Campbell Chapter 3, 4, 15 and Class Notes
Campbell Chapter 3, 4, 15 and Class Notes COM 107
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Date Created: 12/06/15
Exam III Notes Campbell Chapters: 3, 4, 15 Class Notes: Professor Hollenback Class Notes 10/29 ● Edwin Catmull ○ wrote Creativity Inc. ○ Head of Pixar ○ honest, hardworking ○ tech and creativity both come together for purpose of the story ○ trust artist to do the best other positions don’t go to meetings ● John Lasseter ○ also Head of Pixar ○ he is clear and tells story well ○ hawaiian shirt ○ first 1 ½ minute animated 1986 ■ Tin Toy first animated film to win academy award ■ interesting because story not because it was computer made ○ 10 years later...Toy Story first fully animated ○ Pixar ■ successful because of characters and story not quality ○ TED TALK ○ Andrew Stanton ○ Clues to a great story: ■ unifying theory of 2+2 ● the reader wants to learn ● hide the fact that they have to fight for it ● holds our attention to story ● drama is anticipation mingled with uncertainty ○ make me wanna know what happens next ○ how will it all conclude ○ honest conflicts ○ Biggest Ingredien invoke wonder ○ use what you know...capture truth from experience ○ values you personally feel Class Notes 11/3/15 ● Television: ○ is know/ was known? ■ beingsimultaneously shared conte for millions ● Super Bowl, Olympics, Emmys ● nationally based ■ beingpredictably unpredictable ● sporting events, game shows, talent shows ● easily replicated format but story changes ■ being there 24/7 as BOTentertainment and news ● funny or dramatic interrupted by serious news story ● collected experience (man on the moon seen globally) ■ beingive/ immediat24/7 ● has not always been, but is now ○ What has driven changes in TV the last 30 years? ■ Ownership: ● Convergence….loss of network (ABC, NBC, CBS, FOX) dominance ,esp, in prime time (811 PM) ○ fringe (78 PM) and national news (6:30 PM) ● adopted as a new medium quickly ■ Popularity of Cable ● cables monopolized cities ● multiple system operator: local market owned by (Time Warner for example) and other single markets all under that broadcaster (Time Warner) ● HBO began 1972 ○ original programming: True Detective etc. ○ made to show us 1012 movies at home on cycle every other week ● ESPN 1979 ○ all sports operation ○ did not have rights with NFL NBA at the beginning ■ so, they covered random sports ○ now franchised all over world ● MTV 1981 ○ not beginning of music videos...British did that already ○ our age didn't like it because it took away our imagination of the music groups ● HSN/QVC (home shopping) 1985/86 ○ live, good prices, host would be likeable and someone you trust, like a friend ○ customer service at the other end of the phone ○ 70 million viewers ● COMEDY CENTRAL late 1900’s ○ speciality niche audience ■ Rise of Independent stations (full of syndicated material) ■ Original online streamed content (Netflix), ● internet created content (Youtube's 100 channels) ● ownership change ○ Technology ■ Remote controls, VCRs, DVDs, and DVRs, TiVo, DBS satellites ● new industry created off of time ■ Personal computers and now Smartphones or tablets ● to get content from internet ■ HDTV, 3D, TV, Huge flat screens ● production quality has to rise ● sporting events are watched the most ■ Video On demand/ Hulu ● binge ○ So… how do we get our entertainment? ○ And...what content entertains and engages us? ○ How consuming entertainment media is changing in your lifetime ■ gone from media printed on paper…….to reading online ■ gone from music on CDs to streaming free ■ gone from movies rented on video or DVDs at local Blockbuster…..to binge viewing ■ gone from TV networks enticing you to be a coach potato…. to “appointment TV”= networks pushing audiences to be in front of set at a particular time Class Notes 11/15/15 How consuming entertainment media is changing in your lifetime… ● In today’s entertainment landscape: ○ Always on, esp. via mobile platforms ○ Easy to time shift ○ Customized stream of news and entertainment: movies, music, games ○ With internetdelivered original programs from Netflix or from public on YouTube ○ With “second screen” (multi screen) as companion to TV so more interactivity & same time socializing ● “screens” 1) film 2) traditional TV sets … (even if “Home Video” = VHS tapes & DVDs rented, bought or mailed to you) 3) consuming via computer screens 4) smartphones, iPod iPad, mobile TV ● TV and film THEN and NOW ○ THEN TV: ■ weekly episodes, ■ seasons, summer: reruns, ■ a lotinstudio and rather comfortable, familiar settings, ■ characters, stories “innocent”, ■ low budget, every week easily, regularly produced ○ TV communal ■ more casual, relaxed ■ at home ■ maybe with family ■ surrounded by distractions ■ fill the time (after school, when homework done) ■ commercial interruption (shows written or structured to ad breaks) ■ might know when favorite was on, though ○ THIN FILM: ■ longer with high production values, ■ stand alone (not continuous), ■ better quality, longer, ■ higher expectations ■ , better acting and stories, ■ couldn't see it after many months, ■ more adult fare (sex, violence, subjects), but also “holiday ones” ig for families ○ Film communal: ■ planned, social event ■ required $ ■ larger than life in a darkened theater with strangers ■ comedies better with company ○ NOW: ■ lines blurred between film and TV ■ both on streaming services ■ more ads ■ TV feels like longfilm ● binging and films better deliver a rich theatrical experience ■ TV better than film? ■ little waiting or anticipation, but could be highly marketed and promoted film/event ■ easily accessible, so not special (whenever I want it on any platform) ■ fragmented audiences because a lot more choices ■ in Both tv and film: ■ more diversity and explicit content but ● smaller screens ● “ok” sound ● Aaron Sorkin ○ writer of The Social Network, Moneyball,The West Wing, Steve Jobs, A Few Good Words, A Few Good Men ● Aaron Spelling: producer ○ Seventh Heaven ○ he had all the power ○ he hired directors etc, ○ writes well ● Shonda Rhimes: producer ○ Scandal ○ Grey's Anatomy ○ How to Get Away with Murder ● Dick Wolf: ○ criminal Intent ● Jerry Bruckheimer ○ CSI ○ Amazing Race ● Proder today: ○ writer producer ● David Simon: producer ○ the Wire ● JJ Abrams ○ networks creating shows experiences/ vents that they hope we watch AT THE TIME...superbowl...emmys etc, Class Notes 11/10/12 ● Veterans Day: those who effected/fought for us ○ November 11: WWI ended with German surrender on 11th hour on 11th day of 11th month ○ Edward R Murrow: father of Broadcast Journalism, ■ CBS 1938 at beginning of WW2 ■ stationed in London ■ writer and reporter ■ December 1941: hearing about conflict in Europe and far east ■ Murrow have a sense ○ The First Casualty by Phillip KNightley ■ trace war coverage from all sides from Crimean War onward ■ big themes/ ideas ■ All sides in a war need to: ● 1) Keep up morale on home front ● 2) Demonize the enemy ○ make that other group evil so we have the morale ● 3) Sanitize the actions and effects of war shown at home ○ even though americans were being inhumane ● 4) Control information= command the platform and agenda ○ via censors, pools, embedded reporters ● 5) Give new information without larger context ○ We can only know our side of military operations ○ Today its newsletter its history ● 6) Decide if journalist isL ○ Propagandist ○ Mythmaker ○ Patriot ○ Conduit for authority (military & political) ○ Watchdog ■ “The first casualty when war comes is truth” ■ After the war?...Truth may emerge via fuller coverage in histories, novels, poetry, plays films, documentaries ■ often powerful and artistic ■ Dear America Letters Home from Vietnam ● HBO ● Veterans wanted to show what it was like to serve in Vietnam ● asked for people to send letters that have been sent from Vietnam ● used home footage from the front/ news footage ● Class Notes 11/12/15 Magazines: ● Since 1741: first national news medium ○ Saturday Evening Post 1821 ○ Harpers In Civil War vs. Local newspapers ○ Atlantic Monthly 1857: railroads not yet across America ■ publication of Darwin's origin of species 2 years later ■ largest wave of immigration at eastern seaboard ■ Abe Lincoln was just a congressman ■ trying to find “american voice/idea” ● Emerson, Holmes etc. gathered to make new publication of “the atlantic monthly” ○ National Geographic 1888 ■ responsible for american attitude towards “the other” in Africa etc. ■ could offer magazines even to working class in 1900s ● 25 national magazines in 1905 (LHJ reached 1m.) ■ because of cheaper postal rates, ● better rail transportation ● lower production costs b/c conveyor belt assembly ○ Magazines last a long time… ■ often known for editor TIME 1923 ■ NATIONAL ENQUIRER 1926 ■ THE NEW YORKER ■ ROLLING STONES 1967 ○ Huge growth from 1930s to 50s ■ 363 leading mags grew to 565 ● Newsweek 1933 ● Life 1936 ○ But TV erupted in popularity ■ could offer eyeballs to advertise a cheaper rate ○ Magazines couldn't beat TV at Mass appeal game, so went for specialized (niche readers who would pay more_ ■ Playboy 1954 ■ Sports Illustrated 1951 ■ People and Us ■ Rolling Stones ○ Largest Magazine in America: AARP (American Association of Retired Persons) ■ 23 million circulation ● Significant contributions of magazines: 1) investigative reporting : muckraking 2) personality profiles 3) photojournalism 4) aesthetic appeal: covers and graphics 5) targeted audiences a) so diversity of appeals and views b) ads by zip code or region of the world Class Notes Presentation: Ulf Oesterle Pop Music 11/17/15 ● Sony ATV Nashville ○ pop country song will release 2016 ● Country, Metal, local bands, Chainsmokers ● only 3 women sold 1 million in 1 week before T Swift: ○ britney spears ○ whitney houston ○ norah jones ● \ Label ○ traditionally has made investment in finding record talent ○ market and distribute the release ○ they own the MASTER recordings (studio version) ● The BIG 3 Companies: 1) SONY Corporation (japan) 2) Vivendi (France) 3) Access Industries (USA) ● major labels touch 85% of music you are exposed to ● Music: ○ Pandora ○ Spotify ○ Deezer ● 85% of money goes to major record label ● SONY company controlls ⅓ songs written ○ now down to 22% ● Publishing Deals: 2 shares ○ writers share/ publishers share ○ if songwriter enters into publishing deal, they sell part of copyright and music publisher gets publisher's share ● Once you pay a license fee, you can cover the song because the license is compulsory ● once that music is recorded, anyone else can record the song without a negotiated license ○ They do need to pay statutory compulsory royalty ● Publishers make money selling sheet music ● Music Publisher ○ controls the song, music, lyrics ● Live Music: Live Nation and AEG Live ○ 25 billion dollars TicketMaster and Live Nation merged 2010 ■ largest ticket company and promoter ● Artist Manager ○ compensated on percentage basis ○ earning 15% of gross ○ sponsorship ● Payout on Youtube Class Notes 11/19/15 Radio: before TV until now ● Our MASS medium of 30s50s had to reinvent itself ● TV stole radio’s programming and advertising ○ its programming and genres: comedy, drama, soap operas, sports, news, music, children's programming ○ talent and celebrities ○ prime time audiences ○ sponsors and advertising strategies ○ its place in the living room ● So radio adapted...it became a specialized medium ○ we listened outside the home as it became standard in ars AND portable with transistors ○ developed FM’s crisp quality especially for music ○ saw rise of formats on radio via rotation of songs played by popular DJs ○ Top 40 radio appeals to teens ● Today there is 15,000 radio stations ○ mostly local draw, but nationally some big names as Rush, Limbaugh ○ becoming a background medium ○ heaviest listening is drive time (AM PM) ○ more and more specialized stations for nieh audiences ■ good for advertisers who reach target audiences more cheaply than TV ● Among the 40 radio formats, most popular? ○ country: 14% ○ news talk/info: 11% ■ but fastest growing format esp. sports talk ■ live, emotional, fun to listen to ○ Adult Contemporary 8% ○ Contemporary hit/popular: 8% ○ Urban contemporary, Spanish ○ Nonprofit: NPR, Pacifica ● Popular/ Powerful Radios: ○ own ⅓ the market in the country ○ 17.5 billion radio industry ■ iHeartRadio ■ Cumulous ■ TownSquare ● Changes in Radio: ○ satellite radio: XM and Sirius merged 2008 ○ HD Radio: compressing digital signals ○ Internet radio ○ Podcasting on mobile devices ● Radio still is… ○ most popular medium in the world ■ don't need to be able to read ■ no expensive gear/ electronics ■ inexpensive and portable ■ don't have to be literate and educated ○ What you want in a natural disaster ○ cheap and easy to receive ● Chapter 15: Socialization ○ A process of inheriting and disseminating norms, customs and values, ideologies, perspectives about society and culture ○ to individuals who need skills, attitudes, habits to participate in society= to assimilate ○ they observe what attitudes, behaviors, beliefs dominate? Or don't succeed? ○ Takes place over lifetime ● Through social institutions: ○ family ○ peers and friends ○ schools ○ language ○ religion ○ representative democracy: government system ○ Justice: legal system ○ Capitalism: eco system ○ Mass media ● What areas of society do you “know” through direct personal experience ○ how age groups social media ○ fashion ○ impoverished neighborhoods ○ social injustices ○ family life ○ sports games (local) ● But what areas of society do you “know” through mass media? ○ war ○ celebrities and their life ○ professional sports ○ races/ cultures you have not experienced personally ○ advances in science and medicine ○ natural disasters ○ world economics ○ different occupations ○ art ● Research Into media effects focusing on cultural Studies: ○ violence ○ ethniticity ○ gender→ sex ○ news and politics (propaganda, public opinion) ○ marketing (branding, advertising) Class Notes 12/1/15 Research into media effects focusing on: ● violence ● ethnicity ● gender (sex) ● news and politics (propaganda, public opinion) ● marketing When will media messages be especially influential? 1) when same ideas, people, or behavior are seen over and over again across media outlets 2) when heavily exposed to media content ● particularly entertainment which is valueladen storytelling or music 3) when have no alternative sets of benefits: the media’s views dominate What can counter media’s influence? 1) our individual selectivity: defensive behavior as personal filters ● selective exposure ● selective perception ● selective retention 2) our interpersonal relationships...especially if contradictory messages 3) distance (time) away from the message 4 Theories of the effects of violent media: 1) cathartic ○ The audience will experience violent story telling rather than the need to participate in a violent way 2) aggressive stimulus ○ ‘copycat’ theory ○ if we see it, we model our behavior after it 3) cultivation ○ mean worldview ○ see so much media...begin to see the real world like TV portrayed it 4) desensitization ○ audience that is eager for more violence Class Notes 12/3/15 US population: 322 million World Population: 7 billion Stereotyping: the process of assigning individuals to groups, whose members are falsely assumed to act as a single entity and to display certain characteristics, which are usually negative Stereotyping and Men in the media: ● macho man (violent/loner) ● sex obsessed ● older, wiser ● nerd/geek/wimp ● artistic/ gay ● heartless, ruthless business executive ● strong, silent type stoic ● bigoted/ redneck ● breadwinner all responsibilities of family (money) ● craves power/ win at any costs ● fun loving and carefree ● adventurous/ pushes the limits ● gross/invented boys night out ● mamas boy ● athlete/ competitive at everything ● jokester ● super hero/ who he is daily ● seductive/charming but bad for you ● creepy ● preppy Stereotyping and Women in the media: ● career woman ● stay at home ● dumb blond ● soccer mom ● quiet girl (girl next door) ● ditzy ● crazy ● daddy issues ● one of the guys ● trophy wife ● independent ● drama queen Stereotyping and Race: common stereotypes of people of color ● the secondary ● the ignored ● the achievers ● the despised/feared Search for Diversity in: ● race ● ethnicity ● gender orientation ● religion ● sometimes folks are invisible= so no represented ● more often folks are stereotyped= so misrepresented ● But do we at least get some representation of our diverse society? ● YES...Slowly more diverse characters are being seen = role modeling ● If we look at race and gender through media filters... do we get an accurate reflection of our multicultural society?...no Emmett Till: was an AfricanAmerican teenager who was lynched in Mississippi at the age of 14, after reportedly flirting with a white woman. ● Argue: the body was so disfigured it could not be proved to be Emmett ● men were charged not guilty of the murder ● Reporter: William Bradford Huie payed the men 4,000$ to tell the story Diversity of Americans ● 1 of 3 Americans are of color ● By 2050 1 of 2 will be ● Our multicultural society or melting pot is like: stew or salad ○ salad is more diverse ( still recognize the different cultures) ● 1 of 8 Americans is an immigrant ● By 2050: 1 of 5 will be Blending native born and newcomers...look at ourselves technically ● whites are the dominant population today: 63^ ● 1960: 85% Hispanic/ Latino ● l7% ● language is shared..but from many nations ● Mexicans (65%) ● Puerto Ricans (8%) ● Cubans (3.5%) ● Salvadorans (3.2%) ● Dominicans (2.6%) ● largest minority now...30% by 2050 ● “sunbelt” states like California, Texas, FLorida, NY have more than 12% Latino or Hispanic ○ countries around NYC,Dallas, San Antonio LA, San Francisco, Miami etc. have 25%) African Americans: 13% ● has been most dominated minority, until now ● most represented in TV, film, politics ● still entertainment and sports ● often seen as criminals and living in poverty in news and entertainment ● leaving cities for suburbia and to the South Asian Americans: 4% ● from many nations ● fastest growing minority ● most affluent ● best educated ● model minority Native Americans: .08%% ● land is savred ● ⅓ live at or below poverty level ● shorter life span ● 100’s of tribe with different languages/traditions Racial Tapestry is changing: fewer whites now compared to 1960 Chapter 6: TV and Cable: The Power of Visual Culture ● The Origins and Development of TV: ○ Early Innovations in TV Technology ■ cathode ray tube: forerunner of TV picture tube ● combined principles of camera and electricity ● encoding atTransmission point (TV station) ● decoding atreception point (TV set) ● Paul Nipkow developed the scanning disk ○ large, flat metal disk with small perforations in a spiral pattern ○ it rotated and separated pictures into pinpoints of light that were transmitted as a series of electronic lines ○ each small hole scanned one line of scene ○ foundation for experiment son the transmission of visual images ○ Electronic Technology: Zworykin and Farnsworth ■ Vladimir Zworykin invented thiconoscope ● first TV camera tube to convert light rays into electrical signals ● patented in 1928 ■ Idaho teenager Philo Farnsworth ● transmitted the first electronic TV picture ● rotated straight line scratches on square painted glass by 90 degrees ■ RCA: world leader in broadcast technology challenged Farnsworth to patents battle against Zworykin ● 1930: Farnsworth recieved patent for first electronic TV ● He licensed the patents to RCA and AT&T for commercial development of television ○ Setting Technical Standards: ■ NTSC: represent major electronics firms ● began outlining industry wide manufacturing practices and compromising technical standards ■ analog standard: based on radio waves for all US Tv sets ● 30 countries adopted the system ■ Analog replaced bydigita signals ● translate TV images and sounds into binary codes ● allow for increased channel capacity ● improved image quality and sound ● HDTV: highest resolution and sharpest image ○ Assigning Frequencies and Freeing TV LIcenses ■ TV stations limited because airwave spectrum frequencies interfered ■ Cable systems fixed by sending channels through separate cable wires ■ Today, one frequency can carry 8 or nine channels ■ 1940s FCC assigned channels in specific geographic areas to make sure there was no interference ■ New Jersey had no TV station because it would have interfered with BY ■ by 1948 FCC issued over 100 license ● growing concern for finite channels and frequency interference ● FCC declared a FREEZE on new license from 19481952 ■ Cities with TV saw drop in movie attendance, tacis and nightclubs and library and radios ■ By 1950 more than 400 stations...400% surge since pre freeze era ■ about 1700 today in operation ○ The Introduction of Color TV ■ 1952 CBS approved experimental CBS color system ■ CBS black and white TV could not receive its signal ● Americans could not see the show ● RCA system allowed older sets to receive color as black and white ● RCA was color standard instead of CBS ● The BIG Three: 1) CBS 2) NBC 3) ABC ○ Controlling Content: TV Grows up ■ By 1960s TV was dominant mass medium ● more than 90% households had at least one ■ Program Format Changes Inhibit Sponsorship ● TV programs were developed, produced, and supported by a single sponsor ○ advertiser could easily influence the programs content ○ lack of creative control ● David Sarnoff: Head of RCA NBC ● William Paley: Head of CBS ○ Sarnoff appointed Sylvester Weaver as president of NBC ○ Weave increased program length from 15 to 30+ min. ● Weave Improvements: ○ increase program length from 15 to 30+ min ○ 2 new type of programs helped networks gain control on content: ■ magazine format: news, talk comedy, music ● NBC The Today Show and Tonight Show ○ daily ○ studio production costs prohibitive for single sponsor ● Spot ads: created so advertisers paid network for 3060 second time slots ● Network NOT the sponsor produced and owned programs ■ TV spectacular: “TV special” ● NBC Weaver bought rights to specials and sold spot ads to multiple sponsor ● The Rise and Fall of Quiz Shows ○ 1955 CBS aired $64,000 Question ■ Sponsored byRevlon ■ ran inprime time:811 PM ■ became most popular show in America first year ■ Revlon cosmetic sales skyrocketed to $10 million by 1959 ■ By 1956 22 quiz shows aired ○ Problem: some of the shows were rigged ■ Twenty One question owned by Geritol ● Charles Van Doren cheated his way to fame ● Quiz Show Scandal Hurts the Promise of TV ○ sponsors pressure on TV executive to rig programs put an end to any major roles sponsorships in creation of TV content ○ undermined America’s expectation of the democratic promise of television: to bring inexpensive info and taverntainment into every household ■ they realized TV images could be manipulated ○ magnified division between high and low culture attitude towards TV ■ FCC Commissioner Newton Minow: ● labeled gme shows, westerns, cartoons etc. as “vast wasteland” ■ After the scandal, quiz shows kept out of prime time for 40 years ● ABC brought it back 1999 wiWho wants to be a MIllionaire ○ hit #1 that year ● The Development of Cable ■ network era 1950s to 1970s when network gained control over TV content ■ The Big 3 dicated every trend i programming and accounted for 95% of prime time viewing ○ CATV Community Antenna Television ■ first small cable systems ■ community antenna television ■ originated 1940 in Oregon, Pennsylvania and NYC ○ 2 Advantages of Cable: 1) by routing and amplifying each channel in a separate wire, cable eliminated over the air interference 2) Running signals through coaxial cable increased channel capacity ● The Wires and Satellites behind Cable TV ○ the idea of using space satellites to receive and transmit communication signals came from Arthur Clarke sci fi books ■ theories of global comm. system based on three satellites equally spaced from one another rotating with earth's orbit ■ 1950s: it became a reality with Soviet Union and then US ■ 196o AT&T launched Telstar ● the first communication satellites capable of receiving, amplifying and returning signals ● processed and relayed telephone and occasional TV signals between US and Europe ■ headend:∫ computerized nerve center where cable TV signal are processed ● operates various large satellite dishes that receive and distribute long distance signals ● relay channels in the same way as telephone calls reach houses ● through trunk and feeder cables attached to utility poles ● signals transmitted to drop or tap lines that run from pole to home ■ the first cable network to use satellites was HBO ● Cable Threatens Broadcasting ○ basic cable channels had captured larger prime time audience than broadcast networks ■ narrowcasting: provide specialized program for diverse and fragmented groups ■ provided access to certain target audiences ■ made it possible for anyone to air a point of view or produce a TV programs ● Cable Services ○ basic cable: ■ includes hundred plus channel lineup of local broadcast signals ■ access channels for local gov. and general public use ■ variety of cable channels ■ regional PBS stations ■ superstations independent TV linked to a satellite ○ local cable companies pay satellites few cents per subscriber per month ○ over 4$ for profit to subscriber ○ cable system continue to increase as a result of high bandwidth fiber optic cable and digital cable ○ allowed for premium channels, pay per view programs, and video on demand ● Premium Cable Services ○ premium channels: cable offers a wide range of special canals ■ no advertising ■ recent and classic movies ■ original series ■ cost $4 to 6$ epro month, but charges 10$ for profit ■ pay per view offered recently released movies or one time events ■ video on demand:enables customers to choose hundreds of titles ● DVD and VOD ends era of local video store ● DBS: Cable Without Wires ○ DBS: direct broadcast satellite ■ big challenge to cable in regions with isolated homes and rugged terrain ■ DBS transmits signals directly to small satellite dishes near homes ■ over the air digital signals and online options meant customers moved away from cable or DBS subscription ○ Satellite service 1970s received cable program ■ small town and rural residents bypassed FCC restriction and buyed receiving dishes for free ■ legal charges were put up but rural people said: we have a right to airspace above own property ■ law was unclear, cable channels had to scramble signals ● Technology Convergence Change and Viewing Habits ○ used to be only 7 hours a day, in 2012 it was over 8 h urs with ■ DVR, smartphone, tablet viewing etc. ○ Home Video ■ 197576: VCR: tape record and watch later ● Sony introduceeta ● Japan introduced VHS...slightly larger format ○ led to marketing war, drove cost down, more VCRs used ○ VHS won the battle because it had more programming space ● failed suit brought against Sony by Disney and MCA ○ said home taping violated their movie copyrights ○ court favored Sony and gave permission to home taping ○ movie studios started to sell movies in video store 1980s ● VHS gave way to DVD ○ today DVD threatened by Internet and high def ○ By 2012 more than 50% of US homes had DVRs ■ allowed users to download specific programs onto DVR computer memory ■ gave advertisers info...raised concerns for tracking personal views and buying habits ○ Today more than 95% of American homes have DVD or DVR ○ time shiftinbegan during VCR ■ viewers record and watch at later time ■ threaded TV industry advertising model ■ the people don't see ads that are supposed to be shown during the real viewing ● The Third Screen: TV Converges with the Internet ○ 1st:movie ○ 2nd: TV ○ 3rd: Computer screen ○ 3rd Screen operatescatch up: ■ rather than replacements for cable TV ■ allows viewers to “catch up” on already played screenings ■ Youtube: center of video online consumption ■ Owned by Google ■ Over 6 billion hours watched each month ■ Competition: iTunes/ Amazon? Hulu: full length episodes instead of snippets ○ Netflix now bigger than Comcast ■ negotiate rights to stream current episodes of primetime TV ○ Comcast ■ Xfinity expanded even more movies ■ the goal: be single stop for video needs ● 4th Screens: Smartphones and Mobile Video ○ smartphones, iPods, iPads, mobile TV ○ consumers no longer need TV sets ○ cable and DBS operator began to capitalize: Cablevision, Time Warner and DIsh released iPad apps ○ Major Programming Trends ● programming began by borrowing genres from radios: variety shows, sitcoms, soap operas ● the Big 3 moved to LA because of proximity to Hollywood ● Network operations remained in NY ● NY and LA now 2 major branches of TV programming: ○ enterianimet ○ information ● TV Entertainment: Our Comic Culture: ■ I love Lucy ● pioneering comedy series in Cali 1951 ● first TV program to be filmed before live Hollywood audience ● kinescope:film camera recorded live TV show off studio monitor ○ used to be only way to reserve live broadcast ○ quality was poor ○ most series saved are no longer saved ● sketch comedy: short comedy skits ○ key element in TV variety ○ Vaudeville and stage performers were first TV stars of sketch ○ weekly variety: routines were hard to make up ■ original skits required each week ■ production costs mounted ■ vaudeville faded ■ network shows only now yearly specials ○ dramedy: blurring of serious and comic ■ Sex and The City ● situation comedy recurring cast, narrative situation, complication, resolution ■ character development downplayed ■ TV Entertainment our Dramatic Culture: ○ Young stage actors worked in TV if they could not find work ○ 1950s served elite and wealthier audience ● Anthology Drama and Miniseries: ○ anthology: live dramatic theatre ● influenced by stage plays ● teleplays: scripts for TV ■ Anthology end POlitical and Economic ● advertisers disliked because the show showed complex human problems not easily resolved...made commercials positivity seem false ● people who could now afford TV now could and working middle class families did not like anthology ● expensive to produce ○ double cost of other genres ○ new storyline, new writers, casts and sets ● politically controversial : it dealt with changing social landscape ■ By 1960’s anthology disappeared ■ Britishminiserie serialized TV shows that run over 2 day or 2 week period ● cross between anthology and network serial ● True Detective, American Horror Story ○ Episodic Seriesmain characters continue from week to week, sets stay the same and technical crews stay ■ first used in radio 1929 ■ chapter shows:self contained stories ● recurring main characters ● problem, conflicts, resolution ■ serial programs open ended episodics ● Soap operas ● among longest running programs in history ● soap predict ads sponsored the 15 minute radio dramas ● story lines continue from episode to episode ● cheaper than chapter shows ■ hybrid:mix comic and grimpllots ● looked like open ended soap opera ● TV Information Our daily news CUltureL ■ broadcast topped prin for being trustworthy ■ TV was intimate ○ Network News: ■ NBC Meet the Pres Oldest show on TV ■ CBS News with Douglas Edwards ● first show to be videotapes for rebroadcast on affiliated stations ● affiliated stati stations that contract with a network to carry its programs’ ■ Walter Cronkite took over ● Vietnam War, Cronkite helped convince Americans to oppose it ○ Barbara Walters:irst woman reporter to co anchor network ○ Max Robinson: first black reporter to co anchor network ● Cable News Changes the Game ○ CNN ■ first 24/7 cable news channel ■ premiered 1980 ■ success revealed need and lucrative market for 24 hour news ■ now battles with other 24 hour news like Fox, MSNBC, CNBC ● Reality TV and other Enduring Genres ○ Talk shows feed curiosity about celebrities and political satire ○ reality appeal: more like us, less like celebrity ■ cheaper to produce ■ non actors, cheap sets, non extensive scripts ■ The Real World: longest running MTV program ● set stage for reality TV ○ Spanish Language Univision and Telemundo become popular ● Public TV Struggles to Find Its Place: ○ President Lyndon Johnson: ■ COngress Passed Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 ● established PBS (Public Broadcasting Service) ■ Public Television: ● viewers less attractive to advertisers ● age over 50 or under 12 ○ Sesame Street ○ COngress ordered 3 hours of child education programming per week ○ networks claimed that sitcoms and cartoons filled the educational requirements ● Federal funding dropped in 1980s, PBS developed on corporate underwriting ○ corporate sponsors funded ○ economies suffered ● Congress gave $25 million to PBS,, but only 15% of funding comes from gov. ● bulk support from viewers, listeners and corporations ● started promotional messages from sponsors anticipating decreased gov, support ● Audience declined ○ market fragmentation ○ third screen technology ● Regulatory Challenges to TV and Cable ○ Gov. Regulations Temporarily Restrict Network COntrol: ■ Prime Time Access: reduced network control of prime time programming from 4 to 3 hours ● wanted to encourage more local news/ public affairs programs ■ finsyn constituted most damaging attack against network TV monopoly ● networks had to run on syndication companies ● legal claims against monopolies led Justice Dep. to limit network's production of nonews shows ● network is limited to 8 hours per week ■ With growth of cable and home video, FCC gradually took away the ban limiting network production because TV was more competitive ■ megadeals: have contained independent producers from creating new shows and competing in Print eim ● ex: Disney acquisition of ABC ○ Balancing Cables Growth against Broadcasters Interests: ■ Must Carry Rules: required all cable operators to assign channels to and carry all local TV broadcasts on their system ● cable rapid growth, capacity for more channels and better reception led FFC to consider industry issues ● Must Carry Rules ensured that local network affiliate, independent stations and public TV channels would benefit from cable clear reception ● limited number of distant commercial TV signals a cable system could import to two or three independent stations per market ● prohibitie cable companies from bringing in network affiliated stations from another city ■ Access Channel Mandates: ● access channel in nation's top one hundred TV markets, required cable systems to provide and fund tier of non broadcast channels dedicated to local education, gov and the public ● large market separate channels for each service ● smaller market: education, gov public all on one channel ■ Leased Channels: Citizens could buy time on these channels and produce own programs ○ Cables Role: electronic Publisher or Common Carrier? ■ 1970s cable operators argued they should be considered electronic publishers ● electronic publisher ble to choose what channels and content to carry ○ wanted same publishing freedoms and legal protections as broadcast and print media had in selecting context ● FCC argued Cable systems were common carriers ○ common carriers: services do not get involved in content ● 1979 the debate ended Midwest Video case ○ US Supreme court determined cable companies as “electronic publishers” ■ they were allowed to determine channel content ○ Franchising Frenzy ■ cable franchis mini monopoly awarded by local community to most attractive bidder for 15 year period ■ city or state would outline a cable system needs and request bids from various cable companies ■ make a list of promises to a city about construction schedules, system design, subscription rates, channel capacity ,type of programming, financial backing, deadlines, and a franchise fee ■ franchise fe money the cable company would pay the city annually for the right to operate local cable system ■ Today deferral policy act from 1984 dictates the franchise fees for most US municipalities ○ The Telecommunications Act 1996 ■ one congress tried to end must carry rules/ abandon rate regulation, then a later one would restore it ■ Telecommunications Act 1996: bringing cable fully under the federal rules that had long governed telephone, radio and TV industries ● knocked down regulatory barriers ● allowed regional phone companies, long distance carriers and cable companies to enter one another's markets ● owners could operate TV or radio stations in same market where they owned a cable system ■ Congress hoped that new rules would spur competition and lower rates, but this did not happen ● prices were at a premium and competition at a minimum ■ MIXED IMPACT: ● it would lead to more competition and innovation in programming, services, technology ○ but no competition, 90% of communities still have one local cable company ● triple play/ bundlingf digital cable television, broadband internet, and telephone service ● The Economics and Ownership of Television and Cable ○ TV programming: a system that mostly delivers viewers to merchandise displayed in blocks of ads ○ Consume say TV advertising has the most impact on their buying decisions ■ Production: ● key: offering programs that viewers will watch each week ■ Costs: below or above the line ● below the line 40% of production budget ○ “technical” equipment, special effect, camera and crews, sets, carpenters, electricians wardrobe etc. ● above the line60% of production budget ○ “software” creative talent: actors, writers, producers, editors, directors ● deficit financin production company leases the show to a network or cable channel for license fee lower than cost of production ○ typically leases a one hour drama for $1.5 million for two airings ○ after 2 years of production, an average network builds up large deficit ● original programs less money: smaller audiences and fewer episodes ● Cable channels keep cost down with 3 to four new programs a year at most ● hope to profit on deals with domestic and international syndication ○ Distribution: ■ cable service providers rely on customer subscriptions to pay for distributing channels ■ also pay the broadcast netwretransmission fee to carry network channels and programming ■ broadcast networks paffiliate stat license fees to carry program ■
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