Final Exam study guide
Final Exam study guide JOUR 3400
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to JOUR 3400 at Ohio University taught by Carson Wagner in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Strategic Communications in Communication at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
Jour 2500 Final 1. Affect, cognition and conation a. Types of consumer responses b. Affect=feelings i. Positive or negative c. Cognitive=thoughts i. Beliefs, opinions, attitudes and intentions d. Conative=behaviors i. Purchase decisions and patterns 2. Personal variables a. Part of response influences b. Individual differences c. Internal i. Intelligence, interests, preferences, etc. ii. Ex: one person shops more carefully than another 3. Situational variables a. Part of response influences b. Content c. External i. 4 Ps: product, price, place and promotion ii. Ex: buying a house is more serious decision than buying a computer 4. Correlational relationships a. Increase in one leads to an increase in other i. Ex: increase in strat comm and an increase in sales b. Causes are independent variables while effects are dependent variables 5. Causal relationships a. Requires: i. 2 variables are correlated ii. Cause precedes effect 1. Independent (free) to choose variables iii. Control for the effects of other variables 6. Confounding variable a. An extra variable that effects both dependent and independent yet we don’t pay attention to it because it’s in the background b. To confound means to confuse c. Ex: while an increase in strat comm leads to an increase in sales, the economy affects both 7. Independent variable a. Causes 8. Dependent variable a. Effects 9. Random assignment a. Participants are grouped by chance b. Controls for individual differences among participants c. With it, people who have money or are compulsive are just as likely as not to see the ad d. Participant backgrounds cancel out 10. Limits of attention a. People can only remember (+-2) units of information at a time b. Aka limited cognitive capacity c. Reason why we study attention in advertising 11. Attention intensity a. Amount of attention we can pay to an ad b. Also limited by cognitive capacity c. Reason we study attention in advertising 12. Arousal a. How awake or alert b. Relationship has an inverted “U” shape i. Most arousal and attention intensity at middle of both c. One of the attention factors 13. Selective attention a. Effort allocation i. Where we put our attention and where our attention goes b. Voluntary attention i. Currently relevant information c. Momentary predispositions i. At a certain time we pay attention to certain things d. Involuntary attention i. Salience and vividness e. Enduring predispositions i. Things we pay attention to for a long time 1. Ex: chronic back pain 14. Vividness a. Person dependent i. Involuntary attention b. Personally or emotionally interesting c. Concrete or imagery provoking d. Sensory, spatial and temporal proximity e. Vivid stimuli: i. Catch the attention of some people all of the time 15. Salience a. Context dependent b. Different from surroundings c. Novelty, motion, complexity, intensity, unexpectedness d. Ex: mattress in the road or new technology comes out e. Salient stimuli: i. Catch the attention of all people some of the time 16. Comprehension a. Relating new information to information stored in memory or “meaning making” 17. Cognitive capacity a. People can remember 7 (+-2) units of information at a time i. Miller’s Magic Number b. Limits attention intensity c. Un-believing a false statement 18. Miller’s Magic Number a. Number 7: people can remember 7(+-2) units of information at a time 19. Comprehension and belief a. They are inseparable at least initially b. Because of limited cognitive capacity we can’t always “un- believe” i. Information overload and time pressure c. Repetition i. Increases tendency to believe by increasing familiarity ii. If we can’t remember if a claim is true or not, we assume it is 1. If it’s not true, then why remember? 20. Pragmatic inferences a. Form of miscomprehension b. Everyday assumptions about claims that are literally true but figuratively false i. Ex: “Brand X may help relieve pain” 21. Comparison omission a. Form of miscomprehension b. Leave out object of comparison so consumers fill in the blank with a competing product i. Ex: “Brand X gives you better mileage” 22. Piecemeal data a. Form of miscomprehension b. Compare specific attributes of a product to other products so people infer your product is better 23. Juxtaposition of imperatives a. Form of miscomprehension b. Place 2 statements together so people infer one leads to the other c. Ex: “Brush with Ultra Brite! Be popular!” 24. Affirmation of the consequent a. Form of miscomprehension b. Common logical fallacy c. “If p, then q” means “if q, then p” 25. Deceptive advertising a. Form of miscomprehension 26. Short-term memory 27. Long-term memory 28. Encoding-Specificity principle a. Memory is better when contextual cues during both encoding and retrieval are the same 29. Encoding process a. Placing STM into LTM i. Works through 2 sub-operations: 1. Rehearsal: repeating in your head 2. Coding: relating new information to old information b. To place information in LTM, we don’t have to comprehend its meaning 30. Retrieval process a. Bringing LTM into STM b. 2 major types: i. Recognition: noticing present information as familiar ii. Recall: naming information when not present 1. Can be aided (cues) or unaided 31. Node a. Concept, idea or piece of information b. Part of the association principle of LTM i. Describes the interrelated nature of information stored in memory 32. Association a. Connects 2 nodes in memory b. Part of the association principle of LTM 33. Associative networks a. Combination of all nodes that are interrelated with other nodes via associations b. Spreading activation i. Certain node is activated or retrieved from memory, closely associated nodes will also become activated 34. Priming Effects a. Activated concepts can lead us to exaggerate problems i. Ex: (general) how much violence—some, (violent show) how much violence—a lot b. Availability priming: spreading activation i. Estimate prevalence by available examples c. Concept priming: influence the interpretation of incoming info i. Ex: “Ocean Spray has more food energy” 1. Sports ad—“food energy”=power 2. McDonald’s—“food energy”=calories 35. Associative interference a. Complex associative networks: spreading activation in a few directions b. Bigger network, less likely a specific node will be activated 36. Negative brand associations & rumor control a. McDonald’s and worms b. Avoid the rumor and don’t say anything about it so people don’t reference the brand and rumor together 37. Implicit & Explicit memory a. Explicit: conscious/concerted i. Aware of memory use ii. Can control for memory influences on our thinking b. Implicit: unconscious/automatic i. Unaware, so no control ii. Misinterpreting familiarity 1. Source amnesia: unaware of where a feeling or idea came from 38. Nonevaluative judgments a. Beliefs: ideas about attributes and benefits that can be measured on a scale between extremes i. Not valenced, although it may seem so 1. Valence: something that has a positive or negative b. Building blocks for evaluative judgments 39. Evaluative judgments a. Attitudes: overall ideas about brands b. Measured on a continuum i. Valenced ii. Global c. Where do attitudes come from? i. Fishbein model of attitudes 1. The sum of all product or issue belief evaluations 2. All beliefs are equally important ii. Information integration theory 1. Attitudes are average of all weighted belief evaluations 2. Some beliefs aren’t as important as others in forming attitudes iii. Zanna & Rempel model 40. Zanna & Rempel model a. SEE DRAWING b. Reciprocal relationships between beliefs, attitudes, affect and behavior 41. Types of Beliefs a. Informational i. Indirect, secondhand information 1. Not as strong as descriptive b. Descriptive i. Direct, firsthand experience c. Inferential i. Go beyond our knowledge 1. Correlation (price=quantity) 2. Prior knowledge (cars have 4 wheels) 3. Schemas (attribute/benefit links) 42. Representativeness Heuristic a. Heuristic=mental shortcut b. Prediction and intention judgment i. Guessing about future product performance c. Similarity-based judgment i. If a product reminds us of an old liked product, we predict we’ll like the new one too 1. Even if it’s an irrelevant similarity 43. Availability heuristic a. Memory-based judgment b. Predictions based on ease with which instances come to memory i. Ex: Good Acme come to mind easily, we’ll think new Acme products will be good too 44. Satisfaction judgments a. Expectancy disconfirmation i. Form expectations before purchase ii. If product meets or exceeds expectations, we’re satisfied; if not, we’re not 1. Expectations are as important as “reality” b. Attributions i. Causal inferences about product performance 1. External or internal a. External: fault outside oneself b. Internal: fault inside oneself i. No effect on product satisfaction 45. Preference judgments a. Attitude-based b. Focal c. Unique attributes help make judgment d. Direction of comparison e. Most recent (focal) uniques are more accessible from memory i. Positive=preferred ii. Negative=not preferred 46. Consideration set a. Group of brands taken into account when making a purchase i. Brands available (often 12 or more) ii. Consideration set (1(loyal) to 9(7+2)) iii. Choice (1 brand) b. Attention and memory lend insight into consideration set i. Dynamic, they change over time 47. Part-list cuing a. Partial brand list to reduce number retrieved from memory b. Reduce consideration set and keep your product in: i. Increases likelihood of choosing your product 1. Ex: piecemeal data: highlighting aspects of product to make overall thing seem better c. How does it work? i. Memory search: retrieve same product repeatedly 1. Strong association: few brands leads to multiple retrievals 2. Part-list strengthens association ii. Stop searching memory: imagine we’ve exhausted all possibilities 48. Attraction effect a. Adding similar but inferior product to a product line to increase the attractiveness of the original i. New product highlights price-quality relationship ii. Better value product will increase in sales iii. ONLY 2 similar products on ONE BRAND 1. Ex: bread-maker 49. Trade-off contrast a. Trade-offs are compared across multiple brands b. Value is even clearer when more products are considered c. Consumer choice process: i. More than 2 products and often more than one brand d. Ex: comparing computers 50. Compromise effect a. People tend to go toward middle brands/products more than extremes (among 3 or more) b. Extremes make middles seem like a “safe bet” 51. Attitude & attribute heuristics a. Attitude-based: overall impressions i. Attitudes need to be stored in memory ii. THE attitude heuristic 1. The available brand toward which we have the most favorable attitude iii. Frequency of good and bad 1. Choose product with highest ratio of good features to bad b. Attribute-based: specifics i. Between-alternative: many brands, one attribute at a time 1. Lexicographic a. Choose brand based on most important attribute (price, reliability, etc.) b. Ex: “buy the cheapest brand” 2. Elimination-by-aspects a. Choose an attribute and eliminate brands that don’t meet a minimum cutoff point i. Ex: cars that cost less than $20k b. Repeat until one choice remains i. Ex: using design, safety, etc. ii. Within-alternative: one brand, many attributes at a time 52. Conjunctive heuristic a. Set a minimum acceptable standard for ALL ATTRIBUTES about which we care i. Ex: price, trip legs, special meal, aisle seat b. Choose first product that meets the standard on all i. Miss other opportunities 53. Disjunctive heuristic a. Set a fairly high cutoff value for each attribute i. Ex: location, price, variety b. Select first product that meets standard on one attribute 54. Choice strategy determinants a. Part of phased strategies i. Heuristic to cut down choices to a couple/few b. Heuristics vs. effort c. Motivation i. How motivated are we to give this decision some thought? d. Opportunity i. Physical and mental resources ii. Quick decision, not a lot of effort (time—physical resource) iii. Mental resources—brands we think about 1. Only think about 7(+-2) at a time e. Motivation and opportunity must be HIGH to invoke effort 55. Exposure control a. Avoiding unwanted messages i. Attention and comprehension are factors in persuasion b. Most people don’t want to be exposed to strat comm c. Overcoming exposure control in the first step in message- learning d. Design salient or vivid ads to overcome exposure control i. “Giving back” to consumer with humor, entertainment, etc. 56. Message-Learning approach a. Effective persuasive communications i. Attention drawing (attention) ii. Comprehensible (comprehension) iii. Convincing (judgment and choice) iv. Memorable (memory) b. Model has 4 independent variables i. Source (who?) ii. Message (what?) iii. Recipient (to whom?) iv. Medium (through which channel?) c. Dependent variables i. Effective (with what effects?) 57. Source importance a. Modifier b. Directly related to source factor effects i. Positive correlation ii. Source noticeable=high importance iii. Source hidden=low importance 1. Ex: Nazi ad c. Ex: sources more important on TV than radio 58. Two-sided messages and limitation a. Increases source credibility i. Some information goes against the source’s vested interest 59. Rational appeals a. Logical arguments b. Better for those in high need of cognition 60. Emotional appeals a. “Feeling-based” i. Ex: fear 61. Protection motivation theory a. Three key variables of fear appeals: i. Danger likelihood ii. Coping effectiveness iii. Self-efficacy 62. Recipient factors a. Refers to target audience (to whom?) b. Factors: i. Need for cognition ii. Self-esteem iii. Self-monitoring iv. Prior knowledge 63. Mediational principle a. Many psychological processes underlie persuasion i. Perception ii. Comprehension iii. Retention iv. Retrieval v. Agreement vi. Decision-making b. Idea of reception and yielding 64. Combinatory principle a. Reception and yielding oppose one another given any personality factor b. Situational-weighting i. Reception and yielding are not always equally important 1. Simple message: reception is easy, so yielding is more important a. Do better with audio/visual 2. Complex message: reception is difficult, so it is more important a. Do better when written 65. Medium factors a. Through which channel? i. Ex: TV, radio, print, Internet b. Media interact with source, message and recipient factors c. Medium traits and uses dictate persuasive capabilities 66. Frequent, recent and elaborate processing 67. Adaptation level theory a. Adaptation level: average of all stimuli considered when judging b. Based on ranking brands i. Good/bad ii. Large/small iii. Expensive/inexpensive c. Comparison context determines comparison point i. But we don’t usually consider context effects d. Contrast and assimilation i. Judgments can shift away from (contrast) or toward (assimilation) a reference point ii. Adaptations only after contrast e. Ex: after buying a $3,000 suit, a $300 tie seems cheap i. Charlie’s Angels can make people look less attractive 68. Self-perception theory a. Attribution theory b. When beliefs and attitudes are inaccessible, people infer from behavior c. First make a purchase, later infer liking i. Compulsive and emergency purchases 69. Discounting principle a. Kelley’s casual schemata b. NOT COUPONS c. As possible reasons increase, the perceived role of any one decreases d. Use to lower chances of product (line) failure attributions i. Product used incorrectly or specific product has rare defect e. Ex: Xbox breaks but when you call the company they ask you if you’ve done a million things that could’ve broken it but in reality it’s just the product’s fault 70. Overjustification effect a. Many purchase reasons undermine significance of a single reason b. Price promotions can undercut quality or other attribute role c. Good in short run, bad in long run 71. Augmentation principle a. Strong situational constraints should prevent an event, but it happens anyways i. Cause must be very powerful b. Unexpected information is highly informative c. Convey high quality d. Ex: Masterlock: “Works under fire” i. Tide: “Gets out the toughest stains” ii. Infomercials: average people can strike it rich! 72. Classical conditioning a. Familiar association i. Unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response ii. Pavlov’s study 1. Food=salivation b. Artificial association i. Conditioned stimulus, conditioned response 1. Conditioned because something was done to make it happen ii. Pavlov’s study 1. Bell=food=salivation iii. Jim giving Dwight Altoids whenever his computer dings iv. In ads: 1. Jeep=nature=wonder a. Cause precedes effect 2. Nature=Jeep=wonder a. Backward conditioning b. Bad, but many ads do it 73. Excitation transfer theory a. Arousal from one stimulus can transfer to a second i. Exciting shows like the Super Bowl can intensify ad arousal ii. Slowly loading websites and fast animation web ads can intensify website arousal b. Web excitation transfer i. Fast download vs. slow download 1. Slow creates more arousal 74. Discrepancies a. Mandler’s theory of emotions b. Something that is different from what we would expect c. Unexpected products produce arousal i. Small/moderate discrepancies=positive arousal 1. Ex: Pepsi Lime and Chipotle Tabasco ii. Large discrepancies=negative arousal 1. Ex: Crystal Pepsi and sliced peanut butter 75. Dissonance a. A motivational approach to persuasion b. That which leads to all human behavior i. Difference between actual and desired state c. Ex: cognitive dissonance is when attitudes are inconsistent with behavior 76. Balance theory a. Explains relationship as a triad b. Imbalanced triad when you like one but not the other, but they like each other i. Balance/create consistency when you like or dislike both c. Ex: you like Michael Jordan but hate Nike, but Michael Jordan wears Nike shoes 77. Attitude functions and appeals a. Create or resolve dissonance to get desired outcome b. Knowledge function: i. Summarize information ii. Consumer knowledge is lacking, factual appeals resolve c. Value-expression function: i. Show people who we are ii. Image-oriented promos give options to resolve d. Ego-defense function: i. Deal with frustration and self-esteem 1. Fear appeals attack the attitude and create dissonance NEW MATERIAL STARTS HERE 78. Attitude-Behavior relationships a. Attitudes are mental and neural state of readiness to respond, by asserting direct or dynamic influence on behavior i. Allport said this ii. Under what conditions? Do what types of attitudes? Held by what type of people? Lead to what types of behavior? b. Personal variables i. Personal norms: codes of conduct adopted individually that may conflict with attitudes 1. Ex: New Year’s resolutions c. Self-monitoring i. Sensitivity and responsiveness to social cues 1. Low: let attitudes guide behavior 2. High: “social chameleons” adapt to setting (social norms) d. Focus of control: where the forces that dictate outcomes reside i. External: context controls outcome, behavior unrelated to attitudes ii. Internal: masters of own control 1. Attitudes guide behavior directly e. Attitude accessibility: ease with which attitudes come to mind (activated) to influence behavior i. Direct influence: attitudes guide behavior ii. Selective perception: focus on positive or negative aspects due to an attitude 79. Theory of reasoned action a. Beliefs and belief evaluations lead to attitudes which in turn lead to behavior b. Intention to behave is also function of what others think and believe 80. MODE model and decision-making determinants a. Proposes 2 different routes by which attitudes guide behavior i. Deliberate: effortfully consider behavior based on attitude contents (like Theory of Reasoned Action) 1. Only taken when motivation and opportunity are BOTH HIGH ii. Spontaneous: choose behavior without much though (new in MODE) b. Motivation i. Involvement, accountability and risk c. Opportunity i. Cognitive capacity (processing load) and time 81. Strength of association a. How likely it is that an attitude will come to mind 82. Self-report measures a. Ask directly using semantic differential, likert, or Guttman scales, etc. b. Predicts deliberate route well 83. Response latency measures and advantages a. “Prime” participants with attitude object (product or issue), then record TIME it takes to categorize positive or negative adjectives i. Ex: good or bad ii. Predict spontaneous and deliberate b. Measures strength of association c. Unministered obtrusively i. Uncover “implicit” attitudes of which people may be unaware: 1. Knowing or unknowing false representation 84. Elaboration Likelihood Model and determinants a. Persuasion knowledge leads to attitudes b. 2 routes to persuasion: i. Central: effortfully scrutinize ads 1. “Classic” persuasion (message learning) 2. Assimilate agreed-upon tenets from ads into our viewpoints ii. Peripheral: view effortlessly 1. “Associative learning” 2. From associations between attitude object and description 3. Changes SOA better than central 85. Automaticity principle a. “Mindless” responses/heuristic use b. When are people likely to use heuristics? i. Motivation and opportunity 86. Influence heuristics a. Behavior i. The “because” heuristic 1. Almost any reason to behave in a certain way can influence us 2. Ex: copy machine study: good/placebic reasons increase compliance; bad don’t ii. Larger requests need better reasons or more mindlessness from recipient 1. Ex: reading “War and Peace” b. Price-quality heuristic i. Higher prices=better quality ii. Ex: Big Lots vs. Walmart vs. Beerman’s 1. Honda vs. Jaguar 2. Dell vs. Apple 87. Commitment and consistency principle a. We want to display consistent beliefs, attitudes and behaviors i. Ex: Carson talks about Apple and uses Apple only 88. Foot-in-the-door technique a. Smaller request followed by a larger one after “yes” on small one i. Ex: canvassers, telemarketers b. Self-perception theory is most accepted explanation 89. Low-ball technique a. First make a deal, then change it b. Seen as ONE transaction, not TWO c. Aka Bait-and-Switch i. Ex: cars, electronics d. More compliance than foot-in-the-door 90. Scarcity principle a. Valuable objects are rare; (artificially) rare objects seem valuable i. Limit production ii. Collectors/limited editions 1. Ex: Pokémon, Holiday Barbie 91. Social validation principle a. Works by using consensus information i. Ex: over 1 billion served 1. A lot of people like it, seems good to people ii. Ex: canned laughter on TV shows b. Perceived validity of an idea increases with number of supporters 92. Reciprocity principle a. When someone does you a favor, you feel obligated to return it b. We can be influenced into giving more than we get c. Can work simply be seeming reasonable, or giving in 93. Door-in-the-face technique a. Reverse of foot-in-the-door b. Follow a large request with a smaller one after a “no” c. Small request is “being reasonable” or giving in 94. That’s-not-all technique a. Deal changed into an even better deal before the consumer can respond b. Adaptation level: first deal sets tone c. Works better than door-in-the-face because it’s being reasonable without prompting 95. Confusion principle a. Confuse with (irrelevant) details, then simplify message i. Ex: doctors using terms, then dumb it down ii. “Disrupt-then-reframe” 1. Low to high level arguments 2. Need for closure 96. Online cost transparency a. Comparison shopping made easy b. Increased price sensitivity c. Decreased profit margins d. Increased competition e. Interactive decision aids i. Ex: BizRate.com, Best Buy comparison function, NOT Amazon 97. Self-determination theory a. Intrinsic motivation i. Shopping “for the fun of it” b. Autonomy: enough information c. Belongingness: feeling of “community” d. Competence: navigation is intuitive, with relative information e. Ex: Amazon 98. Syllogistic Inference rule a. Syllogisms have this form: i. If A implies B, and if B implies C, then A implies C b. Ex: Burger King’s commercial i. People like their hamburgers are home flame-broiled, so McDonalds and Wendy’s fry their hamburgers and Burger King flame-broils theirs, where do you think people should go for a hamburger? ii. Let consumers decide answer 99. Horizontal syllogisms a. Used when multiple sets of syllogisms imply the same conclusion independently b. Completely different arguments are used to support the same conclusion 100. Vertical syllogisms a. Used when the conclusion of the first syllogism serves as the first premise of the next syllogism, the conclusion of the second syllogism serves as the first premise of the third syllogism, and so on b. When one argument is doubted, the entire structure collapses 101. Attitude polarization & the Mere Thought Effect a. If people are given time to think about a topic, and if they are sufficiently knowledgeable about the topic, favorable attitudes become more favorable and unfavorable attitudes become more unfavorable b. More likely when people are committed to their attitudes
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