Chapter 13 Study Guide
Chapter 13 Study Guide PSY 223
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 281 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
Study Guide for Chapter 13: Business LEARNING OBJECTIVES: GUIDELINES FOR STUDY You should be able to do each of the following by the conclusion of Chapter 13. 1. Define industrial/organizational psychology. Explain the Hawthorne effect and its role in triggering interest in industrial/organizational psychology. (pp. 532534) Industrial/organizational psychology is the study of human behavior in business and other organizational settings. The Hawthorne effect is the finding that workers who were given special attention increased their productivity regardless of what actual changes were made in the work setting. The study helped psychologists understand the profound impact of social influences in the workplace. Interested in the conditions that affect satisfaction, motivation, and performance, today’s researchers are study all aspects of life in the workplace, including the effect of monitorings workers’ computers. 2. Describe the effectiveness of the traditional employment interview when it comes to personnel selection. Consider the role of expectations in job interviews. Discuss the effectiveness of the various alternatives to the traditional job interview. (pp. 534540) Focusing on the possibility of race and ethnic background biases in an interview setting, some researchers have reported that face-to-face interviews humanized the applicants, bringing to life their interest in the job, their social skills, and other relevant attributes that do not show up on paper. People in general tend to favor others who are attractive. Research has shown that physical attractiveness has a large impact on hiring choices. Some alternatives to a traditional interview are standardized tests and structured interviews (see definitions section). 4. Differentiate objective from subjective criteria for performance appraisals. Identify the potential problems associated with supervisors’ evaluations of their subordinates as well as selfevaluations. Identify factors that improve the accuracy of performance appraisals and explain the dueprocess model of performance appraisal. (pp. 545548) Some objective performance appraisals would be judging an employee by the number of articles they publish, baseball pitchers by their win-loss percentage and earned run average, car dealers by the number of cars they sell, and sales agents by the number of customer they service. None of these quantitative measures take into account the quality of work. Some subjective performance ratings would be a supervisor rating and self-evaluations. Assuming supervisors stay informed about the performance of their subordinates, they are often asked to evaluate workers. Some possible issues with this is the halo effect where they fail to discriminate among different and distinct aspects of a single worker’s performance. Another problem is that evaluators differ in the average numerical ratings they give to others because some people are uniformly high, lenient raters while others are more stingy. Due-process was designed to guard the rights of employees in the same way that the criminal justice system seeks to protect the accused. There should be adequate notice (clear performance standards that employees can understand and ask questions about), a fair hearings (the are evaluated by a supervisor who knows their work and they get timely feedback and a chance to present their case), and they should be based on evidence of job performance. 5. Compare and contrast views of leadership that emphasize a trait approach with those that emphasize interactions between the person and situation. Explain the concepts of transactional and transformational leaderships. Discuss some of the problems faced by women and ethnic minorities when it comes to advancement in the workplace, and consider gender differences in leadership styles and preferences. (pp. 548556) The classic trait approach is to identify the traits that characterize “natural-born” leaders. They will look for cognitive ability, inner drive, leadership motivation, creativity, integrity, and flexibility. The contingency model of leadership is the theory that leadership effectiveness is determined both by the personal characteristics of leaders and by the control afforded by the situation. A transactional leader is one who gains compliance and support from followers primarily through goal setting and the use of rewards. A transformational leader is one who inspires followers to transcend their own needs in the interest of a common cause. Research shows that male and female managers have very similar aspirations, abilities, values, and job-related skills. Men tend to be more controlling while women tend to be more democratic. 6. Summarize the economic factors that affect employee satisfaction. Discuss expectancy theory, equity theory, and the differences between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. (pp. 556561) Someone’s job satisfaction depends on more than just salary but also on raises, how income is distributed, and what benefits an employer offers. Expectancy theory is that workers become more motivated when they believe their efforts will produce valued outcomes. Reward systems increase extrinsic motivation but can undermine intrinsic motivation (perform tasks for sake of interest, challenge, or sheer enjoyment). 7. Consider psychological perspectives on economic decision making. In particular, identify the influence of money on social judgment, social influences on investor behavior, and the significance of concepts such as commitment, entrapment, and escalation. (pp. 561567) In research, those exposed to money cues later became more independent; having money makes people feel less connected whereas having little money makes you feel more interdependent. Price movements in the stock market were triggered not by objective economic information but by other price movements in the market. KEY TERMS assessment center (p. 539)A structured setting in which job applicants are exhaustively tested and judged by multiple evaluators contingency model of leadership (p. 55The theory that leadership effectiveness is determined both by the personal characteristics of leaders and by the control afforded by the situation endowment effect (p. 565) The tendency for people to inflate the value of objects, goods, or services they already own escalation effect (p. 566The tendency for people to persist in failing investments to avert loss, which causes losses to mount (increase) expectancy theory (p. 556) The theory that workers become more motivated when they believe their efforts will produce valued outcomes Hawthorne effect (p. 533) The finding that workers who were given special attention increased their productivity regardless of what actual changes were made in the work setting industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology (p. 532The study of human behavior in business and other organizational settings integrity tests (p. 537Questionnaires designed to test a job applicant’s honesty and character normative model of leadership (p. 551) The theory that leadership effectiveness is determined by the amount of feedback and participation that leaders invite from workers performance appraisal (p. 545)The process of evaluating an employee’s work within the organization structured interview (p. 538)An interview in which each job applicant is asked a standard set of questions and evaluated on the same criteria sunk cost principle (p. 56The economic rule of thumb that only future costs and benefits, not past commitments, should be considered in making a decision transactional leader (p. 552A leader who gains compliance and support from followers primarily through goal setting and the use of rewards transformational leader (p. 552)A leader who inspires followers to transcend their own needs in the interest of a common cause Sample Multiple Choice Questions 1. Dr. Henry is a psychologist who studies practical issues concerning personnel selection, performance appraisals, and group leadership. She is probably a(n) a. clinical psychologist. b. experimental psychologist. c. economic/applied psychologist. d. industrial/organizational psychologist. ANS: D REF: Introductory Section OBJ: 1 KEY: Applied 2. The Hawthorne effect refers to a. the relationship between working conditions and job satisfaction. b. the finding that workers who were given special attention increased their productivity regardless of what actual changes were made in the work setting. c. the fact that employees become so engaged in their work that they are immune to environmental manipulations. d. the tendency for bright levels of illumination to decrease worker productivity. ANS: B REF: Introductory Section OBJ: 1 KEY: Factual 3. Which of the following has been demonstrated in research on traditional employment interviews? a. Interviews tend to be very high in predictive validity. b. Applicants who exhibit the least amount of selfpromotion are likely to be hired. c. Interviews eliminate biases toward physically attractive applicants. d. An employer’s expectations can distort the interview process. ANS: D REF: Personnel Selection OBJ: 2 KEY: Factual 4. Research that examines workers’ personality characteristics has concluded that a. people who score high in conscientiousness tend to be too timid and cautious to be highly productive workers. b. low selfmonitors are more likely to become organizational leaders. c. extraverts are more likely than introverts to succeed as managers. d. tests of cognitive ability are poor predictors of job success. ANS: C REF: Personnel Selection OBJ: 2 KEY: Factual 5. Which of the following has been demonstrated in research on integrity tests? a. Such tests are predictive of job performance and behaviors such as theft or disciplinary problems. b. Both overt and covert integrity tests can be easily faked by motivated or knowledgeable testtakers. c. While covert tests can be easily faked, overt tests are too obvious to fake. d. Such tests are no more predictive of job performance than the flip of a coin. ANS: A REF: Personnel Selection OBJ: 2 KEY: Conceptual 6. The advantage of structured rather than traditional interviews when screening applicants is that an employer a. can avoid conducting biased interviews. b. can use integrity tests and/or polygraph tests as part of the interview procedure. c. can get a better implicit understanding of each applicant. d. has more flexibility to pursue interesting lines of questioning in the interview. ANS: A REF: Personnel Selection OBJ: 2 KEY: Conceptual 7. Mandy has applied for a job at a large telecommunications company. As part of the process, she goes to the human resources department and participates in several exercises. In one exercise, she is taken to an office, seated at a desk, and asked to process the inbasket on the desk as if it were her first day on the job. Multiple evaluators rate Mandy’s performance on processing the inbasket work. Next, she does another task and is again rated by many evaluators. Mandy is participating in what form of personnel selection? a. Wholistic personality test b. Structured interview c. Assessment center d. On the job intelligence test ANS: C REF: Personnel Selection OBJ: 2 KEY: Applied 8. Research by Bobocel and others (1998) showed that opposition to affirmative action is associated with a. conscious prejudice. b. unconscious prejudice. c. strong belief in the principle of merit. d. strong belief in the principle of equality. ANS: C REF: Personnel Selection OBJ: 3 KEY: Conceptual 9. Madeline, Joe, and Ian have all applied for the same promotion. Madeline is chosen but may be particularly likely to devalue the promotion if she believes that a. it was based on equity considerations. b. the decision was made on the basis of an assessment center. c. her intrinsic motivation, not her ability, determined the decision. d. she got it because of her gender. ANS: D REF: Personnel Selection OBJ: 3 KEY: Applied 10. Performance standards based on the perceptions of employees reported by their supervisors, coworkers, or clients are considered a. concrete appraisals. b. integrity tests. c. quantitative criteria. d. subjective measures. ANS: D REF: Performance Appraisals OBJ: 4 KEY: Factual 11. Halo effects are most likely to be caused by a. reliance on implicit personality theories. b. the tendency to perceive women as having a nurturing role. c. biases in the graphology process. d. the use of structured interviews in personnel selection. ANS: A REF: Performance Appraisals OBJ: 4 KEY: Conceptual 12. Angus is accused of having a restriction of range problem in his evaluations of coworkers. What is most likely to be true about Angus? a. His ratings fluctuate dramatically over time b. He tends to believe that friendly subordinates are also competent c. He rates people he doesn’t know well inaccurately d. He probably fails to make adequate distinctions among subordinates ANS: D REF: Performance Appraisals OBJ: 4 KEY: Applied 13. Compared to supervisor ratings, selfevaluations are likely to be a. more positive and more predictive of job performance. b. more positive but less predictive of job performance. c. more negative and more predictive of job performance. d. more negative and less predictive of job performance. ANS: B REF: Performance Appraisals OBJ: 4 KEY: Factual 14. The practice of obtaining multiple evaluations of an individual worker from supervisors, peers, and subordinates is known as a _____ appraisal. a. circular b. 360degree c. multidirectional d. recombinant ANS: B REF: Performance Appraisals OBJ: 4 KEY: Factual 15. All of the following are aspects of the due process model of performance appraisal except a. adequate notice. b. fair hearing. c. integrity tests. d. evidence of job performance. ANS: C REF: Performance Appraisals OBJ: 4 KEY: Factual 16. Bobby, Peter, Greg, and Mike are all very effective leaders. Although their leadership styles vary, they are particularly likely to have in common a. an emphasis on smoothing over potentially tense relationships. b. the ability to negotiate deals efficiently and to their own advantage. c. an engaging way of speaking. d. the ability to use social influence effectively. ANS: D REF: Leadership OBJ: 5 KEY: Applied 17. The idea that leadership effectiveness is determined both by the personal characteristics of leaders and the control afforded by the situation is most consistent with the a. contingency model. b. transformational model. c. expectancy theory. d. great person theory. ANS: A REF: Leadership OBJ: 5 KEY: Conceptual 18. Isaac, a wellrespected man with charisma, wants to preserve some uninhabited islands from development. He carries out a “Save the Islands” campaign by focusing on people’s love for nature, addressing their concern about what they believe is becoming an overdeveloped world. He also presents a strategy for preserving the islands forever. Such leadership best reflects a. the classic trait approach to leadership. b. a normative model of leadership. c. transformational leadership. d. taskoriented leadership. ANS: C REF: Leadership OBJ: 5 KEY: Applied 19. Research regarding gender and leadership indicates that a. men are typically more effective leaders than women. b. women are typically more effective leaders than men. c. male leaders are more relationsoriented than female leaders, and females are more taskoriented than males. d. male leaders are more controlling in their approach than are female leaders, and females are more democratic than males. ANS: D REF: Leadership OBJ: 5 KEY: Factual 20. According to expectancy theory, worker motivation depends on all of the following except a. valued rewards. b. high intrinsic motivation. c. performance recognition. d. a belief that extra effort will be effective. ANS: B REF: Motivation at Work OBJ: 6 KEY: Factual 21. What feature(s) must a goal have to be effective? a. It must be specific. b. It must be simple. c. It must be specific and difficult. d. It must be general and simple. ANS: C REF: Motivation at Work OBJ: 6 KEY: Conceptual 22. Greenberg (1988) found that workers assigned to higherstatus offices improve their job performance, whereas those assigned to lowerstatus offices slow their performance. This finding supports the predictions of a. the transformational model. b. equity theory. c. the contingency model. d. intrinsic motivation. ANS: B REF: Motivation at Work OBJ: 6 KEY: Conceptual 22. Research by Vohs and colleagues (2006) demonstrates the effects of leading participants to think about money. Which of the following is not one of those effects? a. People tend to prefer to work alone as opposed to in groups. b. People tend to fail to ask for help with a problem they are having trouble solving. c. People tend to encroach on the personal space of other people, standing too close to them or engaging in unwanted physical touching. d. People tend to offer less help to others who are clearly in need of assistance. ANS: C REF: Economic Decision Making OBJ: 7 KEY: Factual 23. Researchers suggest that investors are more influenced by news and stock market tips during periods of rising and falling prices than during periods of relative stability. This is consistent with social psychological research concerning a. social exchange theory and equity theory. b. conformity and social comparison processes. c. cognitive dissonance and selfperception theories. d. contrast effects and excitation transfer. ANS: B REF: Economic Decision Making OBJ: 7 KEY: Conceptual 24. One difficulty that homeowners often run into when they attempt to sell is that they tend to value their own property much higher than do other people, including real estate agents and potential buyers. This tendency is consistent with the a. sunk cost principle. b. endowment effect. c. escalation effect. d. concept of entrapment. ANS: B REF: Economic Decision Making OBJ: 7 KEY: Conceptual
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