Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Annmarie!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
Aerobic Capacity and Disease Prevention:
1. Define Vo2 Max
the maximal aerobic capacity
the point where oxygen consumption reaches a maximal value and determined by the specific testing protocol is the point that is sustained for 30 seconds to one minute
2. The zone of unhealthy VO2 max for men and women
VO2 max of below 20 they are unable to live independently
lower than 31 women and 34 men would be at risk for obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, stroke, etc.
3. Vo2 Max to maintain functional independence
need a vo2 max over 20 to live independently
4. The cumulative training effect (lack of Vo2 max change in elite athletes). age related decrease in VO2 max of master athletes who continue to engage in regular vigorous endurance exercise training is ½ of the rate of decline seen in agematched sedentary subject
We also discuss several other topics like Explain the specific function of chlorophyll in photosynthesis.
ex. Woman record marathon holder kept the same vo2 max over 11 years
5. Cooper center longitudinal study: ability of high fitness to erase a high risk burden pertaining to CVD mortality
risk of CVD and all cause mortality is reduced by exercise, the most fit had the least risk
compare those with risk factors that are fit and that are non fit, the fit people are as low as the people with no risk factors, so high fitness can erase the high risk for CVD mortality
6. Be able to define the variables pertaining to 70% of endurance performance. lactate threshold: anaerobic threshold, real steady state where vo2 slow component kicks in. intensity where you can actually perform aerobic exercise. the amount of ATP you can produce and sustain for a given period of time. Best measure for fit people
We also discuss several other topics like How did mehmet conquer constantinople?
vo2 max: a measure of how much O2 you consume to produce ATP and that goes to skeletal muscles. Best as a measure for unfit people
running economy: how well you can use that ATP and translate it into efficient use. Best measure for elite athletes
7. Know the Fick Principle with regard to aerobic capacity and the calculation of 1 MET.
fick principle: the ability to deliver oxygen by way of changes in the blood and the delivery of blood by the heart If you want to learn more check out What are the 3 ritual places associated with ex-lacandon religion?
FICK principle: physiology of oxygen consumption We also discuss several other topics like For whom will they be produced?
Vo2= cardiac output x (av) o2 Don't forget about the age old question of What is the content of the 8th amendment?
cardiac output= heart rate x stroke volume
avo2 difference is the arterial minus the venus oxygen consumption (tells oxygen extraction)
cardiac output tells oxygen delivery
so by using the FICK principle we are looking at a product of how much oxygen is delivered versus how much oxygen is extracted
since RHR avg is 70 and resting stroke volume is 70 and Hb O2 capacity is 1.34, Hb g per L is 140150g and SAO2% is 100% and SvO2 is 75%, 3.5ml/kg/min is resting vo2
8. Know key adaptations to endurance training.
local changes: increased capillary density, myoglobin, IMTGs, mitochondrial density, oxidative enzymes which all increase aVO2 difference
central changes: increased cardiac output which leads to a higher stroke volume and an increase in blood volume and higher ejection fraction
9. Why is cardiac output the main component of VO2 max?
cardiac output is the limiting factor because it shows the amount of oxygen consumed by the blood
you can see how stroke volume makes the biggest difference in aerobic athlete vs hypokinetic Don't forget about the age old question of What is peche merle?
when biking with one leg, you are not consuming more oxygen than you would be with two legs but if you were to isolate just the leg, then yes it would be consuming 20% more oxygen which demonstrates that oxygen consumption is limited by blood volume
brain needs oxygen so you will stop dilating blood vessels (your blood vessels will constrict and you feel hypoxia locally)
Elements of CV Performance:
1. Why do humans not make lactic acid?
pKa of lactate (point where proton dissociation occurs) is well below physiological pH so it doesn’t liberate a H ion in solution
2. Know the 3 key endurance training zones and the anticipated lactate levels at each, HR%, VO2 max %, and ventilatory responses.
Zone 1: 2.2 mmol lactate at end, 7080% HR, 5065% vo2 max, 1st increase in Ve per consumed O2
zone 2: 4mmol lactate, 92% HR, 85% vo2 max, respiratory compensation occurs, breathless, OBLA, 2nd increase in Ve per consumed O2, decrease in PETCO2 and increase in Ve
zone 3: lactate greater than 810, 100% HR, 100110% vo2 max. exercise hyperpnea, individual cannot speak
3. Be able to calculate training zones using Karvonen formula, HR Max, and % of VO2 max.
korvonen formula is the Vo2 max zones
4. Know the Swain equation.
know the conversion values (64% of vo2 +37 beats)
5. Know the Tanaka equation.
MHR calculation for those over 45. 20870%age
6. Differentiate between the conventionally recommended (lactate threshold) and polarized cardiovascular training models.
ACSM suggests training mostly at 6070% VO2 max which is the opposite of what elite athletes do
elite athletes do a polarized method and train in a J shaped curve. Mix slow and high intensity with no moderate (zone 1 and then near zone 2/3
7. Know HR responses to exercise and be able to define O2 deficit, steady state, VO2 slow component, O2 debt, and EPOC.
oxygen deficit: O2 demand is greater than O2 consumption
oxygen debt: O2 consumption is greater than O2 demand, happens during rapid recovery
steady state: O2 consumption is equal to O2 demand, happens at about 3 minutes. If training over anaerobic threshold they don’t really reach steady state cardiac drift: about 15 minutes into exercise HR may bump up due to cardiac drift: end diastolic volume may go up a little bit and there is then a drop of plasma volume and less stretch of heart (frank starling method: heart stretches the greater the contraction). Drop in left ventricular endiastolic volume because of more extracellular fluid
VO2 slow component: at three minutes, heart rate plateaus, and then when you stop exercising it goes back down. Increased work of breathing and recruitment of more type 2 fibers. Greater than anaerobic threshold
EPOC: calories burned after exercise. to have a significant amount of EPOC it would be better for you to be highly trained. temperature is the biggest contributor to EPOC because the core temperature is elevated and more ions leak out so the sodium potassium ATPase pumps have to work harder to maintain the ion concentration across the membrane
8. What is the highest measured EPOC from exercise in elite athletes? in the most elite athletes, the most EPOC ever measured was 15L of VO2 after an hour of intense training (basically 75 calories).
9. What is cardiac drift (about 15 minutes into steady state exercise)?
about 15 minutes into exercise HR may bump up due to cardiac drift: end diastolic volume may go up a little bit and there is then a drop of plasma volume and less stretch of heart (frank starling method: heart stretches the greater the contraction). Drop in left ventricular endiastolic volume
10. How is an increase in VO2 max associated with increased caloric expenditure?
relatively speaking, RPE feels harder for less METS in a less fit person so as you improve your vo2 max, the easier it is for you to burn calories
someone increases vo2 max by 15% so at a given RPE they burn 15% more calories if someone has double the vo2 max as another person they burn double the calories and feel the same rate of perceived exertion
increase vo2 max and calorie burn is a 1 to 1 ratio so increase it by 10% you burn 10% more calories
workout intensity will feel the same for both of them but the one with the higher VO2 max will burn more
1. Know the met calculations for walking and running.
horizontalmph x26.8 x.1= mg x kg x min
verticalmph x26.8 x % grade x 1.8= ml x kg x min
rest 3.5 ml x kg x min
add that all
Running equation: (after 5 mph is when it becomes running)
Horizontal: mph x26.8 x.2
Vertical: mph x26.8 x incline x.9
2. Be able to calculate VO2 using the step equation (when provided to you). make sure step height is in meters!
3. Be able to predict VO2 max from a steady state heart rate.
ex. Walking at 4mph at a 10% grade HR is 165bpm at steady state and her max HR is 199
165/199= 83% of her max
so now you need to find the mets of walking 4mph at 10% grade
4 x 26.8 x .1=10.72 for horizontal
4 x 26.8 x .10 x 1.8= 19 for vertical
at rest she is at 3.5
so 10.72 +19 +3.5=33.5
33.5/.83=40.38 is her vo2 max
4. Be able to calculate metminutes from weekly workouts.
MET x 3.5=ml*kg*min x Kgbw=mL/1000=L*min x 5 calories
EX. so in 30mins for 8 mets a 57kg person would burn 240 calories REE=RMR x 1.3 + exercise cals burned a day
Training / Programming
1. Know the benefits of training in each training zone.
training at 70% of vo2 max is too slow to be good enough for myocardial adaptations and not slow enough to fat burn
92% of heart rate max has been shown to be more accurate than a lactate test to find performance threshold.
if you train at lactate threshold you wont get much cardio benefit and if you train here regularly you can deplete glycogen stores
increased fat metabolism. Decreased glycogen utilization. Increased type 1 fiber hypertrophy. Increased total work :zone 1
training specificity, intensity that is most specific to race intensities. Increased oxidative potential of type 2 fibers. Higher number of calories burned per minute.: zone 2 increases myocardial efficiency and maximizing cardiac output. Increase vo2 max, increase speed: zone 3
2. Give/recognize examples of workouts in each training zone. general types of intervals for zone 2: typically 30s5minutes with 23/1 work rest or rest one minute or less; work is up to 100% vo2 max. do not exceed 60 minutes per week of tempo, FARTLEK, HR FARTLEK, TABATA(8 to 10 rounds of 20 sec on 10 sec easy), 40/20 (highest lactate levels were found at 40s at 100% of vo2 max and 20s recovery for 15min), or Yasso 800s (marathon)
ex. Yasso 800: goal is to be able to work up to 10 x 800m with 1 minute rest, at the minute and second time that you can run a marathon
zone 3 workouts: done once a week or once every other week. up to 125% vo2 max and typically longer than 1 minute in duration. 1 to 1 work rest ratio. 1 to 2 weeks recovery is often practiced
3. Be able to calculate TRIMP.
TRIMP: training impulse score
zone times the minutes
don’t want to exceed a 20% increase in volume over 3 weeks
zone 2 you always count the recovery in TRIMP but not for zone 3 ex. Zone 1 at 60min, zone 2 with 20min short intervals (40 on, 20 off), zone 3 with 8 x 3 min with 3 min recovery so TRIMPS: 60, 40, 72
the higher the TRIMP, the harder the workout. The harder the workout the longer the recovery should be.
4. Know the recommended progression with regard to TRIMP.
do not increase TRIMP more than 20% every 3 weeks
5. Know the prudent recommendations from programming (base building, accommodation, and peak phase).
first the person needs to build a base: do zone 1 training, work up to 90 mins and do not increase TRIMP more than 20% every 3 weeks
Accomodation phase: zone 2 training starting with 15mins of short intervals, fartlek or tempo and do not go past 30min. have one day of recovery at z1 with 1 LSD day of less than 60 mins
peak phase would be zone 3 intervals starting with 10 mins. Then zone 3 training with 2030 mins and one zone 1 LSD day for 4560 min
Body Composition Assessment
1. Know the essential fat values for men and women and the percent of body fat indicative of obesity.
for traditional fat measures like underwater weighing (not DEXA): males need 35% essential body fat. Females need 1114% body fat. A fit male has 614% and fit female has 1522%. Obesity in males is above 25% and in females it is 32% for dexa it is 30%male and 40% female.
absolute criteria for medical clearance would be body fat over 30% male and 40% female
2. Know the roles of insulin and leptin in the etiology of obesity. insulin promotes high rates of fatty acid synthesis
long term regulations are insulin and leptin
insulin prevents the oxidation of fats
leptin resistance can occur in obesity
leptin is released proportional to adipose tissue and activate POMC and CART which are associated with satiety and increased leanness. Low levels of leptin activate NPY and AGRP. Leptin levels do not respond to daily food intake unless caloric balance is significantly altered.
insulin increases with increased adipose stores. Stimulates POMC and CART. When adipose tissue decreases, insulin decreases and NPY is stimulated.
3. What are the most important measures of body composition related to health?
waist circumference, increased disease risk
4. Be able to select the optimal body composition assessment for different populations.
waist circumference best for people who are obese and inactive with not a lot of muscle mass. Worst person to use it on would be body builder because a lot of muscle would mess up the measurements.
skinfolds are not reliable in obese people, they are best in lean people skinfold measurements are less erroneous with 3 sites (Jackson Pollack method), less room for error.
the 7 site skin fold measurement in females should not be lower than 30mm of skin fold total thickness. Men should not be below 20.
Metabolic Predictions / Energy Expenditure
1. Know the criteria for waist circumference, waist to hip, and waist to height measurements.
waist greater than 40 males and 35 females is a risk
waist to hip: for men around .9 and women around .7 is improved health. 1 for men and . 8 for women is associated with metabolic disease (women waist 85% width of hip and for men 1.0 aka equal waist and hip would be risk for metabolic disease) waist to height over 50% raises concern
2. Be able to compute TDEE using the Cunningham Equation, plus activity factor and/or metminutes and REE.
cunningham equation: (BW in kg x 21.6) +370
multiply by activity factor
3. Know how insulin resistance increases obesity.
increased intraabdominal weight is associated with greater levels of insulin resistance insulin prevents fat oxidation and increases fatty acid synthesis
Nutrition and Weight Management
1. Know the AMDR.
PRO: 1035% (RDA says upper limit of 2g per kgbw a day and normal .8g per kgbw) FAT: 2035%
2. Understand prudent dietary recommendations (with regard to dietary questionnaires).
limit processed carbohydrates
increase physical activity
control total calorie intake
follow Harvard healthy eating plate
aim for 5 tennis ball sized servings of fruits and veggies
no added Na
3. What are the prudent recommendations with regard to selecting carbohydrates?
from whole grain sources. Less processed and lower glycemic index carbs are better look for the word whole at the beginning of the ingredient list
when processed, the bran is removed and all that remains is the endosperm which is mainly sugar with a little protein and B vitamins
less active, lower range of AMDR they should be
4. Know the USDA recommended omega 6 and omega 3 intakes. 10 to 1 omega 6/linoleic to omega 3/linolenic
5. How do omega 3 fatty acids aid in weight management?
increased fullness so you eat less food
6. How does “protein pulsing” aid with weight loss.
1525g a protein multiple times a day esp. first waking up and before bed increases satiety, helps preserve lean body mass, and high thermic effect
7. What is the RDA for protein?
RDA says upper limit of 2g per kgbw a day and normal .8g per kgbw
8. Why is relatively high protein intake a benefit for weight loss and a potential hindrance for weight gain?
increases satiety and high thermic effect so good for weight loss but bad for weight gain because you will be full
9. Explain how BCAAs during weight training are beneficial for weight loss goals.
preserve lean body mass while in a caloric deficit
BCAA’s activate MTORR and increases protein synthesis
10.Know the 8 prudent lifestyle recommendations for healthy body composition. exercise daily 2060 mins
include 12 palms of quality protein in each meal
12 handfuls of fibrous veggies at each meal
a tbsp of essential fats in each meal
1 to 2 handfuls of nonprocessed carbs in each meal
eat slowly and mindfully
sleep 78 hrs a day
stress management daily for 2060 mins
avoid free sugars or limit to 12 times a week
11.Know the exerciseassociated nutrition guidelines for before, during, and after exercise.
pre exercise: eat a healthy meal 12 hours before or sports drink before morning exercise during exercise: consume a carb + protein drink as tolerated. Or for fat loss BCAA’s with water
after exercise: eat a healthy meal 12 hours after