Chapter 14 Study Guide
Chapter 14 Study Guide PSY 223
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 223 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
Study Guide for Chapter 14 Health and WellBeing LEARNING OBJECTIVES GUIDELINES FOR STUDY You should be able to do each of the following by the conclusion of Chapter 14 1 De ne health psychology De ne stress and identify its causes including major crises positive and negative life events and microstressors of everyday life pp 57257 9 Health psychology is the application of psychology to the promotion of physical health and the prevention and treatment of illness Stress is an unpleasant state of arousal that arises when we perceive that the demands of a situation threaten our ability to cope effectively Sitting in rush hour traffic packing your belongings to move losing your job and looking for work getting married or divorced getting into an argument with a close friend worrying about the health of a parent or child living in a high crime neighborhood and caring for loved ones who are sick are examples of stresses we must live with 2 Consider how the body responds to stress Describe the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome Explain how the eXperience of stressful events affects the heart the immune system and the likelihood of experiencing other shortterm and chronic disease pp 579586 The body naturally responds to stress in a threestage process called general adaptation syndrome The body has an alarm reaction To meet the challenge adrenaline and other hormones are poured into the bloodstream creating physiological arousal Heart rate blood pressure and breathing rates increase while slower longterm functions such as growth digestion and the operation of the immune system are temporarily inhibited In the resistance stage the body remains aroused and alert There is continued release of hormones and local defenses are activated If the stress is prolonged the body will fall into an exhaustion stage There are several factors that are known to increase the risk of coronary heart disease The three most important are high blood pressure cigarette smoking and high cholesTerol and The fourTh major risk facTor is psychological sTress People who are harddriving compeTiTive impaTienT Timeconscious and quick To anger are classified as having a Type A personaliTy and are coronary proned Psychological sTress produces a wide range of effecTs on The body including increases in The risk of chronic back pain diabeTes appendiciTis upper respiraTory infecTions arThriTis herpes gum disease common colds and some forms of cancer Many healTh psychologisTs specializing in psychoimmunology sTudy The connecTions among The brain behavior The immune sysTem healTh and illness STress can affecT The immune sysTem aT leasT Temporarily weakening iT 3 Discuss the physical and mental health implications of attributional and explanatory tendencies Discuss the negative effects engendered by learned helplessness and a depressive explanatory style pp 586588 While depression has many causes some researchers have focused on The aTTribuTions people make for The posiTive and negaTive evenTs in Their lives Learned helplessness is The acquired expecTaTion ThaT one cannoT conTrol imporTanT ouTcomes A depressive explanaTory sTyle is a Tendency To aTTribuTe bad evenTs To facTors ThaT are inTernal raTher Than exTernal IT39s all my faulT sTable raTher Than unsTable IT39s never going To change and global raTher Than specific NoThing ever goes righT in my life 4 Consider the psychological tendencies that contribute to the human capacity for resilience including selfef cacy and optimism pp 588592 Researchers idenTified a personaliTy sTyle called hardiness and concluded ThaT hardy people have Three characTerisTics 1 commiTmenT a sense of purpose wiTh regard To one39s work family and oTher domains 2 challenge an openness To new experiences and a desire To embrace change and 3 conTrol The belief ThaT one has The power To influence imporTanT fuTure ouTcomes Research supporTs The general poinT ThaT resilience or hardiness serves as a buffer againsT sTress OTher researchers were quick To noTice ThaT The percepTion of conTrol is an imporTanT ingredienT in hardiness The percepTion of conTrol refers To The expecTaTion ThaT our behaviors can produce saTisfying ouTcomes Selfefficacy is The feeling of compeTence in compleTing These behaviors Research has shows ThaT The more selfefficacy a person has The more likely They are To Take on Tasks Try hard persisT in The face of failure and succeed Seligman 1991 argues ThaT a generalized Tendency To expecT posiTive ouTcomes is characTerized by a nondepressive explanaTory sTyle OpTimisTs Tend To blame failure on facTors ThaT are eXTernal Temporary specific and To crediT success To facTors ThaT are inTernal permanenT and global Researchers noTe ThaT even pessimisTs can reTrain Themselves To Think in opTimisTic ways 5 De ne the two principal types of coping with stress problem and emotionfocused coping Identify the strengths and limitations of each coping style as well as the types of stress for Which each is best suited pp 592600 In problemfocused coping we benefiT from confronTing a sTressor head on raTher Than avoiding iT IT39s cogniTive and behavioral efforTs To reduce sTress by overcoming The source of The problem A second approach is emoTionfocused coping which consisTs of efforTs To manage our emoTional reacTions To sTressors raTher Than Trying To change The sTressor iTself We Tend To Take an acTive problemfocused approach when we Think we can overcome a sTressor buT fall back on emoTionfocused approach when we perceive The problem To be ouT of our conTrol 6 Explain What is meant by proactive coping Discuss the role of social support religion and culture on the manner in Which people cope with stress pp 600604 ProacTive coping consisTs of upfronT efforTs To ward off or modify The onseT of a sTressful evenT Coping can be seen as an ongoing process by which we Try To prevenT as well as reacT To The bumps and bruises of life Social supporT is imporTanT because everyone needs a liTTle help from friends Social supporT has TherapeuTic effecTs on our physical and psychological wellbeing Research has found ThaT more social connecTions people had The longer They lived This was True for all racial and eThnic backgrounds Religion provides a deeply imporTanT source of social and emoTional supporT for many people Religious faiTh may fill people wiTh hope and opTimism raTher Than wiTh despair offer The psychological benefiTs of relaxaTion in prayer provide a communiTy lifeline of social supporT To prevenT isolaTion and promoTe a safe and healThy way of life discourage Toxic habiTs like drinking and smoking across age groups people from asian culTures are less likely To seek ouT social supporT in Times of sTress surprisingly individualisTic culTures Tend To seek ouT more social supporT 7 Identify the social psychological components of a successful approach to treatment and explain Why they are effective Outline factors that promote prevention of risky behaviors pp 604607 Over The years sTudies have shown ThaT alThough There are vasle differenT schools of ThoughT and Techniques for doing psychoTherapy all approaches are somewhaT effecTive and surprisingly are all generally equivalenT All healers provide social supporT a close human relaTionship characTerized by warmTh expression of concern a shoulder To cry on and someone To Talk To They also all offer a ray of hope To people who are sick demoralized unhappy or in pain A common aspecT of Therapy is ThaT They communicaTe and insTill posiTive expecTaTions Also allowing paTienTs To make meaningful choices such as deciding on a Type of TreaTmenT increases The effecTiveness of TreaTmenTs for alcoholism and obesiTy Many serious life ThreaTs are prevenTable There are programs for AIDS prevenTion campaigns To persuade smokers To break The habiT sunscreens ThaT proTecT The skin from harmful rays screenings for various Types of cancer warnings abouT highsugar food highfaT food and obesiTy and laws ThaT mandaTe The use of seaTbelTs 8 Consider the Wide range factors that affect the pursuit of happiness and subjective wellbeing Describe When people are most likely to be happy and When they are least likely to be happy pp 607614 ArisToTle said happiness was The reward of an acTive life People who are happy also have cheerful moods high selfesTeem a sense of personal conTrol more memories of posiTive as opposed To negaTive evenTs and opTimism abouT The fuTure Happiness also gives rise To many successful life ouTcomes in The domains of marriage friendship healTh income and work performance EvenTs of everyday life Trigger fucTuaTions of mood People are mosT happy on Fridays and SaTurdays and easT happy on Mondays and Tuesdays On average sTudenTs feT besT during The middle of The day and The worsT in The early morning and laTe evening hours KEY TERMS appraisal p 573 The process by which people make judgemenTs abouT The demands of poTenTiay sTressfu evenTs and Their abiIiTy To meeT Those demands coping p 573 EfforTs To reduce sTress depressive explanatory style p 587 A habiTual Tendency To aTTribuTe negaTive evenTs To causes ThaT are sTable global and inTernal emotionfocused coping p 593 CogniTive and behavioral efforTs To reduce The disTress produced by a sTressful siTuaTion general adaptation syndrome p 579 A ThreesTage process alarm resisTance and exhausTion by which The body responds To sTress health psychology p 572 The sTudy of physical healTh and illness by psychologisTs from various areas of specializaTion immune system p 582 A biological surveillance sysTem ThaT deTecTs and desTroys nonself subsTances ThaT invade The body learned helplessness p 587 A phenomenon in which experience wiTh an unconTroabe evenT creaTes passive behavior in The face of subsequenT ThreaTs To wellbeing posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD p 576 A condiTion in which a person experiences enduring physical and psychological sympToms afTer an exTremer sTressfu evenT proactive coping p 593 UpfronT efforTs To ward off or modify The onseT of a sTressfuevenT problemfocused coping p 592 CogniTive and behavioral efforTs To alTer a sTressful siTuaTion psychoneuroimmunology p PNI p 583 A subfield of psychology ThaT examines The links among psychological facTors The brain and nervous sysTem and The immune sysTem selfef cacy p 589 A person39s belief ThaT he or she is capable of The specific behavior required To produce a desired ouTcome in a given siTuaTion social support p 600 The helpful coping resources provided by friends and oTher people stress p 573 An unpleasanT sTaTe of arousal in which people perceive The demands of an evenT as Taxing or exceeding Their abiliTy To saTisfy or alTer Those demands stressor p 574 AnyThing ThaT causes sTress subjective wellbeing p 608 One s happiness or life saTisfacTion as measured by selfreporT Type A personality p 581 A paTTern of behavior characTerized by exTremes of compeTiTive sTriving for achievemenT a sense of Time urgency hosTiliTy and aggression Sample Multiple Choice Questions 1 Compared to life in the year 1900 Americans now are more likely to die from a infectious diseases such as pneumonia c natural disasters such as hurricanes and oods d All of these ANS B REF Introductory Section OBJ 1 KEY Factual 2 The APA conducted a nationwide survey in 2008 that asked men and women to indicate the sources of stress in their lives Four out of ve cited which of the following a Love b Illness d Work ANS C REF Stress and Health OBJ 1 KEY Factual 3 Following a terrible car accident Ruby is anXious socially withdrawn has dif culty sleeping and experiences ashbacks of the crash Ruby is most likely suffering from a the illusion of invulnerability c a depressive explanatory style d Type A behavior ANS B REF What Causes Stress OBJ 1 KEY Applied 4 Research on burnout suggests it is more likely when workers lack a support from their supervisors b cordial relationships with their coworkers c adequate resources at work ANS D REF What Causes Stress OBJ 1 KEY Applied 5 Selye s 1936 general adaptation syndrome includes all of the following stages except a alarm b exhaustion d resistance ANS C REF How Does Stress Affect the Body OBJ 2 KEY Factual 6 When females are isolated and in social distress they eXperience b heightened fightor ight response c posttraumatic stress disorder d lower affiliative responses ANS A REF How Does Stress Affect the Body OBJ 2 KEY Conceptual 7 Which of the following has been demonstrated in research concerning the impact of gender on responses to stress a Men and women exhibit the fightor ight response to the same degree c Women react more aggressively than men d Men are less likely than women to suffer negative health consequences following prolonged stress ANS B REF How Does Stress Affect the Body OBJ 2 KEY Factual 8 A pattern of behavior characterized by extremes of competitive striving for achievement a sense of time urgency hostility and aggression is called b Type B personality c depressed explanatory style d a hardy disposition ANS A REF How Does Stress Affect the Body OBJ 2 KEY Factual 9 Caleb has a Type A personality The aspect of his behavior that is likely to place Caleb at greatest risk for coronary heart disease is his a Impatience and anXiety over deadlines b Competitive orientation d Workaholism ANS C REF How Does Stress Affect the Body OBJ 2 KEY Applied 10 Stress may weaken the immune system in part by increasing a the number of lymphocytes in the bloodstream b blood pressure d physical exertion and rest ANS C REF How Does Stress Affect the Body OBJ 2 KEY Conceptual 11 The habitual tendency to attribute negative events to causes that are stable global and internal is characteristic of a hardiness b optimism c Type A behaVior ANS D REF Processes of Appraisal OBJ 3 KEY Conceptual 12 When Ayanna passes an class she thinks her success is due to her hard work When she fails a class she thinks her failure is due to a lack of hard work These perceptions re ect a sense of and make it likely that Ayanna Will get sick a selfefficacy less b optimism more c pessimism more ANS D REF Processes of Appraisal OBJ 4 KEY Applied 13 A person s belief that he or she is capable of the speci c behavior required to produce a desired outcome in a given situation is called b control c hardiness d internal explanatory style ANSA REF Processes of Appraisal OBJ 4 KEY Factual 14 Which of the following has not been revealed by research on the relationship between optimism and health a Optimists are more likely than pessimists to make a quicker and fuller recovery from coronary artery bypass surgery b A positive correlation eXists between hopelessness and mortality early death c Optimism can have negative consequences When it leads people to believe that they have control over uncontrollable events ANS D REF Processes of Appraisal OBJ 4 KEY Factual 15 Cognitive and behavioral efforts to alter a stressful situation are called coping b emotionfocused c proactive d efficacious ANS A REF Ways of Coping with Stress OBJ 5 KEY Factual 16 In their study of procrastination Tice and Baumeister 1997 found that compared to nonprocrastinators procrastinators tended to report a lower levels of stress throughout the semester b higher levels of stress throughout the semester d higher levels of stress early in the semester and lower levels late in the semester ANS C REF Ways of Coping with Stress OBJ 5 KEY Factual l7 Upon discovering that she has lung cancer Mary blames the illness on her stupidity and lack of willpower The blame she assigns herself is and it is likely to her sense of future control a situational increase b behavioral increase d cathartic decrease ANS C REF Ways of Coping with Stress OBJ 5 KEY Applied 18 Positive emotions such as joy help people cope with adversity by a increasing blood pressure b allowing for proactive coping d narrowing their focus of attention ANS C REF Ways of Coping with Stress OBJ 5 KEY Conceptual 19 Opening up to others makes the problem at hand seem a more complicated but doing so decreases blood pressure b more complicated and doing so increases blood pressure d clearer but doing so increases blood pressure ANS C REF Ways of Coping with Stress OBJ 5 KEY Conceptual 20 Research on thought suppression shows that a suppressing the display of emotion is physiologically bene cial if those emotions are negative c keeping an important secret does not result in perceiVing the world differently d secretkeeping is important to managing emotions effectively ANS B REF Ways of Coping with Stress OBJ 5 KEY Conceptual 21 Selfawareness theory suggests that b we spend too much time thinking about ourselves c selffocus is triggered more by negative moods than positive moods d selffocus is a central part of problemfocused coping ANS A REF Ways of Coping with Stress OBJ 5 KEY Conceptual 22 Walter and Helen are both recently divorced and trying to cope with the stress of their failed relationships Compared to Walter Helen is more likely to cope by a using physical activity as a distraction c engaging in antisocial behavior d using alcohol or drugs to escape her feelings ANS B REF Ways of Coping with Stress OBJ 5 KEY Applied 23 Compared to European Americans Asians are b more likely to cope with stress by turning to others for social support c more likely to experience microstressors d more likely to eXperience major life stressors ANS A REF Ways of Coping with Stress OBJ 6 KEY Factual 24 Research on religion and coping reveals that a religion causes improvements in coping skills by increasing optimism b religion causes improvements in coping skills by in uencing healthier life choices d people Who make healthy choices and are optimistic are drawn to religious experiences ANS C REF Ways of Coping with Stress OBJ 6 KEY Conceptual 25 What seems to matter the least when it comes to determining whether a therapy will be successful or not a The intensity of social support provided c The amount of choice patients have in how the therapy proceeds d Whether it communicates a positive expectation ANS B REF Treatment and Prevention OBJ 7 KEY Conceptual 26 Research on subjective wellbeing demonstrates that a the majority of Americans describe themselves as unhappy b happy people tend to be less intelligent than unhappy individuals c happiness levels uctuate randomly throughout the day ANS D REF The Pursuit of Happiness OBJ 8 KEY Factual 27 Research on the relationship between money and happiness most clearly suggests that a upward social comparisons tend to increase feelings of subjective wellbeing b within a particular country the wealthier citizens report much higher levels of happiness than average citizens c as the wealth of a particular country increases the poorest half of its population are likely to make downward social comparisons and feel depressed as a result ANS D REF The Pursuit of Happiness OBJ 8 KEY Conceptual 28 Adaptationlevel theory suggests that b the more money we have the less we need to feel happy c we will make upward comparisons more than we make downward comparisons d highimpact events will have longlasting effects on happiness levels ANS A REF The Pursuit of Happiness OBJ 8 KEY Conceptual 29 Which type of purchase is most likely to increase your happiness a Jewelry b iPhone d New out t ANS C REF The Pursuit of Happiness OBJ 8 KEY Conceptual
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