Study Guide for Ch. 13-16
Study Guide for Ch. 13-16 Psych 1000
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Date Created: 12/06/15
Ch 13: Social Psychology What is social psychology? • How we think about, influence and relate to one another • Focus on situational influences What are attributions? Dispositional/internal attributions? Situational/external attributions? • Attributions: process of making inferences about the cause of some event/behavior, way of explaining behavior • Dispositional/internal: inferring that a person’s behavior is caused by their internal personality characteristics • Situational/external: inferring that a person’s behavior is caused by what the person has experienced/their situation/environment What is the fundamental attribution error? • Tendency to overestimate the influence of disposition and underestimate influence of situation when evaluating the behavior of someone you don’t know well • When judging behavior of others, attribute more of their behaviors to who they are fundamentally and not attributing enough to the situational factors What is the actor-observer bias? • Tendency to make dispositional attributes for others’ behaviors and situational attributes for your own [bad] behavior • Their bad behavior is due to their personality but our bad behavior is due to our situation What are attitudes? How do attitudes relate to actions? • Beliefs and feelings that predispose reactions (actions to people, places and things) • Attitudes affect and influence actions • Actions affect and influence attitudes What is cognitive dissonance? What is cognitive dissonance theory? • Cognitive dissonance: psychological tension/discomfort that we experience when our attitudes don’t match our actions (behave one way, feel another) • Theory: we justify our actions by changing our attitudes to match our behaviors (in situations of cognitive dissonance), motivated to change attitudes to fit actions in order to relieve tension What happened in the Festinger & Carlsmith study? • People given a boring task • Paid $1 or $20 to lie to the next subject that it’s actually fun and interesting • People paid $1 were more convincing because they didn’t have as much justification to lie so more cognitive dissonance is experienced and they begin to convince themselves it actually wasn’t as bad/was a little bit fun What happened in the Zimbardo prison study (aka Stanford prison experiment)? What is the main lesson of this study? • Half assigned to be guards, half assigned to be prisoners • “pretend” became real, we can lose ourselves in a fictional role • situations can exert powerful influences on our behavior (some situations are so powerful they overwhelm some of our inherent beliefs and attitudes) • from the outside we are less aware of situational factors • human tendency to adopt the attitudes that match the role we are in What is conformity? Compliance? Obedience? • Conformity: change belief or behavior to match group due to unspoken group pressure • Compliance: request from someone who is not an authority, can use direct personal appeals or sneakier methods that are indirect • Obedience: involves demand from authority What happened in the Asch conformity studies? • Shown three lines of different lengths asked to compare to a “standard line” • You hear 4 people before you all give the same wrong answer • You become uncomfortable, tense, unsure, hesitant as you are torn between unanimity and your own belief (evidence with your own eyes) • Should you suffer the discomfort of being the oddball and saying what you think is the right answer? What are social norms? • Learned cultural rules about what to do and what not to do in various situations • Tends to be unspoken and automatically followed What is the foot-in-the-door phenomenon? The door-in-the-face phenomenon? • Foot-in-the-door: people who agree to a small request are more likely to agree to a larger related request • Door-in-the-face: people who are presented with a large unreasonable request [that they are likely to say no to] are more likely to say yes to a smaller related request because it doesn’t seem as bad What happened in Milgram’s standard obedience study? • You [men and eventually a few women] are the “teacher” • Told to teach and test “learner” on a list of word pairs • If learner gives wrong answer, you are directed to flip a switch to deliver brief electric shock to the “learner” in another room • Each error moves to the next higher voltage • If you continue, you hear grunts from the learner then cries and shouts and shrieks What were the results of Milgram’s study? • More than 60% complied fully and went up to the last switch (450-volts) • Even when told of the learners “slight heart condition,” 65% went up to 450 volts What was the main conclusion of Milgram’s studies? • The majority of participants would continue to obey the researcher even after hearing the learner’s distress What is the chameleon effect? p. 525 • We are natural mimics, unconsciously imitating others’ expressions, postures, and voice tones What is deindividuation? • Behaving in uncharacteristic (often vicious) ways when we feel anonymous and less accountable for our actions • Happens in big crowds and on the internet What is social loafing? P. 533 • The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable • People work harder/exert more effort (ex. Clap louder, pull harder) when they are [or think] working alone (therefore, more accountable) What is group polarization? P. 534-535 • The enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group • Beliefs and attitudes we bring to a group grow stronger as we discuss them with like-minded people What is groupthink? Under what conditions is groupthink most likely to occur? How can it be avoided? • When a group is unable to make wise decision because they are unable to realistically consider options due to group dynamics • Can’t fully evaluate their decisions because they focus on the consensus • Occur: cohesive and isolated, feelings of invulnerability or superiority, feelings of unanimity, suppression of dissenting views • Avoid: designate a devil’s advocate, anonymous expression of opinions, discuss with outsiders What are stereotypes? What is prejudice? What is discrimination? • Stereotypes: beliefs about a group, false assumptions that all members are the same • Prejudice: evaluating/judgments based on group membership, unjustified positive or negative evaluation of a person based on the group they belong to • Discrimination: differential treatment of people due to the group they belong to (membership) How does prejudice maintain inequality? • Maintains inequality by suggesting certain groups of people are less worthy or less capable What are overt attitudes? implicit attitudes? What do measures of implicit attitudes reveal about stereotypes and prejudice? • Overt attitudes: attitudes we are constantly aware of having • Implicit attitudes: attitudes with an unconscious influence on our behavior • Implicit Association Test: reveals how closely connected particular concepts are in our minds by how quickly we associate words and/or pictures, person’s results correlate with attitudes • Impact on unconscious, automatic influence, unthinking, knee-jerk reactions What are some phenomena that contribute to prejudice as discussed in class (for instance - illusory correlations, confirmation bias, in-group favoritism, learning, scapegoating, social inequalities, just-world phenomenon, hindsight bias, blaming the victim, lack of awareness)? How do these phenomena contribute to prejudice? • Illusory correlations: behavior of one person associated with the whole group (assume bad behavior is characteristic of all people in that group) • Confirmation bias: notice and remember examples that confirm our beliefs, more likely to dismiss/ignore examples that contradict our beliefs • In-group favoritism: rate members of our own group more favorably • Scapegoating: blame others when things go wrong • Social inequalities: some people start off with more and have an easier path to success, some people with privilege tend to create attitudes to justify their position in respect to those who aren’t • Just-World Phenomenon: belief the world is a fair and just place, people get what they deserve, position in relation to those who lack is justly deserved • Hindsight bias: outcome seems obvious after the fact, think we would have been able to foresee the outcome • Victim blaming: they should’ve seen this coming, they are at fault for their misfortunes • Awareness: those with privilege often fail to recognize their privilege, take it for granted because it seems normal, fail to recognize the ways in which they benefit What is the bystander effect? How does the case of Kitty Genovese relate to the bystander effect? What is diffusion of responsibility? • When the presence of other people inhibits helping (the more bystanders there are, the less likely it is someone will help) What are some other factors involved in helping? • Clear need for help • People know each other • Judgment about how deserving the victim is What is the mere-exposure effect? • Familiarity breeds liking (we grow to like the things that are most familiar to us) How does love tend to change over the course of time (in terms of passionate and companionate love)? What is the frustration-aggression principle? P. 547 • Frustration (the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal) creates anger which can generate aggression What are social scripts and how might the scripts provided by the media influence sexual and/or aggressive behavior? P. 548 • Culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations • Action movies may influence teenage boys to act more aggressively when faced with conflict or threatened • Observation of risk-glorifying behaviors (dangerous driving, extreme sports, unprotected sex) in the media may influence observers’ real life risk taking • Pornographic films may make sexual aggression seem less serious What do laboratory experiments indicate regarding the effects of exposure to pornography? P. 548-549 • Those who watched sexually explicit films suggested sentences for a man convicted of rape that were half as long as those suggested by people who didn’t watch that • Violent sexual content can increase a man’s readiness to behave aggressively toward women • Abstaining from one’s customary pornography consumption decreased aggression What are mirror-image perceptions? P. 563 • Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive • Those in conflict have a tendency to view the opposing group as diabolical, untrustworthy, evil intentions (us vs. them) What does the GRIT strategy entail? P. 567 • Gradual and Reciprocated Initiatives in tension-reduction • Strategy to decrease international tensions • Recognition of mutual interests and intent to reduce tensions • Initiates small conciliatory acts Ch 14: Personality and the Self What is personality? • Characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting • Includes the study of different dimensions of personality, biological influences, individual differences, and social influences What are the four main approaches to the study of personality? • Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic • Humanistic • Trait • Social-Cognitive Who was Sigmund Freud? What major contribution did he make to personality psychology? What were the main focuses of Freud’s theory? What was his theory called? • Austrian physician during Victorian Era, specialized in nervous disorders • Came up with the first major theory about personality, emphasis on childhood experiences, sexual and aggressive urges, and the unconscious mind What is the unconscious? How does it relate to psychological disorder in Freud’s theory? How did Freud try to cure his patients? • Unconscious is thoughts, feelings, wishes, memories, desires below conscious awareness • According to Freud, was the source of problems (unconscious holding of thoughts and desires influenced behavior) • Cured through awareness, find out what it is and make the patient aware How did Freud attempt to access the unconscious mind? • Free association: allowing patient to let guard down and the unconscious to slip through • Dream analysis: highly symbolic expressions of the unconscious mind, interpretation of dreams to reveal unconscious What are the components of personality according to the psychoanalytic view? What are their characteristics? • Id: born with it, contains drives and instincts and unconscious, operates on a pleasure principle (guides you to do what feels good) and immediate gratification • Ego: operates on the reality principle (takes into account the constraints of reality), tries to get id to delay gratification, mediator between id and superego • Superego: develops between 4 and 5, operates on morality principle (guides you to do what is right and good – responsible for guilt, pride, etc.), demands perfection How do these relate to the iceberg analogy used by Freud? • Only a small part of the mind is consciously available to us • Only a little bit of superego and ego are above water, id is completely below the surface • Majority of the mind is beneath the surface of conscious awareness What are defense mechanisms (in general)? What is repression? • Defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological and behavioral tactics used to protect a person from unpleasant emotions by hiding or distorting reality • Repression is pushing troubling thoughts out of conscious awareness (most important, basis for all other mechanisms) What are Freud’s psychosexual stages of development and what happens during each? • Conflicts in each stage between satisfying urges and rules of society (fixation is thought to develop through lack of conflict resolution) • Oral Stage 0-18mo: mouth, pleasure is obtained through sucking and biting, conflict when society demands weaning, fixation (constant mouth stimulation) believed to come from early weaning • Anal Stage 18-36mo: anus, pleasure is obtained through holding in or expelling feces, conflict when society demands potty training, fixation (anal retentive personality) believed to come from early potty training • Phallic Stage 3-6yr: genitals, pleasure is obtained through stimulation of the penis or clitoris, conflict occurs for males when they desire their mothers, for females desire for father (penis envy) • Latency Period 6-adolescence: no zone, learning social skills, sexual desires are dormant, nothing much happens • Genital Stage adolescence-adulthood: genitals, transfer desire for parents to age appropriate partner What are erogenous zones? What is fixation? • Erogenous zones: pleasure-sensitive areas of the body • Fixation: enduring focus on particular erogenous zones, caused when overindulged or under indulged What are the Oedipus and Electra complexes? • Oedipus: boys have an unconscious desire for their mothers, dad is in the way, jealousy fear repression identification, some people don’t have penises, if he gets his dad out of the picture he will cut his penis off, conflict resolved successfully if the boys gives up on his mom and begins to identify and try to be like dad (so mom will like him, mom likes dad) • Electra: strong attachment to mom, some people don’t have penises, penis envy, mother cut penis off, affection transferred to father (fearing loss of mother’s love), represses love and desire for dad, tries to identify with and be like mom, represses desire for penis, babies become penis substitutes According to Alfred Adler, why do we struggle for superiority and power? P. 576 • Much of our behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood inferiority feelings (trigger our strivings for superiority and power) • Feelings of inferiority in our childhood that we fight with in to feel superior and powerful Who is associated with the idea of a collective unconscious? P. 577 • Concept of shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history • Carl Jung What is the psychodynamic approach? • Places an influence on the relationship between conscious and unconscious, emphasizes inner conflicts and focus on how the past influences the present What are projective personality tests? What are the problems with them? • Individuals are asked to respond or interpret ambiguous stimuli (to reveal unconscious mind) • Thematic Apperception Test: presented with a serious of pictures of people in ambiguous situations, asked to tell a story about what is happening • Rorschach Inkblot: shown a series of inkblots, asked what they see • Problems: subjective interpretation (no standardization for interpreting someone’s responses), not reliable or valid What are the major problems with Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory? • Not testable, unscientific, not supported by research What is the false consensus effect? p. 581 • The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors What is the main premise of the humanistic approach? • We tend to assume people are basically good rather than evil (optimistic) • Personality and behavior are guided by an innate drive to grow and fulfill our potential What does Rogers’ Person-Centered Perspective indicate? What factors promote or inhibit growth according to this perspective? • We all strive for growth and fulfillment as long as we encounter supportive environments and relationships • Progress toward self-actualization will be thwarted if we feel we have to behave in a non self-consistent way to win regard from others/loved ones (act unlike ourselves to be accepted) • Requires genuineness (being open to true feelings), empathy, and acceptance (conditional: we will be loved and accepted as long as we meet other people’s standards/expectations; unconditional: no strings attached, helps growth and fulfillment) What is the trait approach? What is the purpose of factor analysis in the trait approach? • Personality is a combination/collection of traits (specific, stable internal characteristics) • Finding the fundamental dimensions/traits of personality • factor analysis (statistically correlated clusters of items, mathematical procedure that identifies patterns in data) What are the dimensions of personality in Eysenck’s trait theory? • Introversion/extraversion • Emotional stability/instability According to the Eysenck’s, upon what biological factors were these trait dimensions based? • Genetically influenced • Inherited levels of brain and autonomic nervous system arousal and reactivity (baseline activity determines how active and reactive) How do introverts and extraverts tend to differ? • Extraverts: low baseline, vulnerable to boredom, seek stimulation, sensitive to reward, experience positive emotions, less sensitive to pain, choose style over comfort • Introverts: high baseline, prone to overstimulation, more reactive nervous system, more neutral emotions, sensitive to punishment, choose comfort over style, seek calm and quiet What is Gray’s Biopsychological Theory? • Based on brain • Two separate dimensions (can be high on both or low on both) What is the behavioral approach system and behavioral inhibition system? • BAS: influences our sensitivity to reward and motivation to seek out reward, more likely to experience positive emotions, vulnerable to impulsivity, motivated to attain rewards (experience more intensely) • BIS: influences sensitivity to punishment and motivation to avoid punishment, motivated to avoid (experience more intensely), prone to negative emotions and anxiety What traits make up the Big Five Model of personality? CANOE • Conscientiousness: competence, self-discipline, strive for achievement • Agreeableness: likable, modest, kind, trustworthy • Neuroticism: anxiety, self-consciousness, anger/hostility, depression, similar to emotional [in]stability • Openness: oriented toward feelings, actions, ideas • Extraversion: outgoing, positive, warm, assertive (introversion/extraversion) What is the NEO-PI-R? The MMPI? • Objective personality inventories (objectively scored, clear direct questions about thoughts and behaviors) measure several traits at once • Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory Revised: assesses big 5 traits, can predict career success • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: diagnostic tool for psychological disorders, assesses personality and psychological disorders What is the social-cognitive approach? • Interaction between personality, thinking, behavior and the situation (how all the factors interact, can’t consider one without considering the others) What is Bandura’s concept of reciprocal determinism? • Personality and environment influence each other (reciprocal relationship, personality influences how you react to events and people; how you react to events and people influences how other people treat and react to us) • Choice, reaction, products and producers of our environments What is Rotter’s expectancy theory (of personal control)? • Behave according to expectations of results (what we expect to happen as a result of our behavior) • What you expect to happen as a result of your behavior depends [to some extent] on your feels of personal control What is meant by internal and external locus of control? • Internal: feelings of control over their lives, what happens depends on what they do, affective in controlling events in life, achievement/health/independence/well-being • External: lack feelings of control in life, what happens is a matter of luck or fate, behaviors don’t have impact on what happens in life, depression/learned helplessness What is learned helplessness and how does it relate to the concept of personal control? • Tendency to give up on efforts to control events/environment after previous efforts made no difference (experienced helplessness) • Tends to develop in people who have experienced repeated traumatic events (where there is little control) • Why some abused victims don’t try to escape bad situations (feel that it is impossible and would happen anyway) What is the spotlight effect? p. 598-599 • Overestimating others’ noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance and blunders • Think more people are noticing and evaluating/judging us than in reality What is the relationship between self-esteem and aggressive behavior? What is defensive self-esteem? • High self esteem à more likely to show aggressive behavior • Unrealistically high self esteem tends to lead to more aggressive behavior when challenged/threatened [by someone seen as inferior] or negative feedback is received • Defensive self-esteem: fragile, insecure, easily shaken, tend to react badly/aggressively when challenged What is the self-serving bias? What is the better-than-average or above- average effect? • Self-serving bias: tendency to think well of ourselves, take credit when things go well, blame circumstances/others when things go poorly, imagine more attractive than reality, found cross culturally (less pronounced in Asian cultures) • Better-than-average effect: tendency to think we are above average, illusion of superiority How does depression relate to the self-serving bias and realism? • People with depression tend to lack self-serving bias • People with depression may see things more realistically than others Ch 15: Psychological Disorders What is psychopathology? What is abnormal psychology? • Psychological disorders/mental illness How is psychological disorder defined? • Ongoing patterns of thoughts, emotions, and/or behaviors that impair functioning, deviate from the norm, cause stress, disrupt lives, deviant, dysfunctional How common are psychological disorders in the United States? When do they typically appear? • Nearly half of the people will meet criteria of a psychological disorder in their lifetime • 75% will show symptoms by the age of 24 How does the biopsychosocial model explain psychological disorder? • Psychological disorders come from a combination and interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors How are psychological disorders related to poverty? • People living in poverty are twice as likely to have a disorder • Can cause psych disorders and psych disorders can cause downward mobility/falling into poverty How does culture influence psychological disorders? What are culture-general and cultural (culture-specific/culture-bound) disorders? • Culture can change how symptoms manifest and how people deal with distress • Culture-general disorders: found cross-culturally • Culture-specific disorders: found only in specific cultures How does the diathesis-stress model explain psychological disorders? • More emphasis on stress • We all have varying degrees of predisposition for different psychological disorders (from genes and early events) • developing a psych disorder depends on degree of predisposition and level of stress needed to trigger the disorder What is the DSM-V? • diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders • disorders are officially recognized and sorted into categories that include lists of criteria • allows for consistency and communication between doctors • based on research In what ways can applying a diagnostic label to someone be stigmatizing? • Can change the way other people perceive and interpret a person’s behavior (normal behaviors may be seen as symptoms) What are the general symptoms of anxiety disorders? • Psychological: worrying, fearfulness, nervousness, difficulty relaxing or concentrating • Physical: sympathetic nervous system activation/arousal, sweating, trembling, dizziness, nausea, increased heart rate What are the anxiety disorders we covered? Know major symptoms, definitions of terms associated with the disorders, and how the disorders differ from each other. • Generalized Anxiety Disorder: anxious most of the time for no apparent reason, free-floating/not attached to any object/situation, excessive worrying over small things, long-lasting, interrupts ability to function, dread, distractibility, irritability, tense, hyper vigilant, insomnia, exaggerated startle response, common in people with depressive disorders • Panic Disorder: recurring and unpredictable panic attacks (sudden episode of extremely intense anxiety), trembling, sweating, racing heart, may lead to agoraphobia (fear of situations in which escape may be difficult) • Specific Phobia: strong, irrational, excessive fear of particular situations or things that are not likely to be dangerous, typically understands the fear is out of proportion, disorder only if it interrupts functioning • Social Anxiety Disorder: fear of other people’s judgment, often leads to avoidance of social situations What are some biological and psychological factors involved in anxiety disorders? • Genetic predisposition • Neurotransmitter imbalances • Brain and autonomic nervous system (greater sensitivity and reactivity), nervous system responds more intensely to stimuli • High on neuroticism is a risk factor for most disorders (negative emotions, intense reactivity, moody) • Attentional bias (more likely to notice and pay attention to possibly threatening stimuli) • Interpretation of situation (more likely to interpret ambiguous stimuli as threatening) • Low self-efficacy (feel they are unable to cope, underestimate ability to cope with threats) • Stressful events worsen anxiety • Fears can be learned through observation and classical conditioning and negative reinforcement What is posttraumatic stress disorder? Who tends to get it? • No longer classified as an anxiety disorder • Occurs in people who have witnessed or endured horrific, uncontrollable events or experienced extreme trauma (veterans, sexual assault victims) • Flashbacks, nightmares, haunting memories, jumpy, cranky, withdrawn, insomnia What is obsessive-compulsive disorder? What are obsessions and compulsions and how do they relate to each other? • Experiences persistent upsetting thoughts that result in the irresistible urge to engage in repetitive acts • Obsessions are uncontrollable intrusive thoughts/images/impulses/doubts that produce anxiety which fuels compulsions • Compulsions are irresistible urges to engage in repetitive ritualistic behaviors that are often time-consuming and temporary relief is obtained through engaging in the behavior What is major depressive disorder? What are the symptoms and features? • Feelings of sadness and hopelessness most of the time lasting at least 2 weeks • Psychological: sadness, guilt, low self-esteem, pessimism, anhedonia, anxiety, poor concentration, isolation • Physical: changes in eating and sleeping, aches and pains, low energy, weakend immune • Triggered by stress • Shows up in early adult hood (very common) • Can be one big episode but is most commonly recurring, chronic episodes What are some of the biological, psychological, and social factors involved in depression? • Genetic predisposition • Neurotransmitter imbalances • Exaggerated stress response • High on neuroticism • Negative events felt more intensely than positive ones • Low self-esteem • Learned helplessness • External locus of control (don’t feel they have control over their lives) • Perfectionism • Negative explanatory style (explain things in a negative way, jump to overly generalized, pessimistic, self-blaming conclusions; lack of self- serving bias) • Stress and rejection can aggravate and trigger What is bipolar disorder? • Exhibits extremes of mood that are unrelated to circumstances/events\ • Triggers: genetic predisposition, stress, abnormalities in brain structure/function, neurotransmitter abnormalities, neuroticism • May have periods of normalcy, may go from one extreme to the other • Starts in early/late teens/early 20s What are the symptoms of mania? • agitated emotional state • emotional: euphoria, irritability • cognitive: optimism, poor judgment, grandiosity, impulsive, distractible, poor incite (don’t understand they’re ill) • behavioral: hyperactivity, insomnia, talkativeness, recklessness, pressured speech (force behind their words), difficulty sleeping, silly/immature What is schizophrenia? What are the symptoms? Know definitions and characteristics of the symptoms we covered. For instance, what are hallucinations and delusions? What are the most common types of hallucinations in schizophrenia? What are the different types of delusions we covered? What are loose associations? What is flat affect? • Characteristics: disordered and irrational thoughts and ideas, distorted perceptions, inappropriate emotions and behaviors, psychosis (loss of contact with reality) • Symptoms: hallucinations, delusions, attentional problems, disorganized thinking and speech, emotional disturbances, socially withdrawn, motor disturbances o Hallucinations: perception without sensory stimulation (smell, taste, feel, hear, see things that aren’t there), auditory is most common often in the form of voices (running commentary, ordering, insult/laughter) o Delusions: beliefs that are firmly held despite a lack of supporting evidence; persecution belief that other people are plotting against you; grandeur belief that you are more important than you are; ideas of reference belief that random events are personally relevant o Attentional problems: lack selective attention, easily distractible, trouble filtering out irrelevant stimuli o Loose associations: type of disorganized thinking and speech in which thoughts and speech jump around o Flat affect: lack of emotional expression (monotone voice, lack of changing facial expressions) o Catatonic stupor: rigid immobility (rigid and unmoving for periods of time); waxy flexibility (move them in any position) o Repetitive/compulsive behaviors: behavior that serve no purpose and last for hours or sit and do nothing for hours What are the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and why is this distinction important? • Positive: presence of inappropriate/abnormal behaviors (not exhibited by those who are mentally healthy), abnormalities added, ex. hallucinations, delusions, compulsive behavior, more likely to respond to medication • Negative: behavioral deficits (showing less of normal behaviors), absence of appropriate behaviors, ex. flat affect, social withdrawal, worse prognosis (less likely to respond to meds) When does schizophrenia develop? What factors predict outcome? • Develops in late teens/early 20s • Sudden onset often stress related (response), more likely to recover • More often gradual onset • Episodic: can experience one or more episodes (periods of psychosis) followed by periods of normalcy • Chronic: no periods of normalcy What are some biological factors associated with schizophrenia as covered in class? • Genetic predisposition (parents or close family members); Unrelated parents don’t increase risk • Dopamine: over activity of dopamine (would use dopamine agonists, effective for positive symptoms) • Glutamate: imbalance (thought to affect negative symptoms) • Abnormalities in brain structure and function (loss of brain tissue, enlarged ventricles) • Neurodevelopmental events (prenatal trauma, lower than normal birth weight, oxygen deprivation, prenatal viral infection) What characterizes personality disorders? • Disruptive, long-standing, inflexible, dysfunctional patterns of behavior and thought that impair social functioning What is antisocial personality disorder? • Psychopaths/sociopaths • Pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others • Lack of conscience shown by the age of 15 What are the psychological, behavioral, and biological features of this disorder? • Problems holding down jobs • Bad in relationships, bad spouses and parents • Lack of empathy, remorse, guilt and fear • Callous, manipulative, arrogant, deceitful, impulsive, irresponsible • Less sensitive to [the threat of] punishment • Can be charming, intelligent, outgoing What are some biological and social factors that may contribute to this disorder? • Genetic influence (higher risk if biological parents have it) • Potential for learned behavior (higher risk if adopted parents have it) • Release lower levels of stress hormones (minimal physiological arousal under stress) • nervous systems show blunted reaction to emotional stimuli • prefrontal cortex, serotonin • poverty, instability, abuse What is epigenetics? P. 612 • the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change • how nurture shapes nature Ch 16: Treatment of Psychological Disorders What are the two main types of treatment for psychological disorders? • Psychotherapy: trained therapists use psychological techniques in order to help a patient feel or function better • Biomedical Therapies: medication or medical procedures, often used to treat more severe disorders or disorders with stronger biological bases What is the eclectic approach? • Often a combination of the two treatments is used • Use different techniques from different types of therapy • Blend of techniques that are specific to the individual What was the first psychotherapy and who developed it? • Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic therapy developed by freud What is the aim of psychoanalysis? What is the main focus of psychodynamic therapy? • Classical psychoanalysis: make person aware of repressed, unconscious conflicts and impulses, long involved process (several visits a week for years) • Psychodynamic Therapy: focus on social relationships and self- understanding, help the patient understand why they think and feel the way they do, focus on past and look for recurring themes and relationship patterns What are the goals of humanistic psychotherapy? • Enhance self-awareness and self-acceptance • Facilitate growth, deal with minor problems and overall self-improvement What are the characteristics and methods of Rogers’s client-centered therapy? • Therapists provide support and companionship, avoid judgment/interpretation/advice, client-centered (they possess ability to solve their own problems) • Acceptance: unconditional positive regard • Genuineness/congruence • Empathy: reflection, demonstrate empathy through active listening techniques/paraphrasing client’s statements What is the general focus and goal of behavior therapy? • Psychological problems are seen as learned behaviors • Use principals of learning to get rid of undesirable behaviors and teach more adaptive behaviors What is exposure with response prevention (flooding)? • Exposing the client to a feared but ultimately harmless (controlled) situation, encouraging them to not escape and face it instead • Often used with OCD and phobias (stuff involving fear) • Goal is for the patient to learn that what they fear/situation is harmless • Effective but undesirable to experience What is systematic desensitization? • Replace fear with relaxation • Exposed to increasingly anxiety-provoking versions of feared stimulus while relaxing • Therapist teaches relaxation techniques that are practiced • List of increasingly intense versions of feared stimuli is created in advance (hierarchy) • Move up list after repeated exposure until item no longer causes anxiety What is the main goal of the cognitive therapies? What are some techniques used in cognitive therapies? • Focus on the role thinking plays in causing and maintaining psychological disorders • Change maladaptive thought patterns • think in more constructive rather than destructive manners • identify and correct patients’ irrational thinking, cognitive distortions and negative assumptions • self-statement modification: change the way they talk to themselves, replace negative with positive What is electroconvulsive shock therapy? For what is it used today? Is it effective? What is the main side effect? • Electric current applied to scalp to cause convulsions • Mainly used for severe depression that has not responded to medication or other types of treatments • Side effects: mental confusion and memory loss What is psychosurgery? • Removal or destruction of brain tissue What is prefrontal and transorbital lobotomy? What were the general effects of lobotomy? Are lobotomies used to treat psychological disorders today? • Cut connections between frontal lobes and limbic areas • Holes in skull, device inserted and twirled to destroy connections • Effects: lethargy, immaturity, impulsivity, loss of personality/creativity • Hardly don’t today (current surgeries consist of insertion of an electrode) What is deep-brain stimulation? P. 686-687 • Pinpoints brain’s depressive center • Neural hub that bridges frontal lobes to limbic system • Often overactive in the brain of a depressed person • Excite neurons that inhibit the negative emotion-feeding activity What is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation? P. 686 • The application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain (through a magnetic coil held close to the skull) • Used to stimulate or suppress brain activity • Painless What are neuroleptics/antipsychotics (Haldol, Thorazine, Risperdal) used to treat? How do they affect dopamine? • Dopamine antagonists • Used to treat schizophrenia (psychotic states), specifically positive symptoms What is tardive dyskinesia? • Syndrome of uncontrollable, repetitive movements • Side effect from antipsychotics • irreversible What are the general classes of antidepressants and which are most commonly prescribed today? What are SSRI’s (such as Prozac, Zoloft) and how do they work? What disorders are antidepressants used to treat? • Serotonin/norepinephrine/dopamine agonists: used to treat depression, anxiety, PTSD, OCD • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO-I’s): serotonin/norepinephrine/dopamine agonist, bad side effects (interactions w food and drugs) • Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA’s): serotonin/norepinephrine agonist, deadly interaction with alcohol • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI’s): most commonly prescribed, increases serotonin activity, prevents reuptake of serotonin (keeps it in the synapse, continues to bind to receptors), similar to increasing amount of serotonin How long does it generally take for antidepressants to become effective? Are people on antidepressants happy all of the time? • Takes [4-6] weeks to reach full effectiveness • Prevent a person from getting severely sad and staying that way for long periods (not happy all the time) What are mood stabilizers (such as lithium) and what do they treat? • Decreases depression and mania • Treat bipolar disorder What are anxiolytics used to treat? What are benzodiazepines (Valium, Xanax)? How do they work (neurotransmitter)? • Anti-anxiety drugs • Tranquilizers that invoke drowsiness and relaxation • Benzodiazepines: GABA agonist, produce drowsiness and relaxation, addictive
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