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Final Study guide Psych 101 Voorhies - Intro to Psychology
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Jacobs on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 101 Voorhies - Intro to Psychology at DCH Regional Medical Center taught by Dr. Voorhies in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at DCH Regional Medical Center.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
Chapter 1 Define Psychology Scientific study of behavior and mental processes How much of our brain do we use?100% Psychology Fields of Study – what does each do? developmental prenatal to death physiological human behavior, thoughts and emotions experimental Basic psychological processes Personality differences among individuals clinical diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders Counseling “normal” adjustment issues Social society influences the individual industrial and organizational principles of psych to the workplace Scientific method, theory, hypotheses Scientific method approach to knowledge which: Relies on collecting data, generates theory to explain data, produces testable hypotheses based on the theory, Test those hypotheses empirically. Theory systematic explanation of phenomenon organizes known facts, allows prediction of new facts, permits degree of control over the phenomenon. Hypotheses specific, testable predictions derived from a theory. Critical thinking strategies thinking like a scientist, base beliefs on solid evidence, analyze assumptions, avoid oversimplifying, drawing conclusions carefully. Human Diversity Gender vs Sex gender psychological and social meanings attached to being biologically male/female vs. sex Male/female Gender Stereotypes culturally generated beliefs regarding these differences Sexual orientation Direction of one’s sexual interest. Race and ethnicity Race subpopulation that are genetically smaller. ethnicity shared cultural heritage based on common ancestry, this can affect norms of behavior. Research methods in psychology: name and define each one Experimental group group you’re experimenting on. Uses a variable Control group group that doesn’t change, no variable Experimenter bias being the Sampling Random sample vs representative sample Chapter 2: Biological Bases of Behavior Neuronnerve cell Dendriteshort fibers that neurons receive messages from other neurons Axona longer fiber that carries outgoing messages from the cell Myelin sheathfatty sheath made up of glial cells; increases neuron efficiency and provides insulation Disorder association with loss of myelin sheath MS disorder Sensory neuron or afferent neuroncollect messages from sense organs and carry those messages to the spinal cord of the brain Motor or efferent neuronsneurons that carry messages from the spinal cord or the brain to the muscles and glands Interneurons or association neuronsNeurons that carry messages from one neuron to another Glial cellhold the neurons in place, provide nourishment, remove waste products, prevent harmful substances from passing from the bloodstream into the brain, and form the myelin sheath that insulates and protects neurons Cell nucleus Terminal buttonsWhen the impulse reaches, it releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic space which separates one neuron from another Axon terminals Resting potentialAt rest there are more negative ions inside the neuron compared with the outside. When a point on the semipermeable neural membrane is adequately stimulated by an incoming message, the membrane opens at that point, and positively charged ions flow in PolarizationThe condition of a neuron when the inside is negatively charged relative to the outside; for example resting neuron is in the state of polarization. Action potentialThis process is repeated along the length of the membrane, creating the neural impulse that travels down the axon, causing the neuron to fire Threshold of excitationthe levels impulse must exceed to cause a neuron to fire All or non lawPrinciple that the action potential in a neuron does not vary in strength; either the neuron fires at full strength, or it does not fire at all Synaptic space or cleftTiny gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of the next neuron SynapseArea composed of the axon terminal of one neuron the synaptic space and the dendrite or cell body of the next neuron Synaptic vesiclesTiny sacs in a terminal button that release chemicals into the synapse NeurotransmittersChemicals released by the synaptic vesicles that travel across the synaptic space and affect adjacent neurons Acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, endorphins, GABA, glutamate, glycine Neural plasticityThe ability of the brain to change in response to experience ROSENWEIG’s STUDYimportance of experience to neural development and the establishment of neural networks (rat experiment) Neurogenesisthe growth of new neurons Central nervous systemDivision of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous systemDivision of the nervous system that connects the CNS to the rest of the body AutonomicThe part of the PNS that carries messages between the CNS and the internal organs vs somatic NSThe part of the PNS that carries messages from the senses to the CNS and between the CNS and the skeletal muscles SympatheticBranch of the autonomic nervous system; it prepares the body for quick action in an emergency. vs parasympatheticBranch of the autonomic nervous system; it calms and relaxes the body MedullaStructure in the hindbrain that controls essential life support functions including breathing, heart rate and blood pressure PonsStructure in the midbrain that regulates sleep and wake cycles CerebellumStructure in the hindbrain that controls certain reflexes and coordinate the body's movements Primary sensory regionsarea of the parietal lobe where messages from the sense receptors are registered Association areasAreas of the cerebral cortex where incoming messages from the separate senses are combined into meaningful impressions and outgoing messages from the motor areas are integrated Thalamusforebrain region that relays and translates incoming messages from the sense receptors, except those for smell Hypothalamusforebrain region that governs motivation and emotional responses Reticular formationnetwork of neurons in the hindbrain, the midbrain, and part of the forebrain, whose primary function is to alert and arouse the higher parts of the brain Frontal lobepart of the cerebrum that is responsible for voluntary movement; it is also important for attention, goaldirected behavior, and appropriate emotional experiences Occipitalpart of the cerebrum that receives and interprets visual information parietalpart of the cerebrum that receives sensory information from throughout the body temporal lobespart of the cerebral hemisphere that helps regulate hearing, balance and equilibrium, and certain emotions and motivations Limbic systemRing of structures that plays a role in learning and emotional behavior hippocampusA limbic system structure which plays an important role in the formation of new memories amygdalaA limbic system structure involved in governing emotions and establishing emotional memories olfactory bulbthe small center of the brain Corpus callosumA thick band of nerve fibers connecting the left and right cerebral hemispheres Split brain patients Wernicke’s and Broca’s Areas Chapter 3 Sensation involves experience of brain receiving raw data from sensory receptors in different senses Perception involves brain organizing and interpreting this raw data or giving it meaning. Transduction The physical stimulus present in the environment emits energy that is absorbed by a sensory organ (known as transduction), causing sensation The difference between sensation and perception Visually identify the types of sensory neurons The hardware of the ear Pinna External part of the ear, collects sound Ear canal Tube running from the outer ear to the middle ear. Eardrum Membrane of the middle ear that vibrates in response to sound waves. Hammer outermost of a chain of three small bones in the middle ear. Anvil Middle one of a chain of three small bones stirrup Innermost of a chain of three small bones involved with transduction in the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear. oval window opening at the head of the cochlea, connecting the middle and inner ear, through which sound vibrations of the stapes are transmitted. Middle ear the airfilled central cavity of the ear, behind the eardrum. Auditory nerve bundle of nerve fibers that carries hearing information between the cochlea the brain. Cochlea Spiral cavity of the inner ear containing the organ of corti, which produces nerve impulses in response to sound vibrations. The type of stimulus each sensory neuron processes Absolute threshold softest sound we can hear or the slightest touch we can feel. noticeable to our senses Just Noticeable Difference The amount of change needed for us to recognize that a change has occurred. Weber’s Law The concept that a justnoticeable difference in a stimulus is proportional to the magnitude of the original stimulus. Vision to see Light Waves fast waves=blue, slow waves=red. Hardware of the eye: cornea Protective coating lens transparent behind pupil focuses light on retina retina Lining of the eye, rods & cones, light sensitive cells fovea Center of visual field (most cones) blindspot optic nerve leaves retina Rods vs Cones Rods receptor cells responsible for black and white vision. High sensitive. night vision, brightness, located outside of fovea. Many rods connect to one bipolar cells. Cones Responsible for color vision. Operate in daylight, moderately sensitive to light. Center of fovea. Single cone connects to one bipolar cells. Additive vs. Subtractive Color mixing Additive mixes light of different wavelengths (white) Subtractive mixing pigments that absorb and reflect wavelengths (Black) Trichromatic vs Opponent process Visual Processing Trichromatic all color perceptions retina (red, blue, green), Opponent Color perception controlled by action of two opponent systems. Some color comb. We do not see (reddish green) Sound Waves Place theory How sound is received and perceived by the human ear. Locations of greatest vibration. frequency theory Pitch is determined by frequency with which hair cells in the cochlea fire. volley principle Receptors in ear fire in sequence. Complete pattern of firing corresponds to frequency of sound wave. Smell Hardware of the olfactory system(Sensory system for smell) turbinate bones bony plate that projects from walls of nasal cavity. receptors Smell center in brain olfactory bulb Sense of smell Taste Hardware of the taste system, tongue, taste receptors (we won’t focus on areas of the tongue responsible for taste) Pain Gate Control Theory “neurological gate” in the spinal cord control transmission of pain messages to the brain. If gate is open we experience more pain than if closed. vs Biopsychosocial Theory Interactions of biological, physical, and cultural factors influencing intensity and duration of pain. Effectiveness of management depends on biological, psychological, and cultural factors. Fear avoidance paranoid create pain thinking of one’s fear. Pain Acceptance Process of giving up the struggle with pain Placebo effect Pain relief occur when person believes a pill or procedure will reduce pain anti placebo effect there is no pain relief. Balance Hardware of the Vestibular Organ: Three looping canals above the cochlea Principles of perceptual organization: proximity, similarity, closure, continuity Monocular cues to vision: texture gradient, motion parallax, shadowing Binocular cues Stereoscopic vision, retinal disparity, convergence Perception of Movement: Apparent Movement Sensation of seeing movement when nothing actually moves autokinetic illusion Perception that stations object is moving stroboscopic motion apparent movement that results from flashing series of still pictures in rapid succession as a motion picture. (flipbook) phi phenome Apparent movement caused by flashing lights in sequence as on theater marquees. Chapter 4 States of consciousness Intentionalitythe quality of being directed toward an object. Unityresistance to division Selectivitythe capacity to include some objects but not others Transiencethe tendency to change Circadian rhythmsbiological clock, adaptation to 24 hour solar cycle of light and dark When are you alert?High alertness at level 10 When does melatonin secretion start and stop?Starts at 21 and ends at 7:30 When is your lowest body temperature?4:30 What does the suprachiasmatic nucleus do? How many nonrem stages of sleep are there?4 What is REM?Rapid eye movement/paradoxical sleep Sleep spindle Kcomplex Consequences of sleep deprivationdecrease in productivity, difficulty in paying attention, remembering and decision making, increased risk of onthejob and auto accidents. Contributes to variety of negative health consequences Sleep disorders Extrinsic(Shift work sleep disorder, jet lag) vs Intrinsic(delayed sleep phase disorder, advanced sleep phase, non 24 hour sleep wake, irregular sleep wake rhythm) Nightmaresfrightening dreams that occur during REM sleep and are remembered Night terrorsfrightening, often terrifying dreams that occur during stage 4 of NREM sleep from which a person is difficult to awake and doesn’t remember the content. (Sleep paralysis) Sleep Phase disorders Insomniasleep disorder characterized by difficulty in falling asleep or remaining asleep throughout the night Apneasleep disorder characterized by breathing difficulty during the night and feelings of exhaustion during the day Narcolepsyhereditary sleep disorder characterized by sudden nodding off during the day and sudden loss of muscle tone following moments of emotional excitement Treatments(sleep hygiene, medications, blue blocking glasses, bright light therapy) Sleep hygieneavoid naps, caffeine, and other stimulants. Bed should only be for sleep and sex MedicationsSleep phase chronotherapy may progressively advance or delay sleep time Psychoactive Drugssubstances that change mood and perceptions Three classes of drugsDepressants, Hallucinogens, Stimulants) The dangers of drugsinability to perceive danger in environment, dangerous mood or behavioral changes, overdose, and addiction to NUTELLA!!!! Behavioral Effects of Blood Alcohol Levels0.05(feels good, less alert and reduced inhibitions) 0.10(slower to react, less cautious, slurred speech) 0.15(Reaction time is slower) 0.20(Sensory motor abilities are suppressed) 0.25(Is staggering, perception limited as well) 0.30(is in semi stupor, confused) 0.35(at level for anesthesia, death is possible) 0.40(Stupor) 0.50(Coma) 0.60(Respiratory paralysis and death) Barbiturates Potentially deadly depressants. Opiatesdrugs, such as opium and heroin. Synthetic drugs, morphine compounds Stimulants!!!!!!!!! Cocaine, amphetamines, nicotine, and coffee What is the difference between drug abuse (use results in repeated use of drug in dangerous situations or that leads to legal difficulties) and dependence (Pattern of compulsive drug taking that results in tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, or other specific symptoms for at least a year) Meditation methods of concentration, reflection, or focusing of thoughts, undertaken to suppress activity of sympathetic nervous system, used to treat stressrelated medical problems and stress reduction, may enhance effectiveness of immune system and overall psychological wellbeing Chapter 5 Learning Experience that causes a permanent change. Habituation gradual reduction in responding. Classical Conditioning having a stimulus that learns a behavior based on a smell, taste, touch. Unconditioned, Conditioned Stimulus, Response Basic principles of classical conditioning Acquisition, Extinction, Spontaneous recovery, Generalization, Discrimination. Acquisition Extinction Spontaneous recovery Generalization Discrimination Cognitive element of expectation Evolution advantage of adaptiveness, Biological preparedness, and survival (food aversion) Instrumental Behavior Puzzle box Law of effect Operant conditioning Discrimination, Generalization, Importance of context, Extinction. Reinforcer / Punisher Positive/Negative The four schedules of reinforcement Fixed/variable Interval/ratio Which produces the highest rate of behavior? Which produces the most consisted behavior Which is the hardest to extinguish? Shaping – Dalmatian vs College Student Superstitious behavior The neural elements of operant conditioning Getting more sophisticated Meansend relationship Latent learning Cognitive maps Observational Learning Social Learning, Cultural norms, Viewing media violence, mirror neurons. Bobo Doll Experiments Children watched the way adults hit the bobo dolls and then they did that too, without anyone telling them not to. Chapter 6 Memory The ability to remember the things that we have experienced, imagined, and learned. Retrieval The process of accessing stored memories. Encoding allows the perceived item of interest to be converted into a construct that can be stored within the brain. Storage The process of placing newly acquired information into memory. Short term memory vs Long term memory Short term (working memory) All the things you are currently thinking of. Long Term memory stored for life. Everything you have in your memory ever. Can last forever. Most meaningful things get encoded into long term memory. Forgetting The memory has disappeared, it is no longer available or the memory is still in the memory system, but for some reason it cannot be retrieved. Capacity of STM Can hold about as much information as can be repeated or rehearsed for 1.5 to 2 seconds. Coding type Chunking Grouping of information into meaningful units for easier handling by shortterm memory. Phonetic Code In short term memory, you are able to think verbally. Retention Duration) 20 sec Recoding Maintenance duration Elaborative rehearsal the linking of new information in short term memory to familiar material stored in long term memory. Visual/Phonological/Semantic Encoding Proactive vs retroactive interference Memory decay Retrieval from STM retrieve information quickly. What are the different ways we can search memory Parallel All items being checked at once. Serial All items being checked one at a time. Selfterminating Search through the memory set until we find a match, then stop. Exhaustive checking ever item in the set, even if a match has been found. Which do we use for STM Listening to a conversation, watching a TV show, becoming aware of a headache. Working memory another term for short term memory that emphasizes the active processing component of this memory system. The parts of working memory Plays a role in directing our attention to specific stimuli, briefly storing and combining the selected stimuli with other information, and actively rehearsing this information to help us solve problem and find solutions. Visuospatial sketchpad Responsible for the manipulation and temporary storage of visual and spatial information. (information seen) Central executive Acts as supervisory system and control the flow of information from and to its slave systems: the phonological loops and the visuospatial sketchpad. Phonological loop Part of the working memory system that handles auditory and verbal information. Episodic buffer Theorized to integrate the other functions. Phonological similarity effect Word length effect describes the ability to reproduce a sequence of words better with short than long words. Articulatory suppression process of inhibiting memory performance by speaking while being presented with an item to remember. Stimulus independent thought HM suffered from uncontrollable seizures in his hippocampus/ medial temporal lobe cortex. after the removal, HM was unable to store new declarative (episodic and semantic) memories. LTM The portion of memory that is more or less permanent, corresponding to everything we “know.” Implicit vs explicit memory implicit includes procedural and emotional memories explicit includes episodic and semantic memories. Procedural episodic, semantic and emotional memories: Procedural episodic Motor skills and habits Semantic facts and concepts not linked to a particular time. emotional learned emotional responses to various stimuli: all of our loves and hates, our rational and irrational fears, our feelings of disgust and anxiety. Long term potentiation A longlasting change in the structure or function of a synapse that increases the efficiency of neural transmission and is thought to be related to how information is store by neurons. Tip of the tongue phenomenon The experience of knowing a word but not being able to recall it. Chapter 7: Language Thought and Intelligence Language A flexible system of communication that uses sound, rules, gestures, or symbols to convey information Phoneme The basic sounds that make up any language Morpheme The smallest meaningful units of speech, such as simple words, prefixes, and suffixes. Grammar The language rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning within a language. Deep Structure Transformations in the meaning of the sentence. Surface Structure Transformations in the look of the sentence Language development Process starting early in human life., Infants start without language, yet by 10 months of age, babies can distinguish speech sounds and engage in babbling. Babbling early stage of language development, usually occurring around ages 34 months, in which children spontaneously produce all sorts of nonsensical, unrelated sounds. No real words are formed at this point, but children are just beginning to put sounds together in order to form words. Fast mapping The process of rapidly learning a new word by contrasting it with a familiar word. Telegraphic speech In the twoword stage or language development children. Behaviorist explanations that our responses to environmental stimuli shape our behaviors. Nativist explanations Argues that humans are biologically programmed to gain knowledge. Genetic dysphasia a speech impediment. Language activation device an instinctive mental capacity which enables an infant to acquire and produce language. Interactionist explanations Aphasia A language disorder that affects a person’s ability to communicate. Concept Mental categories for classifying objects, people, or experiences. Category specific deficits Family resemblance theory Prototype theory Exemplar theory Problem Solving Divergent vs convergent theory: Divergent thinking that involves generating many different possible answer. Convergent thinking that narrows its focus in a particular direction, assuming there is only one solution. problem representation The first step in solving a problem, it involves interpreting or defining the problem. problem solution The answer to a problem trial and error Strategy that words best when choices are limited. information retrieval Retrieving information from different parts of the memory. algorithms a stepbystep method of problem solving that guarantees a correct solution. heuristics Rules of thumb that help in simplifying and solving problems, although they do not guarantee a correct solution. mental sets The tendency to perceive and to approach problems in certain ways. functional fixedness thinking that one object only has one use. Hill climbing A heuristic, problem solving strategy in which each step moves you progressively closer to the final goal. Three obstacles to solving problems a person’s level of motivation or emotional arousal to solve the problem, Mental Set, Functional fixedness Compensatory decision making vs. heuristics decision making Heuristics do not guarantee a solution while the compensatory md=doel (rational decision making model in which choices are systematically evaluated on various criteria) does. Most common decision making heuristics Representativeness and confirmation bias. Representativeness a heuristic by which a new situation is juged don the basis of its resemblance to a stereotypical model. Availability Heuristic by which a judgment or decision is based on information that is most easily retrieved from memory. Confirmation bias The tendency to look for evidence in support of a belief and to ignore evidence that would disprove a belief Framing The perspective from which we interpret information before making a decision. Hindsight bias The tendency to see outcomes as inevitable and predictable after we known the outcome. Counterfactual thinking Thinking about alternative realities and things that never happened. Multitasking Doing more than one thing at once.
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