discontinue if a person in a white lab coat continually comes in without the meat (in classical conditioning) o Opposite of a learning curve - Spontaneous Recovery: reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response with additional training (CR) o After some extinction, the learned response comes back when meat is brought back in - Higher-Order Conditioning: Neutral stimulus (NS) becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) through repeated pairing with a previously conditioned stimulus (CS) - Operant Conditioning: Involves voluntary behavior and not necessarily linked to reflexes. Future occurrence of behavior is linked to consequences o Learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences: ‘good’ consequences increase behavior while ‘bad’ consequences reduce behavior: immediate outweighs distant: associations between behavior and response o Thorndike’s Law of Effect: behaviors followed by a ‘pleasurable state of affairs’ tend to be repeated, behaviors followed by an ‘unpleasant state of affairs’ tend to not be repeated o Skinner’s Contribution: Reinforcement and Punishment defined based on occurrence of the behavior  Schedules of reinforcement: strengthening a response as evidenced by an increase in behavior  Primary Reinforcers: normally satisfy an unlearned biological need (ex. Food)  Secondary Reinforcers: normally satisfy a learned value (ex. Money, praise)  Real world reinforcement vs. Experimentation: Many experimental studies use primary reinforcement while much of human behavior is motivated through secondary reinforcement o Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles  Positive Reinforcement: adding (or presenting) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur (ex. Candy or praise; pressing a lever to get food)  Negative Reinforcement: taking away (or removing) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur (ex. Headache removed after taking an aspirin; pressing lever turns off shock)  Avoidance of the stimulus is common in anxiety disorders and is reinforced through negative reinforcement. Schedules of Reinforcement: Determines when we give a reinforcer- 1. Fixed Ratio (FR): Reinforcement occurs after a predetermined set of responses; the ratio (number or amount) is fixed a. FR1 is called continuous reinforcement b. Best for starting a behavior 2. Variable Ratio (VR): Reinforcement occurs unpredictable; the ratio (number or amount) varies 3. Fixed Interval (FI): Reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed; the interval (times) is fixed 4. Variable Interval (VI): Reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the interval (time) varies Partial reinforcement is any other schedule than FR1 and has a greater resistance to extinction. Behavioral response effects of Schedules - Ratios produce faster rates than do intervals - FR-Post reinforcement pause - FI- Scalloping Operant Conditioning in the real world - Shaping: Reinforcement is delivered for successive approximations of the desired response o Shaping by the Method of Successive Approximations o Necessary in real world applications - Punishment: weakening a response o Informs us of what NOT to do o Positive Punishment: adding (or presenting) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur (ex. Shouting) o Negative Punishment: taking away (or removing) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur (ex. Restriction: time out) - Side Effects of Punishment o Can result in a brief increase in behavior followed by the expected decrease in behavior o Can lead to increased aggression, passive aggressiveness, avoidance behavior, modeling, temporary suppression, learned helplessness - Cognitive-Social Theory/Learning: o Emphasizes the roles of thinking and social learning in behavior; development of cortex o Kohler’s chimps demonstrated insight learning (sudden understanding of a problem that implies the solution; mastery of task thereafter)  Very different finding when compared to rats; highlights working with different species o Tolman’s rats built a cognitive map (a mental image of a 3D space). They also displayed latent learning (hidden learning that exists without behavioral signs) Latent Learning  Two groups of rats- one trained with food reward, other trained with no obvious reward  Group trained with food reward performs better than other group  When non-food group is switched to a food reward, performance quickly improves to exceed the equal other group  Results indicate that both groups learned maze, but the non-food group was lacking incentive to reveal learning. We measured performance. Observational Learning  Learning new behaviors or information by watching others  Bandura’s Famous Bobo Doll study  Involves four processes: 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Motor Reproduction 4. Reinforcement Neuroscience and Learning - When we learn something, we experience the creation/strengthening of synapses and alterations in many brain structures (receptors) o Long Term Potentiation: cellular model of learning; hippocampus; glutamate and aspartate Biology, Evolution, and Learning - Conditioned Taste Aversion: classically conditioned negative associations of food to illness - Biological Preparedness: built-in (innate) readiness to form associations between certain stimuli and responses - Instinctive Drift: conditioned responses shift (or drift) back toward innate response pattern Conditioning and Society - Classical Conditioning can be seen in: o Marketing o Prejudice o Medical Treatments o Phobias - Racial prejudice can be classically conditioned with or without a child’s awareness. A popular theory of emotion states that we have a cognitive assessment following physiological arousal. If this arousal is paired with one race, then the CC can occur. - Operant Conditioning can be seen in: o Prejudice o Biofeedback o Superstitions - Cognitive-Social Theory can be seen in: o Prejudice o Media Influences Chapter 7: Memory The Nature of Memory - Memory: an internal record or representation of some prior event or experience - Memory is a constructive process, in which we actively organize and shape information as it is processed, stored, and retrieved o When we are missing memories, we fill it in with what we expected to have happened Four Memory Models: - Information Processing Approach: Memory is a process, analogous to a computer, where information goes through three basic processes- encoding, storage, and retrieval o Hippocampus is essential in this process - Parallel Distributed Processing Model: Memory is distributed across a wide network of interconnected neurons located throughout the brain. When activated, this network works simultaneously (in a parallel fashion) to process information - Levels of Processing Approach: Memory depends on the degree or depth of mental processing occurring when material is initially encountered - Traditional Three-Stage Memory Model: Memory required three different storage boxes to hold and process information for various lengths of time Three Stage Memory Model - Selective attention determines what gets encoded - Elaborative Rehearsal is deep processing and is more likely to make a long term memory (LTM) - Maintenance Rehearsal is shallow processing and is best for short term memory (STM) - Sensory Memory: briefly preserves a relatively exact replica of sensory information (icon and echo) o Large capacity but information only lasts for a few seconds o Selected information is sent on to short-term memory o Sperling’s Experiment- when flashed an arrangement of th 12 letters for 1/20 of a second, most people can recall 4 or 5.  Attempted to isolate the sensory memory  People have access to the whole stimulus display, but it decays extremely rapidly  When a buzzer sounded indicating which row he wanted the subject to report back (top, middle, or bottom), subjects were able to- Partial Report - Short-Term Memory (STM): temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long-term memory (LTM) o STM can hold 5-9 items for about 30 seconds before they are forgotten  Miller’s Magical Number 7 +/- 2 o Capacity can be increased with chunking (related items brought together and viewed as one; recalled completely; based on meaning) based on meaning and duration improves with Rehearsal- continual processing (ex. chess experiments)  Chess games have meaningful “chunks” that experts would be able to recognize better than new players - Long-Term Memory (LTM): relatively permanent storage with an unlimited capacity o Forgetting is retrieval failure- can be affected by disease, drugs, aging o Stored across the Cerebral Cortex  Amygdala: emotional memory  Cerebellum: Non-declarative memory  Hippocampus: Declarative memory Improving Long-Term Memory - LTM can be improved with: o Organization o Elaborative Rehearsal o Retrieval Cues  Recognition – retrieval cue is in front of you and you have to “recognize” it (ex. Multiple choice exam)  Rec


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