Popular in United States History after 1865
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachael Notetaker on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to history 112 at University of South Carolina taught by Laura Foxworth in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see United States History after 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
Reviews for Final
Almost no time left on the clock and my grade on the line. Where else would I go? Rachael has the best notes period!
-Dr. Reba Weimann
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 12/06/15
Double V Campaign The Double V Campaign was started in the newspaper Pittsburgh Courier which was a black newspaper and talked about ghting for two goals victory over our enemies in the war and victory over the enemies of black people at home This Campaign was directly related to WWII Black organizations demanded that the federal government require companies to integrate their workforces and get rid of desegregation Phillip Randolf head of an organization demanded President Roosevelt to eliminate discrimination in defense industries and if Roosevelt failed to do so Randolf was going to get 100000 African Americans to descend to Washington Roosevelt obliged and authorized the Committee on Fair Employment Practices to investigate and prevent racial discrimination in the workforce Progress was slow and African Americans were still not making as much money as whites so millions of African Americans migrated to the North and West in search for jobs but didn t succeed Unions and employers refused to give the African Americans jobs because they were supposedly all unskilled but government fair employment standards opened assembly line jobs for the African Americans because it was only fair But in no way did this mean the African Americans were being treated equally and getting paid just as much as the whites were The assembly line jobs were successful in decreasing the unemployment rate in African Americans by 80 Racial violence created the motivation for the Double V Campaign which was supported by the NAACP The Double V Campaign expanded membership in the NAACP but achieved only limited success against racial discrimination during the war gamestic Anti ammunism 19451965 As the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States intensi ed the threat by Communists in the US became known as the Second Red Scare The Second Red Scare led to a range of actions that had a great effect on the US government and society Because of the tensions with the Soviet Unions and the in uence they had during the Cold War Harry Truman issued the Loyalty Order which forced all federal employees to be analyzed to see if they were loyal to the government McCarthy was a prominent gure during this time because he thought that the communists within our borders have been more responsible for the success of communism than Soviet Russia itself The term McCarthyism was used a lot by the media because of the allegations McCarthy made about various of cials McCarthy created the HUAC which was the board that if you were accused of being communist this is where you would have to go to see your fate Because the Communist Party had helped organize unions and supported racial justice labor and civil rights activists fell to McCarthyism because those were all signs of being connected to Communism The Truman administration directly attacked the Communist Party prosecuting its leaders under the Smith Act Vietnam War The Vietnam War was a con ict that pitted the Communist government of North Vietnam and its allies in South Vietnam against the government of South Vietnam and the United States The United States got into the war because North Vietnamese gunboats red on US boats This lead Johnson to order air strikes on North Vietnamese torpedo bases and oil facilities The leader of North Vietnam Ho Chi Minh wanted to unify the entire country under a single communist regime but South Vietnam wanted to preserve Vietnam more closely like the West South Vietnam wanted to drive out foreign control in the country and keep economically and military strategic locations under Western authority Ho Chi Minh disagreed and turned to the Communists because they believed in Vietnam s goal of independence The United States main goal was to stop the spread of communism US military stationed themselves in South Vietnam while the Soviet Union and China poured weapons supplies and advisors in the North The US antagonized the North Vietnamese by stepping on the power void that France left behind Lyndon Johnson believed that the commitment of US troops would save South Vietnam from Communist oppression but the way he dealt with polices and Richard Nixon s campaigns destroyed the country Millions of bombs were used in the Vietnam and the human causalities were devastating Also the costs were too much and the US withdrew troops and soon after South Vietnam was invaded by the North The Vietnam War had an impact on American society because it was the rst war televised and as a result the American press played a huge role in public opinions Americans just wanted to get out of Vietnam because they didn t support the war at all At the end of the war it seemed like North Vietnam won because it took over South Vietnam unifying it as one Communist place but in the long run US really won TET Offensive General Strategies for Violence Draft Lssinger and Nixon39s Foreign Policy Nixon and Henry Kissinger who was Nixon s national security advisor saw the increasing con ict between the soviet union and China and wanted to help Nixon was the rst president to set foot on Chinese soil which was surprising because he believed so much in anticommunism But because of his anticommunist beliefs it helped him to conduct this shift in US Chinese relations without domestic repercussions The visit to China was very symbolic and helped in the process of globalization Nixon s and Kissinger s goal was for the US China Soviet Union Japan all to be strong and healthy and balance each other out They thought the policy of containment was vital to the security of the free world and the idea of d tente which focused more on issues of common concern like arms control and trade When the United States had to get involved in the Vietnam War and support South Vietnam they realized that containment only brought China and the Soviet Union together to form one big communist monopoly When Nixon visited Moscow they concluded arms limitation treaties which came from Strategic Arms Limitation Talks SALT SALT limited antiballistic missiles to two each and this was supposed to prevent either nation from building a defense against a nuclear attack With this in mind Nixon and Kissinger decided to normalize relations with both countries because that would be the best way for the Soviet Union United States and China to all get along In 1979 the United States and China established formal diplomatic relations and with the US Chinese relations it helped ease con ict with the Soviet Union Approaches on the jreat Depression Herbert Hmver vs Franklin Roosevelt During and after the Great Depression both Hoover and Roosevelt views differed to try to get the economy back to full strength Hoover is known by not doing anything while the US was in the depression but it was just a bad and hard time overall to x He tried doing the Hoover Dam and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to try to end the Depression but they didn t work Roosevelt who was a Democrat and Hoover who was a Republican differed because Roosevelt was willing to do much more than Hoover by making the government be much more involved in the economy and creating the New Deal The New Deal included many federally funded programs that greatly expanded the federal government s role The New Deal bills supported direct federal aid and tightened government control which in turn would help consumer con dence and the economy On the other hand Hoover did not want to spend federal money on programs and his approach was trying to stimulate the economy through banking and trade polices Even when the Depression became worse Hoover refused to involve the federal government because it led towards socialism but would indirectly give aid to banks or local public work projects and focused on volunteerism to raise money Also Roosevelt tried to boost the morale of the people by convincing people that things would get better and that the government would be there to help Roosevelt s activist approach helped change the look of the two parties as the Democrats were now considered the party of social change and economic assistance while the Republicans attracted to people who favored individual rights and limited government Presidential Election of 1968 0 Why was it important It showed the shift of Democratic Party dominance in the South to becoming Republican Dominance The South delivered all its electoral votes to Wallace and Nixon Independent nominee and Republican nominee rather then Hubert H Humphrey the Democratic nominee 0 Maj or Players Richard Nixon who was easily nominated as the Republican Nominee He ran 8 years prior in the Election of 1960 but lost to JFK which prompted him to change his dynamics in how to win an election Robert F Kennedy who was an antiwar Republican Candidate thats campaign looked promising until he was shot and killed ending his campaign Hubert H Humphrey won the Republican Nominee 0 Who won Richard Nixon changed his strategy by standing against President Johnson s liberal policies even though he was Democrat on foreign and domestic policies Nixon attacked the Great Society for pouring billions of dollars into programs that have failed and he promised to represent the forgotten Americans the nonshouters the non demonstrators What is says about American Politics Johnson s liberal democratic views upset most of the South when Nixon s prompted more Conservative views and calling for law and order the South started to switch their votes from Democrat to Republican Many Americans were fed up with the expansion of government the Supreme Court decisions the protest movements the challenges to authority and the loosening of moral standards that seemed to define the 1960s and the votes of those Americans began to reshape politics by electing Nixon in 1968 Iran Contra Scandal Iran Contra Scandal conspiracy to sell weapons to Iran as part of a scheme to ransom USA hostages in Beirut while funding anti communist fighting in Nicaragua 0 The US has hostages taken in Lebanon in the 1980s by Hezbollah and America wants them back 0 The US decides to sell weapons to Iran because they believe Iran will pressure Hezbollah to release the seven American Hostages Iran at this time needed weapons and America needed their people back 0 The United States has always had interest in Latin American and did NOT want other countries to intervene When the Dictatorship in Nicaragua was overthrown by communist Revolutionaries the Sandinistas who wanted to form their own social government the US became involved by providing money to the Contras who were Counter Revolutionaries people who opposed the Sandinistas 0 Congress explicitly prohibited the funding to overthrow the government in Nicaragua by adding the Boland Amendment but Reagan and Oliver North found a loophole 0 To provide money to the Contras the Reagan and Oliver North proceeds to sale arms to Iran 85 in Nov of 1985 and used a Swiss account to funnel their funds to the Contras in Nicaragua and circumvent Boland Amendment restrictions 0 US national security council wants to solve these problems and have to find loop holes in laws to solve those problems 0 Reagan authorizes more weapons transactions in 1986 to release more hostages and increase funds 0 Lebanese newspaper breaks story about the diversion of weapons profits in exchange for hostages in November 1986 sales end Find out Oliver North keeps a diary is how everyone is caught Aftermath Hostages came back to US lt Oliver North takes the blame for everything and Reagan gets off scotch freegt gt gt gt gt gt gt lt November 25 1986 Reagan admits profits from arms trades were sent to contras Contras and Sandinistas reached peace agreement in 1987 resulting in democratic elections in Nicaragua IranContra Congressional hearings begin in 1987 Government officials plead guilty to conspiracy to defraud the United States withholding information from Congress perjury obstruction Pres George HW Bush pardons siX key players in 1992 Powell Doctrine 1992 Cold War has ended in 1991 First Gulf War happened 40 days Oil fields in Kuwait that is a country connected to Iraq Iraq took over the Kuwait and gave them their independence and the US drove them out because we like their oil Quick and clear victory for the United States This is an example that the US is going to be a super power Goals of Cold War Containment of Communist and Soviet Union Making sure that the soviet union does not eXpand its reach and does not cause a WW We have to be exible It is not an all or nothing war with one power And we also have to keep prepared and not decrease the military forcesX 0 Future of militarymaking sure tactics used match the goals wanted and have a clear objective shouldn t have an idea of how war is going to exactly go you have to adjust to what s happening at that time 0 Reaction from the Cold War and Vietnam and a strategy for the future 0 Public support because saw as a failing in Vietnam 0 Military is threat based and capabilities based Better training system 1960s Protest Groups including New Lefts Women s Liberation and Black PowerSDS and Film and womens liberation 1970s 0 Students for a Democratic Society SDS criticized the complacency of actions and the powerlessness and alienation of generated by a bureaucratic society SDS aimed to mobilize a New Left around the goals of civil rights peace and universal economic security The SDS caused a myriad of student protest to breakout all around the nation on college campuses and claimed the right to freedom of expression and political action 0 The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force was founded in 1973 to ensure that gay issues received sustained national attention after the Stonewall Riots 0 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC embraced civil disobedience and the nonviolence principles of Martin Luther King Jr activists would confront their oppressors and 0 stand up for their rights but they would not respond if attacked Nonviolence nurtures the atmosphere in which reconciliation and justice become actual possibilities SNCC began a campaign for voting rights in Selma Alabama and demonstrators began their fiftyfour mile march from Selma to the State Capital Montgomery to insist that blacks be registered Albama State troopers used such violent force to turn back the marchers that it earned the name Bloody Sunday 0 Black Protest was visible throughout the nation demanding not just legal equality but also economic justice and no longer holding nonviolence as a basic principle The black freedom struggle began to appear more threatening to the white majority when African Americans began to care arms in self defense The new emphases resulted from a combination of heightened activism and unrealized promise Rioting and looting seemed to many young blacks the only means available to protest the poverty lack of opportunity and official insensitivity they experienced daily Malcom X called further black nationalism which is bringing the control into the hands of the African Americans then asking the Whites for the change According to black power advocates nonviolence brought only more beatings and killings 0 National Organization for Women NOW was founded in 1966 by Betty Friedan who was a civil rights activist Equal Rights Amendment ERA would outlaw differential treatment of men and women under all states and federal laws After Congress passed the ERA in 1972 Phyllis Schla y a conservative activist in the Republican Party mobilized thousands of women at the grassroots level who feared that the ERA would devalue their own GodGiven roles as wives and mothers These women marching on state capitols persuaded some male legislators to block 10 ratification When the time limit ran out in 1982 only thirty five states had ratified the amendment three short of the necessary threefourths majority Roe V Wade decision ruling that the Constitution protects the right to abortion Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 banned seX discrimination in all aspects of education such as admissions athletics and hiring Co nta i n m e nt 0 George F Kennan Downplaying the in uence of Communist ideology in Soviet policy in the Long Telegram Kennan instead stressed the Soviets insecurity and Stalin s need to maintain authority at home These factors he believed prompted Stalin to exaggerate threats from abroad and motivated the Soviet Government to try to fill every nook and cranny available to it in the basin of world power Kennan believed that the Soviet Union would retreat from its expansionist efforts if the US would respond with unalterable counterforce He predicted that this approach which came to be called containment would eventually end in either the breakup or the gradual mellowing of Soviet Power Actual strategy Containment is a defensive strategy because wer are keeping communism in one spot and not letting it spread and just monitoring it US trying to aid anticommunists which led to tensions
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'