New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Final Study Guide

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: Elizabeth Valente

Final Study Guide BSC 2023

Elizabeth Valente

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

All the material covered during this semester.
Human Biology
Paul Sharp
Study Guide
50 ?




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star
"These are great! I definitely recommend anyone to follow this notetaker"
Cicero Kertzmann

Popular in Human Biology

Popular in Department

This 57 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Valente on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 2023 at Florida International University taught by Paul Sharp in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 216 views.


Reviews for Final Study Guide

Star Star Star Star Star

These are great! I definitely recommend anyone to follow this notetaker

-Cicero Kertzmann


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 12/06/15
Final Study Guide Characteristics of Living Organisms • Organized • Acquire materials and energy • Homeostasis • Stimulation / Response • Reproduction • Come from another organism (history) • Growth and development Homeostasis: State of body equilibrium, where the body’s internal environment remains relatively constant and within physiological limits. Negative feedback: Operates to reduce or eliminate the changes detected by the stimulus receptor. Cells: Smallest unit that displays the property of life. Characteristics • Seen using microscope • Most are between 10-100mm • Over 200 different cell types in human body • 50 to 60 trillion cells in human body Categories • Prokaryotes: Lacks a membrane-bound nucleus and membranous organelles. Ex: bacteria. • Eukaryotes: Has membrane nucleus and membranous organelles. Ex: animals, plants, etc. Cell structure and function Plasma membrane: outer membrane that regulates what enters and leaves the cell. Boundary the inside of the cell. Selectively permeable membrane: Allows certain molecules to enter and exit. Composed of phospholipid bilayer with attached or embedded proteins. Diffusion: Movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher to lower concentration. Requires no energy (passive transport). Osmosis: Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. Tonicity: The osmotic characteristics of a solution across a particular membrane. Solutions • Isotonic: Same concentration of no diffusible solutes and water on both sides of the plasma membrane. Iso = same. Water concentration is the same as the solution. Same amount of salt. Hypertonic: Higher concentration of solutes and lower concentration of water outside the cell than inside the cell. Cells shrink. Water wants to go to the salt. Hypotonic: Lower concentration of solutes and higher concentration of water outside the cell than inside. Cells get bigger (burst). Water is going inside the cell. Red blood cells in homeostasis have a NaCl concentration of 0.9% (“normal”). Facilitated transport: Use of a plasma membrane carrier to move a substance into or out of the cell from higher to lower concentration. No energy required (passive transport). Active transport: Use of a plasma membrane carrier to move a substance into or out of a cell from lower to higher concentration. Energy is required, usually ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Enzymes: A protein that is capable of speeding up a specific chemical reaction by lowering the required activation energy. Mitochondria: Organelle with 2 membranes that carries out cellular respiration; converts chemical energy of glucose to chemical energy of ATP. Matrix: Gel-like fluid of inner space surrounded by cristae (where ATP production occurs). Contains enzymes for breaking down glucose products. Cellular respiration • Metabolic reactions that use energy primarily from carbohydrates (glucose) to produce ATP molecules • Pathways involved: glycolysis, citric and acid cycle and electron transport chain • Energy from ATP is used for metabolic work (breakdown) Glycolysis: Anaerobic (doesn’t need oxygen) breakdown of glucose that occurs in the CYTOPLASM of the cell. Splits glucose into 2 pyruvates C3; yielding 2 molecules of ATP and converts 2 molecule of NAD+ to NADH. Citric acid cycle: Aerobic (requires oxygen) process that occurs in the MATRIX of the mitochondria; pyruvate enters matrix and completes the breakdown of glucose. Produces 2 ATP per glucose molecule. Electrons and hydrogen are picked up by NAD+ as NADH. Electron transport chain: Passage of electrons along as series of membrane- bound carrier molecules from a higher energy to lower energy level. Hydrogen is moved to intermembrane space by active transport. Oxygen is what gets the electrons from the start to the end. Endocytosis: Going in (inside). A portion of the plasma membrane invaginates to envelop a substance or fluid. Phagocytosis: Endocytosis of a solid particle. Eating cells. Pinocytosis: Fluid uptake by endocytosis. Drinking cells. Receptor-mediated endocytosis: Form of endocytosis that utilizes a membrane protein receptor to concentrate specific molecules of interest. Exocytosis: Going out (outside). When vesicles within the cell fuse with the plasma membrane during secretion. Cytoplasm: Contents of a cell between the nucleus and plasma membrane. Consists of cytosol (fluid portion of the cytoplasm) and organelles (membranous structure with a specific structure and function). Cytoskeleton: Maintains cell shape. Microtubules: Hollow cylinders used as tracks for organelle movement. Intermediate filaments: Protein fibers that provide support and strength. Microfilaments: Actin protein fibers that move organelle and the cell. Centriole: Short cylinders of microtubules. Divides and organizes spindle fibers during mitosis and meiosis. Centrosome: Pair of centrioles that functions as microtubule organizing center. Nucleus: Membranous organelle that houses chromosomal DNA. Nuclear envelope: Double membrane with nuclear pores that encloses nucleus. Chromatin: Diffuse that produces the subunits of ribosomes. Nuclear pores: Allow ribosomal subunits to exit nucleus, and proteins to enter nucleus. Ribosomes: Carries out protein synthesis using mRna template. Consists of aggregated protein and rRna. RNA: Identical copy of DNA. Endomembrane system: Membrane organelles that function in the processing of materials for the cell and includes: nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosome, vesicles. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): Is continuous with the nuclear envelope, and consists of a membranous system of saccules and channels. Rough ER: Studded with ribosomes on side of membrane that faces cytoplasm. Proteins are synthetized by ribosomes and enter ER interior. Where initial processing and modification of proteins begins. Smooth ER: Continuous with rough ER, but no ribosomes. Synthesizes phospholipids and has other functions. Golgi apparatus (distribution center): Modifies lipids and proteins from the ER; sorts, packages, distributes and secretes molecules synthesized by the cell. Lysosomes: Membranous sacs produced by the golgi apparatus, contains hydrolytic enzymes; can fuse endocytic vesicle. Vesicles: Tiny membranous sacs. Mitosis and Meiosis Mitosis: Type of cell division in which daughter cells receive the exact chromosomal and genetic makeup of the parent cell; occurs during groth and repair. 23+23= 46 chromosomes (diploid). Same chromosomes with duplicated chromatids. Daughter cells have the same genetic information. Cell cycle: Only belongs to mitosis. Repeating sequence of cellular events that consists of: • Interphase (3 stages) o Growth (g1): Cells returns to normal size. Resume its function in body. Doubles its organelles. o Synthetic (s): A copy is made of all the DNA in the cell. 2 chromatids per chromosome. o Growth (g2): Increase in growth and final preparations for cell division. • Mitosis • Cytokinesis: Separation of the cytoplasm. DNA: Genetic material of all organism. Composed of 2 complementary strands of nucleotids. Ribosome is not the sugar of DNA. Nitrogenous bases make “rugs” of ladder: • Cytosine (c) • Thymine (t) • Adentine (a) • Guanine (g) T with A, G with C. Chromosome: Vehicle by which hereditary is passed to the next generation. Chromatid: One of 2 identical copies of DNA making up a duplicated chromosome. Centromere: Point of attachment of mitotic spindle; where sister chromatids attach. Mitotic spindle: Microtubule structure that begins about chromosomal movement. Meiosis: Type of cell division that occurs as part of sexual reproduction in which a daughter cell receives the haploid number of chromosomes in varied combinations. Stages of mitosis 1. Prophase: nuclear envelope is gone. 2. Metaphase: middle. Chromosomes are in the middle. Chromatids splits apart. 3. Anaphase: chromatids are separated and are in opposite sides. 4. Telophase: nucleus starts to form. Cleavage furrow (for the cell to separate). Half DNA in each side. 5. Cytokinesis: Division of cytoplasm. Stages of Meiosis Meiosis 1: Duplicated homologous pairs synapse and then separate. 1. Prophase 1: Chromosomes have duplicated. Homologous chromosomes pair during synapsis and crossing-over occurs. Switch the genetic material (getting crazy with each other) 2. Metaphase 1: Homologous pairs align in the independently in the middle. 3. Anaphase 1: Homologous chromosomes separate and move toward the poles. 4. Telophase 1: Daughter cells have one chromosome from each homologous pair. 5. Interkinesis: Chromosomes still consist of two chromatids Meiosis 2: Sister chromatid separate, becoming daughter chromosomes (MORE LIKELY TO MITOSIS) 1. Prophase 2: Cells have one chromosome from each homologous pair. 2. Metaphase 2: Chromosomes align at the equator. 3. Anaphase 2: Sister chromatids separate and become daughter chromosomes. 4. Telophase 2: Spindle disappears, nuclei form and cytokinesis takes place. Daughter cells: meiosis results in four haploid daughter cells. Oogenesis: production of an egg in females via meiosis. Polar body: in oogenesis, a nonfunctional product; 2 or 3 occur in meiosis. Gene: unit of hereditary located in the DNA of a chromosome. Allele: alternate form of a gene; occur at same locus and homologous chromosomes. In diploid organism typically2 alleles are inherited. Locus: particular site where a gene is found on a chromosome. Location. Genotype: alleles of an individual for a particular trait. Phenotype: visible expression of a genotype. Dominant allele: allele that exerts it phenotypic effect in the heterozygote. It mask the expression of the recessive allele. Recessive allele: allele that exerts its phenotypic effect only in the homozygote. Homozygous dominant: processing two identical dominant alleles for a particular trait. Ex: AA or BB Homozygous recessive: processing two identical recessive alleles for a particular trait. Ex: aa or bb Heterozygous: processing unlike alleles for a particular trait. Ex: Aa or Bb Punnet square: used to calculate expected results of simple genetic crosses. One –trait cross: method for determining the inheritance pattern of a trait between male and female parents. Incomplete dominance: occurs when the heterozygote is intermediate between the 2 homozygote. Condominance: occurs when alleles are equally expressed in the heterozygote (AB). Multiple-allele inheritance: inheritance pattern in which there are more than 2 alleles for a particular trait. O doesn’t code for protein A or B. • Ao or AA = A antigen • BB or Bo= B antigen • Oo= no antigen • AB= AB antigen A= you have the A antigen, your body produces antibodies against B B= you have the B antigen, your body produces antibodies against A O= nothing on their cell surface. Your body produces antibodies against A and B. UNIVERSAL DONATOR. AB: produces antibodies against NO ONE. UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT. Autosomes: any chromosome other than sex chromosomes. Sex chromosomes: chromosomes that determines the sex of an individual. Females has XX and males XY. X-linked: Refers to an allele located on the x chromosome. Nervous System Organ system consisting of the brain, spinal cord and associated nerves. 2 major divisions of nervous system: • Central nervous system: brain and spinal cord • Peripheral nervous system: nerves 2 divisions of peripheral nervous system: • Somatic: nerves that serve the skin, skeletal muscle and tendons. Voluntary and involuntary control (reflexes). • Autonomic: regulates activity of cardiac and smooth muscles, organs and glands; involuntary control. 2 subdivisions of autonomic nervous system: • Sympathetic: promotes activities associated with emergency (fight of flight system). E division: emergency, evacuate, escape, excitement, energy. • Parasympathetic: active under normal conditions (rest and digest system). D division: daily, defecation, direases. Functions 1. Receives sensory input 2. CNS performs information processing and integration o Reviews information o Stores information as memories 3. CNS generates appropriate motor response Structures Neurons: nerves that transmits impulses between parts of nervous system. 3 types: • Sensory = sensory receptor (PNS) – CNS • Interneuron = entirely with CNS • Motor neuron = CNS – PSN – Effector Neuroglia: Nonconducting nerve cells that support neurons. Reflex: automatic reaction to stimuli. Efferent = leaving Afferent = coming to you Action potential: a brief change in electrical conditions at a neuron’s membrane. Refractory period: portion of axon immediately following the action potential, which is unable to conduct an action potential. Ensures one-way direction of a signal. Resting membrane potential: polarized plasma membrane. Net number of positively charge ions outside. Negatively charged ions inside cell. Sodium-potassium pump: membrane protein. Uses ATP to pump 3 Na+ out and 2 K+ in the cell. 3 changes out (sodium +); 2 charges in (potassium -). Stimulus: activates neuron and begins action potential if threshold is met. Types of active channels • Voltage gated: opens and closes in response to voltage changes across membrane • Lingand gated: opens and closes when a specific chemical binds to it • Mechanically regulated: responds to physical directions of the membrane surface. Synapse: the junction between neurons; nerve signal can not jump synaptic cleft. Neurotransmitters: chemicals responsible for transmission across a synapse. Central nervous system: sensory information is received and motor control is initiated. Meninges: protective membranes that cover brain and spinal cord. Ventricles: interconnecting chambers that produce and save as a reservoir for cerebrospinal fluid. Dura mater = tough mother / outer Arachnoid mater = spider mother / middle Pia mater = soft mother / inner Gray matter: contains all bodies and short, nonmyelinated fibers. White matter: contains neuron fibers that run together in bundles called tracts. Spinal cord: extends from base of brain and proceeds inferiorly in the vertebral column. Allows for communication between brain and peripheral nerves. Brain: enlarged superior portion of CNS located in cranial cavity of skull. Cerebrum: Largest part of the brain, consists of cerebral hemispheres. Communicates and coordinates the activities of the other parts of the brain. Sulci: grooves that divide each hemisphere into lobes that include: • Frontal love: forehead. Controls motor functions, permits voluntary muscle control. Enables one to think, problem solve, speak and smell. • Parietal lobe: up. Receives info from sensory receptor in skin and taste receptors in mouth. • Occipital lobe: back. Interpret visual input and combines other sensory experiences. • Temporal lobe: sides. Sensory areas for hearing and smelling. Left hemisphere: has greater control over language and mathematical abilities. Logic. Right hemisphere: involved more in visual-spatial skills, intuition, emotion and appreciation of art and music. Cerebral cortex: outer layer of cerebral hemisphere composed of gray matter. Receives sensory information and controls motor activity. rd Diencephalon: includes thalamus, 3 ventricle (spinal fluids) and hypothalamus. Thalamus: Gatekeeper to cerebrum by controlling which received sensory impulses are passed on to the cerebrum. Hypothalamus: helps maintain homeostasis; regulates hunger, sleep, thirst, body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure and water balance. Corpus callosum: an extensive bridge of nerve tracts; enables communication between left and right hemispheres. Cerebellum: coordinates equilibrium and motor activity to produce smooth movements. Brain stem: contains the midbrain, pons, and the medulla oblongata. Midbrain: located below thalamus and above pons, contains reflex centers for eye muscles and tracts. Pons: portion of brain stem above the medulla oblongata and below the midbrain. Assists medulla oblongata in regulating the breathing rate. Provides linkage between upper and lower levels of the CNS. Medulla oblongata: most posterior portion of the brain stem; where tracts cross. Regulates heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, etc. reflex centers for sneezing, coughing, hiccupping and swallowing. General sensory receptors General= touch Special= taste, smell, sight, balance and equilibrium and hearing. Types of general sensory receptors associated with TOUCH: Mechanoreceptors: stimulated by mechanical forces with they or adjacent tissue are deformed by touch, pressure, vibrations and stretch. Thermoreceptors: sensitive to temperature changes; located in hypothalamus and skin. Nocireceptors: pain receptors. Respond to potentially damaging stimuli. Skin: composed of 2 layers that include: • Epidermis: outermost layers of cells in the skin; above dermis. • Dermis: thick connective tissues layer with cutaneous receptors. Reflex: type of sensory receptor involved in knee-jerk (patellar) reflex. Special senses Hearing, vision, taste, smell and balance. Sensory receptor: dendritic end organs or parts of the cell types specialized to respond stimulus. Sensory adaption: decline in the transmission of a sensory nerve when a receptor is stimulated continuously without change in stimulus strength. Types of sensory receptors associated with TASTE and SMELL: Chemoreceptor: responds to chemical substances in the immediate vicinity. Are plasma membrane receptors that bind to specific molecules. Taste buds: sense organ containing the receptors for taste. Most on tongue. 4 primary types of taste including: sweet, sour, salty and bitter. Olfactory cells: located within olfactory epithelia high in the roof of the nasal cavity. Each olfactory cell has only 1 type of several hundred possible receptor proteins. Types of sensory receptors associated with SIGHT: Photoreceptor: sensory receptor in the retina that responds to light stimuli. Rod cells: dim-light and peripheral vision receptors; more numerous. Black and white. Cone cells: operate in bright light and provide high-acuity color vision. Located primarily in the fovea centralis. Retina: innermost layer of the eyeball that contains rod and cone cells. Fovea centralis: small pit where cones are densely packed. Light is normally focused on the fovea. Optic nerve: sensory fibers from the retina that take nerve signals to the visual cortex. Rhodopsin: complex molecule made up the protein opsin and the light absorbing molecule retinal. Rods: when rod absorbs light, rhodopsin splits into opsin and retinal. Cones: slight differences in protein opsin structure account for 3 different types of cone: • B (blue) • G (green) • R (red) Types of sensory receptors associated with HEARING: Mechanoreceptors: stimulated by mechanical forces when they or adjacent tissue is deformed by touch, pressure, vibrations and stretch. Hair cell: cell with stereocilia (long microvilli) that is sensitive to mechanical stimulation. Mechanoreceptor for hearing and equilibrium are located in the inner ear. The ear functions in hearing an balance. 3 divisions: Outer ear (air): • Pinna: the external ear flap that catches sound waves • Auditory canal: directs sounds waves to the tympanic membrane Middle ear (air): • Tympanic membrane (eardrum): vibrates to carry the wave to 3 small bones (ossicles). Malleus, incus, stapes. Inner ear (fluid): • Important for both hearing and balance • Cochlea: converts vibrations into nerve impulses • Semicircular canals: rotational equilibrium • Vestibule: gravitational equilibrium • Organ of corti (spiral organ): sense organ containing hairs or hearing. Cardiovascular system Blood: type of connective tissue in which cells are separated by plasma Plasma: liquid portion of blood; includes nutrients; wastes, salts and proteins, etc. 3 major types of plasma proteins: • Albumins: egg whites. Contribute to plasma’s osmotic pressure. • Globulins: antibodies, hemoglobin, etc. • Fibronogen: forms blood coats when activated. Formed element: includes red and white blood cells, and cell fragments (platelets) Platelets: involved in clotting. Functions of blood: • Transport medium • Defends against pathogens • Regulatory functions Red blood cells: protein hemoglobin. Produced in red bone marrow. Hemoglobin: pigment in red blood cells that transport oxugen. Clotting: blood coagulation. Agglutination: clumping of red blood cells due to reaction of antigens on red blood cells surface and antibody in the plasma. Type A: red blood cells have type A surface antigens. Plasma has anti-B antibodies. Type B: red blood cells have type B surface antigens. Plasma has anti-A antibodies. Type AB: red blood cells have type A and B surface antigens. Plasma has neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies. Rh blood groups: based on the presence or absence of Rh factor (antigen) on RBC’s. Problem: Dad Rh+ and Mom Rh- = Baby Rh+ Hemolytic disease of newborn: occurs when Rh- mothers anti Rh+ antibodies cross placenta and destroy babies RBC’s. st RhoGAM: Used at 1 childbirth to prevent HDN. Cardiovascular system: organ system in which blood vessels distribute blood by the pumping action of the heart. 2 parts: Heart: muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity. Rhythmic contractions maintain blood circulation. Blood vessels: closed delivery system that begins and ends at the heart. 3 types of blood vessels: • Arteries: conduct blood away from the heart. Oxygenated. • Capillaries: exchange between blood and tissue cells. • Veins: return blood toward the heart. Deoxygenated. Arterioles: minute arteries. Constriction or dilatation controls blood pressure. Capillaries: smallest blood vessels. Exchange of materials. Capillary bed: network of capillaries. Precapillary sphincter: controls blood flow. Veins: thinner walls. Venules: small veins that drain blood from the capillaries. Myocardium: composed of cardiac muscle. Desmosomes: Proteins fibers that prevent overstretching. Pericardium: protective membrane. Secretes pericardial fluid, a lubrication fluid. Septum: a wall that separates the right side from the left side of the heart. Atrium: one the upper chambers of the heart. Receives blood. Ventricles: one of the lower chambers of the heart. • Veins always take blood to the heart • Atrium: blood back to the heart • Veins: blue • Artery: red • Pulmonary artery: deoxygenated (the only that is not red) Atrioventricular (AV) values: valve located between the atrium and the ventricle. Prevent backflow. Tricuspid: AV valve in right side of the heart Bicuspid: Mitral. AV valve in the left side of the heart. Semilunar valves: valves that prevent blood return to the ventricles after contraction. Chordae tendinae: strong fibrous strings that anchor the valves. Systemic circuit (left side): whole body. Blood vessels that transports oxygenated blood from left ventricle to body; deoxygenated blood returns to right atrium. Pulmonary circuit: right side, lungs. Blood vessels that take deoxygenated blood from right ventricle to the lungs; oxygenated blood returns to left atrium. Coronary artery: artery that supplies blood, oxygen and food, to the wall of the heart. Cardiac cycle: heartbeat; one complete cycle of systole and diastole. Systole: contraction period of the heart during the cardiac cycle. Diastole: relaxation period of a heart chamber during the cardiac cycle. Digestive System and Nutrition Gastrointestinal Tract: AKA alimentary tract. Approx. 3 feet long in humans. A continuous hollow tube extending from the mouth to the anus. Its walls are constructed by the: Oral cavity Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small and large intestines 5 processes necessary to the digestion process: Ingestion: The taking of food or liquid into the body via the mouth. Digestion: Breaking down of large nutrient molecules into smaller molecules that can be absorbed. Mechanical Digestion è Cutting and mastication of food; peristalsis. Chemical Digestion è Digestive enzymes hydrolyze macromolecules. Movement: Mixing (smooth muscles). Food is passed from one organ to the next via peristalsis. Peristalsis è Pass of food from one organ to the next. Absorption: Taking in subunit molecules by cells or membranes. Elimination: Process of expelling substances from the body via defecation. Small intestines (absorbing water) è First to absorb the nutrients. Could be an exam question Which of the following is not associated with one of the 5 processes of digestion? Which process passes food from one organ to the other? (Peristalsis) The Mouth and Tongue Hard Palate: Bony anterior portion of the roof of the mouth. Soft Palate: Entirely muscular portion at the back roof of the mouth. Uvula: Tissue tag hanging from soft palate. Tongue: Occupies the floor of the mouth. Has 4 functions: Grips food Repositions food between teeth Mixes food with saliva Movements form bolus Could be exam question Which of the following is not a function of the tongue? Salivary Glands: Glands associated with the mouth; secretes saliva. Saliva: Solution of water, mucus, salivary amylase, lysozyme and bicarbonate. Has 4 functions: Cleanses the mouth Dissolves food chemicals so they can be tested Moistens food and aids in compacting food into a bolus Contains enzymes that begin chemical breakdown of starch Salivary Amylase: The first enzyme to begin chemical digestion of starch. Teeth: Lie in sockets in the gum, covered margins of the maxilla and mandible. 2 main divisions: crown and root. 32 teeth in adults (3 molars, 2 premolars, 1 canine and 2 incisors). Enamel: Is hard material composed of calcium. Compounds and covers crown. Dentin: Is thick layer of bone-like material beneath enamel. Pulp: Is the inner tissue containing blood vessels and nerves. Will cause real pain if it’s affected. Dental Caries (Cavity): Results from acids produced by bacteria metabolizing sugar. Periodontitis: Inflammation of the periodontal membrane that lines tooth sockets. Causes loss of bone and loosening of teeth. Pharynx and Esophagus Pharynx: Portion of the GI tract between the mouth and the esophagus. Serves as a passageway for food and also air on its way to trachea. Trachea is parallel and anterior to esophagus. Esophagus: Muscular tube for moving swallowed food from the pharynx to stomach. Swallowing: Composed of a voluntary phase and involuntary phase (reflex action). Soft palate moves back to close off nasal passage via uvula. Epiglottis covers the glottis, which is the opening to the larynx (voice box). Peristalsis: Wavelike contractions that propel bolus along the esophagus. Sphincters: Muscle that surrounds a tube to open or close by relaxing or contracting. Lower Gastroesophageleal Sphincter: Harks the entrance of esophagus to the stomach. Sphincter contracts to prevent acidic contents from backing into esophagus. Heartburn: Lower gastroesophageal sphincter fails to open and allow food in the stomach or when it opens allowing stomach contents back into esophagus. The Stomach Stomach: A muscular sac that mixes food with gastric juice to form chyme, which enters small intestine. 1 L capacity, PH 2. Stores food, does not absorb nutrients and empties 2-6 hours. Initiates digestion of proteins with enzyme pepsin. Controls the movement of food into the small intestine. Gastric Juice: Produced by gastric glands of stomach; includes: pepsin, mucus and HCI. Chyme: Thick semi-liquid food material that passes from stomach to the small intestine. Pyloric Sphincter: Regulates chyme entry into the small intestine. The Small Intestine Small Intestine: Long tube like chamber of GI tract between stomach and large intestine. Contains enzymes secreted by pancreas and enters via duct in duodenum to digest carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Receives bile produced by the liver, stored in gallbladder released into duodenum. About 20 feet long. Duodenum: First 10 inches of small intestine. nd Jejunum: 2 part of small intestine; 3 feet. Ileum: 3 rdpart of small intestine; 12 feet. Nutrients are absorbed by the small intestine: Surface area of small intestine is approx. that of a tennis court. Villus: Small fingerlike projections of the inner small intestine wall (mucosa). Outer layer that have microvilli (brush border). Blood capillaries and small lymphatic capillaries (lacteal) are present. Lactose Intolerant: Inability to digest lactose because of an enzyme deficiency. Do not have brush border enzyme lactose. Symptoms: Diarrhea due to fluid attention, gas, bloating, cramps when bacteria break down lactose anaerobically. The Accessory Organs Pancreas: Internal organ that produces digestive enzymes. Also produces hormones insulin (glucose into the cell) and glucagon. Pancreatic Amylase: Enzyme in the pancreas that digests starch to maltose. Trypsin: Protein-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas. Lipase: Fat-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas. Trypsin: Small intestine Pepsin: Stomach Plants store glucose as starch. Type 1 Diabetes: Pancreas does not produce insulin or amounts of insulin. Typically before 15. Type 2 Diabetes: Pancreas does not make enough insulin or body’s cells are insulin resistant. Typically after 40. Liver: Large, dark red internal organ with the following functions: Detoxifies blood è hepatic portal vein brings blood to liver from GI tract capillaries. Stores glucose as glycogen, iron, vitamins A, D, E K, and B12. Produces plasma protein and urea. Produces bile (stored in the gallbladder) to emulsify fats. Regulates cholesterol. Urea: Primary nitrogenous waste derived from amino acid breakdown in liver. Jaundice: Yellowish tint to the skin caused by abnormal bilirubin (bile pigment) in blood, indicating liver malfunction. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, often caused by hepatitis B virus. Cirrhosis: Chronic, irreversible injury to liver tissue, caused by alcohol consumption hepatitis. Large Intestine: Last major portion of the digestive tract, extending from the small intestine to the anus and consisting of: cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal. Approx. 5 feet long. Function is to absorb water. Does not absorb nutrients. Can absorb vitamin K and B complex vitamins. Cecum: The blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine; has vermiform appendix. Vermiform Appendix: Small tubular appendage that extends out from the cecum. Aids in fighting infections. Colon: The major portion of the large intestine, consisting of the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon and sigmoid colon. Rectum: Terminal end of the digestive tube, last 20 cm of large intestine, stores feces. Anus: Outlet of the digestive tract; where defecation occurs. Skeletal System System of protection and support. Is composed of bones, cartilages, joints and ligaments. Starts forming at about 6 weeks (embryo about 12mm long). 206 named bones of the skeletal system. Makes up 20% of body weight. Functions: Supports the body Protects soft body parts Produces blood cells Stores minerals and fats Permits flexible body movement (along with the muscles) Axial Skeleton: Forms the long axis of the body and includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column and the rib cage. Appendicular Skeleton: Arms and legs. Consists of bones of the upper and lower limbs and their girdles that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton. Cartilage: White, flexible semi-opaque connective tissue. Chondrocytes are the mature cell form of cartilage. Has no nerves or blood vessels; well suited for padding joints. Ligament: Band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone. Contains cells called fibroblasts. Tendon: Cord of fibrous tissue attaching muscle to bone. Contains cells called fibroblasts. Chemical Composition of Bone: Bone has both organic and inorganic components. Every week we recycle 5% to 7% of our bone mass. Ex: 200 lb. person; 40 lb. bone; 2lb recycle bone per week. Organic Components: Include osteoblasts, osteoctyes and osteoclasts. Bones are composed of living tissues. Inorganic Components: Consists of hydroxyapatites (mineral salts). Largely composed of calcium phosphate. Ossification: Process of bone formation. Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells. Secretes the organic matrix of bone (mucopolysaccharides & collagen fibrils). Promote the deposition of calcium salts into the matrix. Osteoctyes: Mature bone cells derived from osteoblasts. They maintain the structure of the bone. Osteoclasts: Large cells that reabsorb or break down bone matrix. Assist in returning calcium and phosphate to the blood. Structure of a Long Bone Diaphysis: Elongated shaft of a long bone. Medullary Cavity: Marrow cavity. Cavity inside shaft of long bone. Walls composed of compact bone. Filled with yellow bone marrow, which stores fat. Epiphysis: The end of a long bone attached to the shaft. Composed largely of spongy bone. Contains red bone marrow and produces all types of blood cells. Coated with articular cartilage. Periosteum: Fibrous connective tissue covering of long bone. Contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves. Compact Bone: Highly organized and composed of tubular units called osteons. Within osteons, osteocytes (mature bone cells) occupy small cavities (lacunae). Canaliculi connect lacunae to one another and to central canal contains small blood vessels and nerve fibers. Spongy Bone: Has an unorganized appearance compared to compact bone. Composed of numerous struts or thin plates (trabeculae) separated by uneven spaces. Spaces are often filled with red bone marrow. Intramembranous Ossification: Flat bones that develop between sheets of embryotic fibrous connective tissue. Ex: skull, clavicles and mandible. Skeletal Muscular System 3 types: Smooth Muscle: Consisting of spindle-shaped, nonstriated muscle cells. Located in the walls of hollow internal organs and blood vessels. Has single nucleus in cell. Involuntary muscle, slow to react, does not fatigue easily. Cardiac Muscle: Specialized muscle of the heart, striated, ha 1 or 2 nuclei per cell. Cardiac cells interlock and intercalated disks. Involuntary muscle. Skeletal Muscle: Composed of cylindrical multinucleate cells with obvious striations. Consists of muscles attached to the body’s skeleton. Voluntary muscle. Functions: Support Movement of bones and other body structures Maintenance of body temperature Movement of fluids in the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems Protection of internal organs and the stabilization of joints Muscles pad the bones Muscular wall in abdominal region protect internal organs Muscles tendons help hold bones together at joints Muscles Work In Pairs Each muscle is concerned with the movement of only 1 bone When muscles contract they shorten; muscles ONLY can PULL, not push. Origin: The end of a muscle attached to stationary bone. Insertion: The end of a muscle attached to a movable bone. - When muscle contracts it pulls on tendons at its insertion and the bone moves. - Nervous system stimulates and appropriate group of muscles. Ex: prime mover and synergists Antagonist: The muscle that acts opposite to the prime mover. Sarcolemma: Plasma membrane of a muscle fiber, forms the tubules T system. Encases hundreds to thousands of myofibrils. T (Transverse) Tubules: Membranous channel that extends inward toward sarcoplasmic reticulum. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: Smooth endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells. Surrounds myofibrils and stores calcium ions. Myofibril: Rodlike bundle of contractile filaments found in muscle cells. Skeletal Muscle: A bundle of fascicles. Fascicle: A bundle of muscle fibers surrounded by connective tissue. Muscle Fiber (Myofiber): Muscle cells. Myofibrils: Contractile portion of muscle fiber (cells) that contains a linear arrangement of sarcomeres. Run the entire length of muscle fiber. Composed of even smaller myofilaments. Myofilament: Two types è Actin and Myosin Myosin: One of the principal contractile proteins of muscle. Makes up THICK filaments in myofibrils. Actin: One of the principal contractile proteins of muscle. Makes up THIN filaments in myofibrils. Sarcomeres: The smallest contractile unit of muscle arranged linearly within myofibril extends from one Z line to the next. Sliding Filament Model: An explanation for muscle contraction based on the movement of actin filaments in relation to myosin filaments. Immunity and lymphatic system Lymph organs: organ of lymphatic system other than a lymphatic vessel. A) Primary: red bone marrow and thymus gland B) Secondary: lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, appendix and peyer’s patches Red bone marrow: produces all types of blood cells Thymus: involved in the regulation of T cells; only about 5% pass autoreactivity test. Located between the trachea and the sternum superior to the heart. Spleen: stores and filters blood; macrophages phagocytes pathogens and debris. Largest lymphatic organ. Lymph nodes: mass of lymphatic tissue located along the course of a lymphatic vessel. Macrophages phagocytose pathogens and debris. Tonsils: patches of lymphatic tissue; first to encounter pathogens. Peyer’s patches: lymphatic tissue located within the appendix and encounters pathogens. Immune system A functional (more than 1 organ involved) system whose components attack foreign substances or prevent their entry into the body. Innate immunity: a mechanism of defense that does not depend on prior exposure to the invade; nonspecific. Ready to go, doesn’t take a lot of time. Adaptive (acquired) immunity: is specific to the particular nonself material; requires time for development, occurs more quickly and vigorously on secondary response. Takes a lot of time. I. Nonspecific immunity (innate immunity) The first line of defense: skin and mucus membranes 1. Skin (integumentary system) as an effective barrier against pathogens • Oil and sweat glands give skin surface PH of 3-5 • Sweat contains lysosome (digests bacterial cell wall) • Normal flora include non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi • Epidermis 10-30 cells thick, dermis 15-40 times thicker 2. Mucosal surfaces as an effective barrier against pathogens • Digestive tract: o Saliva contains lysozyme (also in tears) o Acidic environment of stomach PH of 1.5-3.5 (concentrated HCI solution) o Digestive enzymes in intestine o Nonpathogenic normal flora o Vomiting and diarrhea may expel • Respiratory tract o Pathogens trapped by mucus in bronchi and bronchioles o Ciliated epithelial cells sweep mucus toward the glottis o Coughing and sneezing expels pathogens. • Urogenital tract o Vaginal secretions viscous and acidic o Secretions promote growth of normal flora o Acidic urine of both sexes may wash out pathogens The second line of defense Phagocytes, inflammation, complement and interferon, and chemical signals. • Recognizes a wide spectrum of pathogens without a need for prior exposure • Key players include neutrophils, monocytes (become macrophages) • These cells phagocytose pathogens and trigger the release of cytokines • Resulting in inflammation and specific responses Inflammation: occurs over second, minutes, hours and days • Dilatation of local blood vessels increases blood flow at site (red and warm) • Increased permeability of capillaries causing edema (tissue swelling) • Tissue swelling puts pressure on nerve ending (pain and potential loss of function) • Macrophages and neutrophils release cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) which acts on hypothalamus to raise body temp. (fever) • Cell death (necrosis) always occurs to some degree during inflammation Complement • Consists of approx. 30 different proteins • Circulate freely in blood plasma • Complement proteins can form membrane attack complex (MAC) that form pores in pathogens that have lipid membrane to include lysis Interferon: antiviral agent produced by an infected cell that blocks infection of an uninfected cell (degrades RNA and blocks protein production) Cytokines • Cytokines are protein hormones utilized by immune cells to communicate • Can affect some cells that produce them; cells nearby, or cells distant in body The third line of defense: Four important aspects of immune response include: • Nonself recognition: ability to distinguish self-antigens from nonself • Antigen-specific: recognizes and is directed against specific antigens • Systemic response: immunity is not restricted to initial infection site • Memory: recognizes and mounts stronger attack on previously encountered pathogens Antigen: foreign substance that stimulates an immune response Antibody: protein produced in response to the presence of an antigen Basis of self and nonself recognition: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC): cell surface glycoproteins, polymorphic A) MHC class I proteins • Present on every nucleated cell of the body • Cytotoxic T cells (CD8) respond to endogenous antigen bound to MHC class I proteins B) MHC class II proteins • Found only on professional antigen presenting cells • Helper T cells (CD4) respond to exogenous antigen bound to MHC class II proteins Two separate but overlapping of immunity: 1) Cell-mediated immunity: entirely associated with cell surfaces, T-cell receptors, that are unable to “see” free antigens 2) Humoral immunity: based on antibodies on cell surfaces and in body fluids. Cell-mediated immunity T-cells: 2 main types cytotoxic T cells (CD8) and T helper cells (CD4) • Cytotoxic T cells (CD8) directly attack cells that carry specific antigens • T helper cells (CD4) regulate the immune responses of other cells Humoral immunity B-cells: bind specific to antigen with its antibody (B cells receptor); serve as antigen presenting cell to helper T cells. 1) B cells produced in red bone marrow 2) Immunoglobulin (lg) synthesis occurs in bone marrow B cells A) Plasma B cells: are large B cells that have been exposed to antigen. Produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies. Short lived cells and undergo apoptosis. B) Memory B cells: are specific to the antigen encountered. Live for a long time. Can respond quickly following a second exposure to the same antigen. Respiratory system Ensures oxygen enters body while carbon dioxide leaves body. Composed of upper and lower respiratory tract. Upper respiratory tract: conditions air as it enters the body. Nasal cavities: large hairs filter air. Mucus membranes produce mucus. Capillaries of submucosa warm and moisten air. Pharynx: throat. Connects nasal and oral cavities to the larynx. Tonsils: primary defense during breathing Epiglottis: covers the glottis during the process of swallowing Uvula: tab of tissue in back of throat; contracts when touched by solids. Movement closes internal nares. Larynx: voice box. Cartilaginous organ between the pharynx and trachea. Vocal cords: fold of tissue that vibrates to create vocal sounds. Glottis: opening for airflow in the larynx. Lower respiratory tract: allows oxygen to enter the blood and waste gases to leave blood. Trachea: windpipe. Conveys air from larynx to the bronchi; anterior to esophagus. Consists of connective tissue, smooth muscle and cartilaginous rings. Mucosal membrane produces mucus and lined with cilia. Bronchial tree: primary bronchi – secondary bronchi – tertiary bronchi – bronchioles – terminal bronchioles – alveoli Alveoli: air sacs of the lungs, lined with surfactant. Lungs: paired, cone-shaped organs in the thoracic cavity. External respiration: pulmonary gas exchange. Internal respiration: systemic gas exchange (everywhere except lungs). Urinary System Organ system consisting of the kidneys and urinary bladder. Excretion: Rids the body of nitrogenous waste and metabolic waste. Helps regulate the water-salt balance of blood. Urea Primary nitrogenous waste of human derived from amino acid breakdown. Kidneys Organ of the urinary system that produces and secretes urine. Fist-sized organ. Produces hormone calcitriol: increases blood calcium levels. Produces hormone erythropoietin è stimulates red blood cell production. Kidneys are so efficient that you can live without one of them. Renal Artery Vessel that transports blood to be filtered from the aorta and delivers it to the kidney. Renal Vein Vessel that takes filtered bloom from the kidney to the interior vena cava. Renal Cortex Outer portion of the kidney that appears granular. Renal Medulla Inner portion of the kidney that consists of renal pyramids. Renal Pelvis Hollow chamber of the kidney that lies inside the renal medulla. Receives freshly prepared urine from the collecting ducts. Ureters One of 2 tubes that take urine from the kidneys to the urine bladder. 25 cm long; 5 mm diameter. Urinary Bladder Organ where urine is stored. Approx. 800 ml. Small folds mucosa prevent backward flow to ureters. Internal sphincter (involuntary) and external sphincter (voluntary). Approx. 30 ml, stretch receptors send 1st nerve sign to CNS. Urethra Tubular structure that receives urine from the bladder. Carries urine to the outside of the body; 4 cm in females and 20 cm in males. Micturition Emptying of the bladder. Urination. Nephrons Microscopic kidney unit that regulates blood composition by: glomerular filtration (red and white blood cells don’t get filtered), tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion. Glomerular Capsule (Bowman’s Capsule) Doubled-walled cup that surrounds the glomerulus at the beginning of the nephron. Glomerulus (Filter) Cluster of capillaries surrounded by the glomerular capsule in a nephron. Where glomerular filtration takes place. Peritubular Capillary Network Capillary network that surrounds a nephron and functions in reabsorption during urine formation. Proximal Convoluted Tubule è Tubular reabsorption. Close. Distal Convoluted Tubule è Tubular secretion. Distant, far. 3 Steps of Urine Formation Glomerular Filtration Tubular Reabsorption Tubular Secretion Whatever that is in the collecting duct is going to the bladder. iClicker Question Which of the three main processes of urine formation involves movement of waste from the peritubular capillary network to the distal convoluted tubule of a nephron so that it’s added to urine? Glomerular filtration Tubular reabsorption Tubular secretion Tubular termination Answer: c. Tubular secretion Endocrine System Organ system that includes internal organs that secretes hormones. Endocrine Gland A ductless gland that secretes hormone(s) into the bloodstream. Ex: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, gonads (ovaries and testes), and hypothalamus. Exocrine Gland Glands that have ducts though which their secretions are carried to a particular site. Ex: mucus, sweat, oil, and salivary glands. Liver (which secretes bile). Pancreas (which synthesizes digestive enzymes). Is also considered an ENDOCRINE gland (Insulin and Glucagon). Hormone Protein or steroid produced by a cell that affects a different cell (target organ). Only cells with receptors for a particular hormone can respond (lock and key). Chemical signals. Peptide Hormone Hormones that are peptides, proteins, or modified amino acids. Binds to receptor on plasma membrane. Ex: epinephrine (aka = adrenaline). Act pretty fast but has a short life. 1st Messenger: Hormone bound to plasma membrane. Never enters cell. Outside the plasma membrane. The hormone stays of the surface. Analogy: You are having a “boys night in” and ordered a pizza, but the pizza is not cut. You call your girlfriend and she brings the pizza cutter, but you don’t let her go inside the apartment, you let her outside. 2nd Messenger: Mediates intracellular responses. Something that internally happens in response of the 1st messenger. Analogy: You cut your pizza and now everything is fine with your buddies. Steroid Hormone One group of hormones derived from cholesterol. Enters cell via plasma membrane. Act more slowly, but last longer. Only produced by adrenal cortex, ovaries and testes. Ex: Testosterone (puberty). Analogy: In order to redeem yourself, you make a pizza from the scratch to your girl. You passed the door and you even get to the kitchen (nucleus) and make the pizza (protein). It takes you a long time to make the pizza, but it’s worthy because the “memory” will last a long time. Could be an exam question: Which of the following is associated with peptide or steroid hormone? Pheromones Chemical sing released by an organism that affects the metabolism or influences the behavior of another individual of the same species. Ex: Synchrony of menstrual cycles in women. Negative Feedback Mechanism of homeostatic response in which a stimulus initiates reactions that reduce the stimulus. Ex: Body temperature regulation. Positive Feedback Mechanism in which the stimulus initiates reactions that lead to an increase in the stimulus. Ex: lactation, childbirth, orgasm or climax, etc. (Release oxytocin). Hypothalamus Link between nervous system and endocrine system. Regulates internal environment of the body. Controls secretions of the anterior pituitary, which controls secretions of the thyroid, adrenal cortex and gonads. Produces 2 hormones stored and secreted by the posterior pituitary: Antidiuretic Hormone (APH): Stimulates kidneys to reabsorb more water, reducing urine volume. Urine yellow è dehydrated Oxytocin: Stimulates contraction of the uterus during childbirth, and ejection of milk during nursing. Pituitary Gland Connected to hypothalamus; consists of anterior and posterior pituitary. 7 hormones produced by the anterior pituitary: Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH): Stimulates the adrenal cortex (cortex of the adrenogland) to produce cortisol (breaking down protein and fats for every little glucose). Follicle – Stimulating Hormone (FSH): Stimulates ovarian follicle production in females and sperm production in males. Growth Hormone (GH): Promotes skeletal and muscular growth. Luteinizing Hormone (LH): Aids maturation of cells in the ovary, triggers ovulation. Causes interstitial cells of testes to produce testosterone. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH): Regulates secretion of thyroid hormones. Melanocyte – Stimulating Hormone (MSH): Stimulates production and release of melanin. Prolactin (PRL): Stimulates the breasts to produce milk. Mnemonic: All Friendly Girls Like To Meet People Thyroid Gland Endocrine gland in the neck that produces and secretes the following hormones: Thyroxine (T4): Promotes growth and development; increases metabolism rates. Calcitonin: Decreases blood calcium level. Parathyroid Gland Embedded in posterior surface of thyroid and produces and secretes: Parathyroid Hormone: Increases the blood calcium level. iClicker question: Which hormone is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary? Follicle – Stimulating Hormone Luteinizing Hormone Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Oxytocin Prolactin Answer: D. Oxytocin iClicker question: Which of the 7 hormones produced by the anterior pituitary triggers ovulation? Follicle – Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Melanocyte – Stimulating Hormone (MSH) Prolactin (PRL) Answer: B. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Pancreas Produces digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon. Insulin è Lowers blood glucose levels by promoting uptake by cells and converting glucose to glycogen in liver and skeletal muscles. Glucagon è Raises blood glucose level by causing the liver to break down glycogen. Adrenal Glands Endocrine gland on the top of each kidney consisting of inner adrenal medulla and outer adrenal cortex. Adrenal Medulla Secretes the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) Adrenal Cortex Secretes mineralocorticoids, such as aldosterone, and glucocorticoids, such as cortisol. Reproductive System Organ that contains male or female organs in the production of offspring. Gonad Primary sex organs that produces gametes. Ovary produces eggs and testis produces sperm. Gamete Haploid sex cell; the egg or sperm, which join in fertilization to form a zygote. Germ-Line Cells Cells that are set aside from somatic cells during zygote development. These cells will eventually undergo meiosis to produce gametes. Somatic Cells Any human cells except those that are destined to form gametes. Male External Genitalia External reproductive structure; consists of penis and scrotum. Penis External male organ of copulation and urination. Designed to deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract. 5.1 – 5.6 inches average size human penis. Glans Penis Enlarged tip of the penis. Foreskin Loose skin covering of penis that slides distally to form a cuff of skin around glans. Scrotum Pouch of skin that encloses the testis. Hangs outside abdominopelvic cavity; 3 degrees lower than 98.6 (95.6). Testes Paired male gonads within the scrotum (4cm by 2.5 cm). Produce sperm and male sex hormones. Seminiferous Tubules Long coiled tubules contained within chambers of the testes. Where sperm are produced, “sperm factories”. Spermatogenic Cells Give rise to sperm and make up most of the epithelial wall of the seminiferous tubules. Sperm can live 4-5 days in female. Sperm produced everyday from puberty till death. Interstitial Cells Located in connective tissue surrounding seminiferous tubules. Produce and secrete androgens (testosterone) into interstitial fluid. Epididymis Coiled tubule next to the testes where sperm mature and may be stored for a short time. Serves as final maturation center. Empties into vas deferens. Vas Deferens Tube that leads from the epididymis to the urethra in males. Stores sperm up to several months. Flagella è tail of the sperm Accessory Glands Included paired seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands and the single prostate gland. Produce the bulk of semen. Semen Fluid mixture containing sperm and secretions of the male accessory reproductive glands; PH 7.2 to 7.4 (allow the sperm survive the journey); 2 to 5 ml fluid containing 50-100 million sperm per ml. Seminal Vesicles Convoluted structure attached to the vas deferens. Adds nutrients and 60% of fluid to semen. Prostate Gland Gland located around the male urethra below the urinary bladder. Adds secretions to semen that helps activate sperm. Bulbourethral Glands 2 small structures located below the prostate gland. Contributes mucus- containing fluid to semen. Neutralize traces of acidic urine in the urethra prior to ejaculation. Lubricates glands penis. 2 Chief Phases of Male Sexual Response: Erection: Enlargement and stiffening of the penis to penetrate vagina. Parasympathetic reflex is triggered during sexual arousal. Promotes local release of nitric oxide that relaxes smooth muscle. Causes arterioles to dilate in erectile tissue. Vascular spaces of erectile bodies fill with blood compressing veins. Ejaculation: Propulsion if semen from the male duct system; occurs when impulses provoking erection reach critical level, spinal reflex is initiated. Reproductive ducts and accessory organs contract releasing contents to urethra. Bladder sphincter muscle constricts. Muscles of penis undergo rapid contractions to propel semen from urethra. Entire event is termed climax or orgasm and generates: intense pleasure, generalized muscle contractions, rapid heartbeat, elevated blood pressure. Female External Genitalia External reproductive structure; consists of vulva. Vulva External genitals of the female that surround the opening of the vagina. Consists of the mons pubis, labia, vestibule and clitoris. Mons Pubis Is a fatty, rounded area covered with pubic hair after puberty. Labia Majora Running posteriorly mons pubis are 2 elongated, hair-covered fatty skin folds; female counterpart of male scrotum. Labia Minora 2 thin, hair-free skin folds enclosed by the labia majora; homologous to ventral penis. Vestibule Recess by the labia majora, which contains the external opening of the urethra more anteriorly followed by the opening of the vagina. Clitoris A small protruding structure composed largely of erectile tissue located anterior to the vestibule, homologous to the glans penis of male. Prepuce Of The Clitoris Hooded skin fold of the clitoris formed by the junction of the labia minora folds. Female Internal Genitalia Internal reproductive structure, consists of ovary, uterine tubes, uterus and vagina. Ovary The paired ovaries, flank the uterus on either side; female gonad. Produces eggs and the female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone è maintain lining of the uterus). Uterine Tubes (Fallopian Tubes or Oviducts) A duct that transports eggs to uterus. Extend from uterus to ovaries; not attached to ovaries. Fimbria Finger-like projections of uterine tube that sweep over ovary. When egg bursts out of the ovary during ovulation it is swept into oviduct by fimbria and beating of cilia that line oviducts. Egg lives 6 to 24 hours unless fertilization occurs. Fertilization usually takes place in the oviduct. Egg + sperm = zygote. Uterus (Womb) Hollow thick walled organ located in the female pelvis where it functions to receive, retain and nourish a fertilized ovum. Developing embryo arrives at uterus several days after fertilization. Implantation occurs when embryo embeds in prepared uterine lining. Endometrium Membrane lining the interior surface of the uterus. Cervix Lower end of uterus, enters the vagina at nearly a right angle. Vagina Organ that leads from the uterus to the vestibule and serves as birth canal and organ of sexual intercourse in females. PH 4 to 4.5. Female Sexual Response Upon sexual stimulation the following occur: Labia minora, vaginal wall and clitoris become engorged with blood (2x to 3x). Breasts swell and nipples become erect. Labia majora enlarged, redder and spread away from vaginal opening. Vaginal wall releases lubricating fluid. Mucus-secreting glands beneath labia minora also provide lubrication. During orgasm blood pressure and pulse rises, breathing quickens and the walls of the uterus and oviducts contract rhythmically; no refractory period. iClicker Question Which of the following is not considered female external genitalia? A. Clitoris B. Mons pubis C. Labia majora D. Labia menora E. Vagina Answer: E. Vagina iClicker Question Which of the following female structures in homologous to the scrotum? A. Clitoris B. Mons pubis C. Labia majora D. Labia menora E. Vagina Answer: C. Labia majora Ovarian Cycle Monthly follicle changes occurring in the ovary that control the level of sex hormones in the blood and the uterine cycle; repeats every 28 days. Uterine Cycle Monthly occurring changes in the characteristics of the endometrium. 10-80 ml of blood. 35 ml of blood average per cycle. Primary Oocyte At birth a female has lifetime supply of 700,000. Stuck in late prophase 1 of meiosis until selected and activated after puberty. Follicles Structure in the ovary that produces a secondary oocyte and the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen Female sex hormone that helps maintain sex organs and secondary sex characteristics. Progesterone Hormone partly responsible for preparing uterus for the fertilized ovum. Secondary Oocyte In oogenesis, the functional product of meiosis I. Is what is ovulated (not a functional ovum). Arrested in metaphase II. Oogenesis Production of an egg in females via meiosis. Polar Body In oogenesis, a nonfunctional product; 1 or 3 occur in meiosis secondary oocyte becomes an egg. Ovulation Release of secondary oocyte from the ovary. If fertilization occurs, the secondary oocyte becomes an egg (ovum). Occurs mid-ovarian cycle. Usually only 1 per month. Corpus Luteum Yellow body that forms in the ovary from a follicle that discharged its secondary oocyte, it secretes progesterone (uterus lining –thick) and some estrogen. If egg is fertilized it remains for 3 months until placenta takes over. Menstruation Loss of blood and tissue from the uterus at the end of the uterine cycle. Implantation Begins about 6 days after ovulation; 1 week to complete. Human Chorionic Gonadotropic (hCG) Secreted by cells of blastocyst. Prompts the corpus leteum to continue secreting progesterone and estrogen. Detectable in mother’s blood 1 week after fertilization. All pregnancy tests use antibody directed against hCG in blood or urine. Placenta Temporary organ formed from both fetal and maternal tissues. Provides nutrients and oxygen to developing fetus. Carries away fetal metabolic waste. Produces the hormones of pregnancy. (1-2 pound). Attached to the uterine wall. Umbilical Cord Structure beaning arteries and veins connecting the placenta to the fetus. How babies get nutrients. Gestation The period of pregnancy; about 280 days for humans. Menopause Period of life when ovulation and menstruation cease. Prompted by hormonal changes, usually occurs between 45 to 55 years old. Whole year passes without menstruation. Contraceptives Medication or device used to reduce the chance of pregnancy. Birth Control Pills Oral contraceptive containing estrogen and progesterone. Shuts down pituitary production of LH and FSH. Follicle development is prevented (no ovulation). Intrauterine Device Small piece of plastic or copper inserted into uterus. Alters uterine environment so fertilization doesn’t occur. Diaphragm Soft rubber or latex cup that fits over cervix; used with spermicidal jelly. Female Condom Large polyurethane tube that with flexible ring that fits onto cervix. Male Condom Latex sheath that fits over erect penis. Latex and oil don’t go together. Contraceptive Implants Uses synthetic progesterone to prevent ovulation. Can remain effective for about 3 years. Contraceptive Injection Uses progesterone, or estrogen and progesterone to disrupt ovarian cycle. Effective for several months. Emergency Contraceptive Pills (ECPs) Known as the “next morning pill”. Plan B (levonorgestrel) is a way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex. Prevent ovulation; may prevent fertilized egg from implanting. No prescription needed if 16 or older; works up to 72 hours after intercourse. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) An illness that has a significant probability of transmission by means of human behavior including but not limited to: vaginal intercourse, oral sex or anal sex. Can be of viral, bacterial, fungal, protist, and animal origin. Most effective way to prev


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.