Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide HIST 1376
Popular in The United States To 1877
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tristanne Notetaker on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1376 at University of Houston taught by Eric H Walther in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see The United States To 1877 in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
Potential Questions for Unit II Exam —Final Exam—HIST 1376 1) Explain how the one-party dominance of Republicans up to the 1820s finally gave way to America’s Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs. 2) What factors underlay the long and varied era of religious and secular reforms that emerged in the early to mid-decades of nineteenth century America? Be sure to explain why and how both worldly and spiritual reforms were linked during this “Age of Boundlessness.” Age of Boundlessness was a protestant revival movement during the early 19 th century American social reform movements during early 19 century were spurred on by religious motivations Efforts to apply Christian teaching to the resolution of social problems presaged the social gospel of the late 19 century Converts were taught that to achieve salvation they needed not just repent of personal sin but also work for the moral perfection of society which meant eradicating sin in all its forms Evangelical converts were leading figures in a variety of 19 century reform movements Social activism influenced abolition groups and supporters of temperance movements 3) What was “Manifest Destiny”? How did this idea transform the United States from about 1835-1852, and how, in turn, did that transformation begin to divide Americans, North from South? Manifest destiny was the idea or concept of expanding the territory in America. It was known to be “God’s Will” for the country. Some people wanted Manifest destiny while others did not • The disagreement was the start of states wanting annexation • James K. Polk wanted annexation of Texas and Oregon o “54’40 or fight” Texas annexed: Texas revolution 1835-1836 • Texas won over Mexico by capturing Mexican president Mexican-American war 1846-1848 Henry David Thoreau against Mexican war and American expansion • Refused to pay taxes and was an icon of civil disobedience John C. Calhoun opposed Mexican war for fear of North/South succession Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 • Mexico abandons claims to Texas • Mexican seccesion: California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona Fear slavery would take over the nation, politics and power, party collapsed: north, south, honor Northerners favored abolition: white southerners saw their world ending Formation of Political parties • Free soil party • Barnburners: antislavery democrats • Conscience whigs: northern antislavery • Abolitionist/Liberty party 1840 Clays Compromise: California = free state, deny’s Texas northern claims, and pay its debt Formation of railroads, cotton boom, movement towards industrialism: demand for labor 4) Explain the factors that resulted in the end of the Second American political party system, and how and why a third party system emerged by the 1850s. Be certain to place the American Party (the Know-Nothings) into this chapter of American history. 5) Although there was never any such thing as a “Slave Power Conspiracy,” multitudes of northerners before the Civil War were certain there was a conspiracy between Southern politicians—the minority in Congress—and some Northerners to promote the interests and spread of slavery: make the case for a Slave Power conspiracy. Slave power conspiracy = spread of slavery everywhere Abolitionist conspiracy = force slavery to end Case for slave power conspiracy: • Sumner purposely wrote a speech for the crime against Kansas abolishing slavery to get all southerners on his side because he knew someone would attack him • Dred Scott vs. Sanford (1857) o Purposely gave slaves hope that they could be freed to make northerners believe they had changed; blamed constitution for saying slaves were property and had no rights o Making northerners believe the south was changing when really they were getting what they wanted • Compromise of 1850 o South wanted more slave expansion but settled and still expanded o Texas and New Mexico = slaves states o Fugitive slave law of 1850 • Lecompton Proslavery compromise o Rigged election so it would be proslavery no matter what • John Brown o Tried to take over towns with use of slaves 6) Explain how fugitive slaves (slaves who fled slavery by running to the North) and white northerners reacted to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Be sure to include at least all of the following in some detail: Harriett Beecher Stowe and Uncle Tom’s Cabin; the rendition of Anthony Burns; the Sumner-Brooks affair; and the Oberlin College rescue of 1859. White northerners and slaves did not agree with the Fugitive Slaw law of 1850. It required to send a run away slave back. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” because it illustrated slavery’s affect on families. It really gave a gruesome, accurate detail of what slave life was like. Anthony Burns was a run away slave who entered a free state, because of the fugitive slave law, the government could intervene and charged Burns with robbery because he was considered property; many northerners helped run away slaves but couldn’t anymore because of the government. Northerners did, however, fight for Burns freedom. Sumner had given a speech on the crimes against Kansas because they had abolished slavery; Brooks was the nephew of Andrew Butler who agreed with abolitionism and who Sumner had made fun of. Brooks beat Sumner into a coma, which Sumner survived. They did not get along because of anti-slavery and proslavery differences. John Price was a black man who was approached by a slave catcher, Boynton of Oberlin. Kentucky slave catchers were getting frustrated because they were unable to find fugitive slaves. Boynton tricked Price and conspirators intercepted the carriage and took Price to Wellington. When Oberlians found out, white and black residents rode to Wellington and tried to free him. Langston, Watson, and Wall even tried to legal action. Many were arrested and chose to stay in jail where they wrote “The Resucers.” Eventually the kidnappers were charged and everyone was released. 7) Although eleven southern states seceded from the Union by 1861, the United States had already faced a series of secession crises. Trace the various major secessionist efforts in this country from 1828 to 1860/1861. How were they alike? How was each unique? 1830-1860: abolition movement 1840-1850: irish immigration 1832: southerners wanted to secede due to tariffs tariff of 1828: tariff of abomination tariff’s protected northern manufacturers but increased prices for manufactured goods purchased in south 1857: dred scott decision 1860/61: south Carolina, Mississippi, florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, teas, Virginia, arknasas, Tennessee, north Carolina they were alike in that it was the north doing something to upset the south or over slaver; the south tried to act first but efforts failed so they wanted to secede they were unique in that they all failed until 1860/61 8) Trace Abraham Lincoln’s evolving views on slavery and race relations, from his emergence on the political stage to his death at the hands of an assassin in 1865; be certain to explain how the length and destructiveness of the Civil War changed many of his pre-war views. When Lincoln first emerged, he was ambiguous about slavery, which led for both the north and souths support during his election. Many states seceding = no union th April 12 : first shot fired of civil war (1861) Lincoln called volunteer troops: 90 day enlistment More states seceded Lincoln = writ of habeas corpus = can arrest for no reason Win war, than fix constitution Sept. 17 , 1862: bloodiest day in America Lincoln became avid anti-slavery participant because of civil war Said without war. Slavery would have never ended 10 % plan and 13 amendment (1865) April 11 , 1865: speech on black men voting th April 14 , 1865: shot and killed by Booth 9) President Lincoln, his successor Andrew Johnson, Congress, white Southerners, former slaves, and President Ulysses S. Grant each had different view of Reconstruction. Provide detail on any four of the following in order to grapple with this exciting and disillusioning chapter of American History. Andrew Johnson: Civil rights act 1866: same rights for all men th 14 amendment 1868: all blacks protected Congress: Military reconstruction Vetoed both of Johnson’s acts Tenure of office act 1867: depose president in certain situations Impeached Johnson Black codes: social, economic, physical White southerners: Reinvent slavery Black codes KKK Ulysses S. Grant: th 15 amendment 1870: right to vote cannot be altered based on family history enforcements acts = stop KKK
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