GSC102 Final Exam Study Guide: pictures included
GSC102 Final Exam Study Guide: pictures included GSC 102
Popular in Evolution of the Biosphere
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Juan Rios on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GSC 102 at University of Miami taught by Peter Leech in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 134 views. For similar materials see Evolution of the Biosphere in Geology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
1. Lecture 26: The Triassic a. Frogs i. Amphibians decline at PT extinction ii. Slowly going extinct 1. Become small, living in water and swamps b. Lystrosaurus i. A Triassic land reptile whose fossils have been found in India, Africa, and Antarctica 1. The distribution of this reptile has been used as evidence for continental drift a. NOT A DINOSAUR b. c. What makes a mammal a mammal i. Contain mammary glands ii. One jaw 3 ear bones d. Why sauropsids outcompete synapsids in the Mesozoic i. The sauropsids take over Pangaea 1. Arid environment and the sauropsids conserve water better than the other animals ii. Lepidosaurs 1. Scaly lizards and snakes 2. Dominate ocean a. 3. Sea monster like iii. Archosaurs 1. Crocs, alligators, birds, dinos e. Mesozoic marine reptiles i. Not dinosaurs, but lizard like f. Mesozoic marine revolution i. Crocodylomorphs 1. Crocodile and alligator ancestors ii. Pterosaurs 1. Flying reptile 2. Very distinct tail 3. Fur like “skin” a. iii. Bird-hipped 1. Evolved out of lizard hipped 2. Anything besides a therapod iv. Lizard-hipped dinosaurs 1. Therapods and sauropids 2. Birds evolved from there g. Know the main branches i. Therapods 1. Lizard hipped 2. Bipedal carnivores a. T-rex 3. ii. Sauropods 1. Lizard hipped 2. Diplodocus a. Long neck b. Very large herbivore c. 4 legs 3. iii. Central Atlantic Magmatic Province 1. The End-Triassic Extinction 2. Lava pumped out of earth and covered much of land 3. Dinosaurs survive 4. NJ palisades 2. Lecture 27: The Jurassic a. Salt domes and Oil in the Gulf of Mexico i. Salt and petroleum begin to form in north America ii. With high pressure slow flow upwards thru rock 1. Form bulges or domes in sediments b. Bone wars i. War between two paleontologist fighting to find fossils ii. Spy and steal on each others digs 1. When most of all dinosaur fossils were found a. Morrison foundation is rich in fossils c. Therapod brooding i. Eggs came with holes 1. Were protected ii. Large and small footprints found together d. Armored dinosaurs, i. Rimmed-headed dinosaurs 1. Quadrupedal 2. Herbivores a. Weird skull 3. ii. Bird-footed dinosaurs 1. "Duck-billed"- a. Have bird hipswith no relation to present day birds i. Iguanadon and Parasaurolophus- 1. Crests which were sued for sexual selection 2. They have better teeth than the sauropods so they can chew a. No other reptile can chew- take over the north ii. iii. Stegosaurus 1. Low browsing herbivores 2. Clubbed tail 3. Genus of dinosaurs a. iv. Pterodactyl 1. Pycnofibers 2. v. Ichthyosaurs 1. "Fish lizard"- reptiles that have evolved into some sort of dolphin like creature- top predator of the late Triassic and early Jurassic- they chase you and eat you 2. vi. Plesiosaurs 1. 4 distinctive fins and extremely long necks- not built for feeds- ambush hunting 2. vii. Monotremes a. First mammal to show up i. Appear during the Jurassic ii. Have mammary glands but no nipples- lay eggs 3. Lecture 28: The Cretaceous a. The fall line i. Part of eastern United States where line of waterfalls are ii. Eroded sedmentary rock b. Angiosperms (flowering plants) i. The Jurassic the first angiosperms 1. Enclosed seeds or fruit 2. Flowering plants a. Bees and pollinating moths evolve c. Extinction of Stegosaurus i. ANGIOSPERMS causes extinction of stegosaurus 1. Stegosaurus does not have the jaw to easily break the new angiosperm plants 2. Triceratops beak and jaw strength let it dominate d. Decline of sauropods and rise of duck-billed dinosaurs i. Duck billed dinosaurs 1. Ate plants a. Only reptile that can chew and eat better b. Largely replaced sauropods ii. Sauropods survived in the south 1. Velociraptor a. Small, feathered b. T-rex only lived in northern hemisphere i. North west Oregon ii. More of a hunter than a scavenger iii. Binocular vision 2. Giganotosaurus a. T-rex found in southern hemisphere 3. Mosasaurs and plesiosaurs dominate the cretaceous seas iii. Three types of mammal: 1. Monotremes a. Lay eggs b. Lack nipples i. Ex. platypus and echidna 2. Marsupials a. Pouches b. True marsupials developed in N. America then spread to S. America and Australia- i. Only mammals to make it to Australia ex. Kangaroos and Koala 3. Placental mammals a. Contain placenta i. Organ that connect the fetus to urine wall iv. Why monotremes and marsupials are mostly confined to Australia 1. Both were present throughout south America and then Australia broke of 2. Placental mammals evolved after Australia broke away 4. Lecture 29: The KT Extinction a. Decline of the pterosaurs b. The Deccan Traps i. India 1. Another volcanic explosion a. Killed of a good number of dinosaurs c. Iridium i. Really rapid event 1. The KT extinction is separated by a very distinction clay between two rocks a. Iridium was found in the clay b. Dinosaur's---iridium---no dinos d. Shocked quartz and tektites Location of the impact i. Also found in small layer of clay 1. Evidence for an asteroid hit ii. Rocks made out of solidified magma thrown all around e. Size of the asteroid i. 5 miles in diameter ii. Chicxulub f. Why we think the asteroid is responsible, rather than the Deccan Traps i. Spike in iridium correlates to sudden death of dinosaurs g. Impact winter i. Sulfur and aerosols 1. All the dust blocks out the sun rays for up to a year a. Sulfur heated creates aerosol b. The sulfur in the air from the impact extends the impact winter for almost decades h. Collapse of the food chain and why mammals survive i. Photosynthetic plants dies because no sun 1. No plants= no herbivores 2. No herbivores or meat = no carnivores 3. Only ones to survive were the small burrowing omnivorous mammals 5. Lecture 30: The Paleogene a. Formation of the Himalayas and efect on Earthʼs climate i. 60 million years ago India collided with Eurasia and began to form the Himalayas ii. Uplifted tocks tend to weather quickly 1. Fast weathering pulls co2 out of atmosphere b. Why there are four main groups of placental mammals Carnivores c. Grass i. Grass shows up around 55 million years ago 1. Angiosperm a. Grow from bottom up b. Many mammals evolves to eat grass, creating positive feedback i. Converts woodland into grassland ii. Teeth gets longer and harder d. Evolution of horses i. Horses get taller and build stronger legs and teeth ii. This was due to the spread of grasslands 1. Teeth became longer so they were better adapted to grind grass rather than chew softer forest leaves 2. The splayed toes grew together which created a single toe which allowed them to sprint and their legs grew longer 3. The toes hardened and became hoofs 6. Lecture 31: The Neogene a. Formation and relative stability of the Antarctic ice sheet Great American Interchange i. Antarctica begins to move towards the south pole 1. Makes climate cooler because ice can grow more easily than the ocean 2. Circumpolar current a. Cuts of Antarctica from rest of earths climate b. Xenarthra and caviomorph rodents and Terror birds i. Xenarthra 1. Armadillos, sloths, ant eater 2. Ground sloths a. Giant placental xenarthra 3. Terror Bird a. Early mammals in south America produced few large carnivores so the niche of the predator was filled by these birds c. Savannah and interchange “pulses” i. Almost all animal "walker" involves in the interchange were adopted to savannah 1. Initial mix of ecosystem is based on the size of the ecosystem ii. North American exchange 1. Panama reconnected N. and S. America a. Allowed for the two places to interchange species- the interchange took place in 4 pulses that were caused by climate change b. Almost all the creatures that interchanged were walking animals which implies that only animals that could live in a savannah or grassland could participate d. Why North American animals are generally more successful than South American animals i. North America is connecting and disconnecting ii. A lot of competition iii. South there little competition iv. South American desert blocks south from moving up 7. Lecture 32: The Pleistocene Ice Age a. The Last Glacial Maximum i. 20,000 ya ii. For most of earths history the earth has been ice free iii. Were still in the Pleistocene ice age 1. Greenland still has this ice age 2. Antarctica still has ice b. Milankovic cycles and seasonality i. The efects on earths climate of changes in the earths orbit ii. Low seasonality in the northern hemisphere will cause northern ice sheets to grow 1. Seasons occur from tilt of the earth iii. Insolation 1. Sunlight coming into earth 2. Incoming solar radiation a. Controlled by 3 orbital parameters iv. The earth processes 1. Just like a spinning top the direction of earths axis changes slowly over time 2. Dates of seasons will change c. Carbon dioxide, dust, and the biological pump i. Make earth cooler and more ice there’s more dust ii. Blows around and in ocean iii. There’s iron and sucks it into ocean iv. Animals take it in and die and sludgy 8. Lecture 33: Pleistocene Mega fauna a. Mega fauna i. Medium to large size mammals 1. Mastodonsmammoth African elephant a. Very much diferent i. Mammoth 1. Grinding teeth for rocks and sand 2. Larger head 3. Cold climate fur 4. Ear size small ii. Mastodon 1. Pointy studded teeth for twigs and leaves iii. Elephant 1. Adapted to climate 2. Big ears to regulate climate iv. b. Ungulates, bears, and big cats i. Marsupial lions and thunder birds 1. Ungulates a. Hoofed animals i. Modern horses and camels 1. Came lops ii. Canine carnivores 1. Short faced bear and dire wolves iii. Feline carnivores 1. American cheetah 2. Saber tooth cat 3. American lion c. Late Quaternary Extinction i. Late quaternary extinction 1. Outside Africa every mammal over 2000 lb. went extinct a. Theory 1 i. Not gone just changed and shrunk ii. Gradually over time large mammals are getting smaller b. Theory 2 i. Younger dryads 1. Climate changed is very distinct and rapid 2. Caused the dying d. Climate change i. Rapid warming Hunting by humans and the “hyper disease” hypothesis ii. Dogs bring dogs that have disease when hunting iii. Minor extinction e. Evidence for the hunting hypothesis Mammoths and birches 9. Lecture 34: Human Evolution a. Supraprimates: i. Placental animals 1. Humans 2. Rodents, rabbits, primates ii. Primate characteristics 1. Agility in trees 2. Big brains and daylight vision 3. Parental care iii. Early primates 1. “Lower” primates, monkeys, and apes iv. Last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees Evidence for bipedalism in early human ancestors Bipedalism and big brains 1. Sahelanthropus a. Walking upright more efficient i. See more ii. Gives advantage when trying to stay cool b. Australopithecus i. Bipedal 1. Found footprints b. Large brains = Homo c. Homo h. habilis i. First human species ii. First genus homo iii. Started to use tools iv. d. Homo erectus i. Larger brain ii. First humans to leave Africa- killed by glaciation- 900cc brain size- looks human in the face iii. e. Sahara pump theory i. Sahara desert gets plushed with grass and allow for homo erectus to move north f. Homo erectus dies of after homo heidelbergensis g. Neanderthals, and Homo sapiens i. Neanderthals 1. Stalkier larger humans 2. Larger brain than modern humans a. Had tools like spears and relics suggest boats 3. Homo sapiens first appear in Africa a. Descendants of Heidelbergensis 4. h. Spread of Homo sapiens and out-of-Africa theory Interbreeding i. Homo sapiens first appears in Africa around as descendants of h. heidelbergensis 1. Make it to middle east but forced to leave due to dry conditions ii. Out of Africa theory 1. Greatest human genetic diversity in Africa and lower genetic diversity as we get further from Africa 2. Multiple origins theory 10.Lecture 35: Human Language and Culture a. Wet noses and dry noses i. One of the earliest splits in primate evolution was between wet nose and dry nose primates 1. Dry noise gained lips and mouth movements b. Phonemes i. Spoken human language is composed of phonemes ii. Diferent language use diferent phonemes c. Physical basis for spoken language i. Mobile lips allow humans to produce diferent phonemes ii. Unique shape of throat allows to make diferent sounds 1. Human hyoid bone is lower than in many other animals and allows greater range of tongue motion 2. It fossilizes iii. Human languages exhibits modality independence 1. Can express in diferent without losing information 2. It is not just a result of physical structures 3. Can do language without sounds iv. FOXP2 language gene 1. Songbirds to sing 2. When it is incorrect in human, they sufer severe language difficulties a. Neanderthals had same hyoid bone as humans and FOXP2 gene b. Had capability to have language like humans d. Origins of language and number of phonemes glottochronology i. As language evolved, it gets simpler 1. Hawaii and south American language has less phonemes 2. Africa has a lot a. 141 b. Language first developed in Africa e. Great leap forwards i. Sudden appearance of human behavior 1. Cave paintings 2. Wood figures 3. Burials and rituals a. Maybe the beginning of religion 4. Rapid evolution of tools f. Neanderthals technology don’t progress i. Assume they never developed language despite probably having the ability
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