PSY 335 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE
PSY 335 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE PSY 335
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bria Harris on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 335 at Syracuse University taught by W. Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Childhood in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
PSY 335 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 9 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory • Eight age related (5 stages during childhood and adolescence) - Each stage is characterized by a specific crisis that the individual must resolve - If the dominant issue of a stage is not successfully resolved before the next stage begins, the person will continue to struggle with it Stage 1: Trust v. Mistrust • Occurs during the 1 year • Infant must learn to develop a sense of trust – developed through parenting and care giving • Erikson believes that if the infant does not develop the ability to trust others, the person will have difficulty forming intimate relationship slater on in life Stage 2: Autonomy v. Shame & Doubt • Ages 1 – 3.5 years old • Designed to achieve a strong sense of autonomy while adjusting to increasing social demands • If parents allow children to achieve self-control without loss of self-esteem, the child will gain a sense of autonomy • If children are subjected to serve punishment or ridicule, they may come to doubt their abilities or to feel a general sense of shame Stage 3: Initiative v. Guilt • Ages 4-6 • Period during which children identify with and learn from their parents • If parents are not highly controlling or punitive, children can develop high standards and the initiative to meet them without being crushed by worry about not being able to measure up Stage 4: Industry v. Inferiority • Ages 6 – puberty • Crucial for ego development • Children master cognitive & social skills that are important in their culture and they learn to work industriously and to cooperate with peers • Successful experiences = child sense of competence • Failure = excessive feelings of inadequacy of inferiority Stage 5: Identity v. Role Confusion • Adolescence to earl adulthood • Adolescence as a core time to form identity • Must solve the question of who they are or lie in confusion & what role they should play as adults Freud’s Theory • Freud assumed that even very young children have a social nature that motivates their behavior and influences their relationships with other people • Believed that psychic energy becomes focused in different erogenous zones during each stage - Psychic energy: biologically based, instinctual drives that fuel thoughts & feelings - Erogenous zones: areas of the body that are erotically sensitive Freud’s Personality Development • Id, Ego, and Superego Stages of Psychosexual Development • Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital First Personality Structure • Id: Earliest and most primitive of the 3 personality structures posited by Freud - Totally unconscious source of psychic energy & instinctual drives - Ruled by the Pleasure Principle – the goral of achieving maximal gratification (eating, drinking, physical comfort) as quickly as possible First Stage: Oral • Occurs during the first year, the primary source of satisfaction & pleasure is oral activity - Primary sources of pleasure is sucking and eating • Mother established as “first & strongest love object” and as a source of security • With security comes fear of loss of love or loss of a person Second Personality Structure • Ego: Rational, logical, problem-solving component to personality - Arises based upon our need to resolve conflict between the id’s demands & the restraints imposed by the external world (though never fully in control) - Operates based upon reality principle – trying to find ways to satisfy the id that accord with the demands of the world Second Stage: Anal • Lasts roughly from 3-5 years of age, the primary source pleasure comes from defection • Focus on the pleasurable relief of the tension derived from defecation • Conflict occurs when (for the 1 time) parents begin to make specific demands on the infant (potty training) in which children are required to control their impulses to delay gratification Third Stage: Phallic • Spans ages 3-6; sexual pleasure is focused on the genitalia - Children become focused on their own genitalia & curious about those of parents & playmates • During this time, children identify with their same-sex parent, giving rise to gender, differences in attitudes & behavior - Penis envy: When girls notice and resent the fact that they don’t have a penis Third Personality Structure • Superego: Consists of internalized moral standards, similar to what we think of as a conscience • Children are enabled to control their behavior based on beliefs about right and wrong, they try to avoid guilt Development of Superego • For boys, the Oedipus Complex: Conflict experienced by boys on the phallic period because of sexual desire for their mother and fear of retaliation by their father - Ego protects him through repression • Infantile amnesia – forgot this even happened • Boy also identified with the father, developing a strong conscience • Girls have a less intense Electra Complex, which results in them developing a weaker conscience Fourth Stage: Latency • Lasts from age 6-12; sexual energy gets channeled into socially acceptable activities • Fairly calm time • Sexual desires are safely hidden in the unconscious Fifth Stage: Genital Stage • Begins in adolescence, sexual maturation is complete & sex becomes a major goal • Sexual energy reasserts itself with full force; though now towards peers • Hopefully by this time, the individual has developed a strong ego & superego that’s neither too weak nor too string Learning Theories of Social Development • John B. Watson – Behaviorism - Believed that children’s development is determined by their social environment - Learning through conditioning is the primary mechanism of development - Psychologists should only study that which they could observe, not the mind (e.g. id, ego, and superego) - Little Albert Experiment – Made little Albert fear of white mice, paired a loud noise whenever rat was in the room, Albert afraid of loud noise, mad little Albert afraid of any white object (e.g. white rabbit), conditioned little Albert to fear • B.F. Skinner – Operant Conditioning - Believed we repeat behaviors that lead to favorable outcomes (reinforcement) and suppress those that result in unfavorable outcomes (punishment) - Believed every act of our life is due to this pattern of reinforcement/punishment - E.g. Playing slots, always going to think, “just this next time, I’ll win” • Bandura – Social Learning Theory - Preschool children can acquire new behaviors through observing others - E.g. Bobo doll experiment o Found that positive incentive group did behavior observed more than kids that did not receive incentive Theories of Social Cognition • Selman: - Focused on role taking: being aware of the perspective of another person thereby better understanding that person’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings - Believed, like Piaget, that before the age of 6, children are virtually unaware that there is any perspective other than their own - Similar to Piaget • Dodge’s Information Processing Theory - Emphasizes crucial role of cognitive processes in social behavior - Research on children’s use of aggression as a problem-solving strategy - Hostile Attribution Bias: the general expectation that others are antagonistic or mean to them (e.g. child thinks that another child bumped into him/her on purpose & pushes them back when in reality, the other child just tripped over a rock & ran into them) • Dweck’s Theory of Self Attributions & Achievement Motivation - Children have differences in what attributions they make about themselves - Entity/helpless orientation: general tendency to attribute success & failure to enduring aspects of the self & to give up in the face of failure - Incremental/mastery orientation: general tendency to attribute success & failure to the amount of effort expended & to persist in the face of failure - Example: Older children have 2 views of intelligence: o Entity Theory of intelligence: person’s level of intelligence is fixed & unchangeable o Incremental Theory of Intelligence: person’s intelligence can grow as a function of experience Ecological Theories of Development • Bioecological (Bronfenbrenner) - Consists of microsystem (immediate environment), mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem (U.S. culture, democracy), and chronosystem (changes in environment over time) - Bioecological Model: Made important contributions to thinking about development but can be criticized for is general omission of specific biological factors • Child Maltreatment - Child maltreatment is one of the most serious threats to child development in the U.S o Maltreated children: have less secure relationships with parents, show les empathy & less self-esteem, & more conflicts with peers & difficulties with academic work in elementary school o In adolescence and adulthood, individuals with a history of maltreatment are at risk for developing serious psychopathologies • ADHD - Parent’s behavior towards child - How are children treated by others? - Treatment includes: family doctor, drugs, and government - Chronosystem: Children sitting in class all day CHAPTER 10 Emotional Intelligence • Being able to motivate oneself & persist in the face of frustration • Control impulses & delay gratification • Identify and understand one’s own & others’ feelings • Regulate one’s mood • Regulate the expression of emotion in social interactions • Empathize with others’ emotions Discrete Emotions Theory • Discrete Emotions Theorist: nature, something innate in kids that brings about emotion Positive Emotions • Smiling is the 1 clear sign of happiness that infants express - Young infants smile from their earliest days, but the meaning of their smiles appears to change with age • Social smiles are directed toward people and first emerges as early as 6 to 7 weeks of age • At about 7 months: smile primarily at familiar people (rather than people in general) • After about 3 or 4 months of age, infants laugh as well as smile • During the second year of life, children start to clown around & are delighted when they can make other people laugh Negative Emotions st • The 1 negative emotion that is discernable in infants is generalized distress • By 2 months of age, facial expressions of anger or sadness can be differentiated from distress/pain in some contexts • By the 2 year of life, differentiating between infants’ anger & other negative emotions is no longer difficult Fear & Distress • 4 months: children seem wary of unfamiliar objects • 6 to 7 months: initial signs of fear begin to appear - Fear of strangers – intensifies & lasts until age 2 - Fear of novel toys, loud noises, & sudden movements – all decline after 12 months of age Separation Anxiety • 8 months: • Distress experienced by children when they are separated or expect to be separated from individuals to whom they are emotionally attached • Fear that increases from 8 to 13 or 15 months and then declines - This pattern is observed across many cultures - Separation anxiety video Basic Emotions • Joy, anger, surprise, interest, disgust, distress sadness, and fear are classified as “basic emotions” (Dragh-Lorens, 2001) • Basic emotions are experienced by people worldwide & each consists of 3 elements: 1. Subjective feeling 2. Physiological change 3. Overt behavior • E.g. Wake up to the sound of a thunderstorm & then discover your roommate took your umbrella – how would you feel? The Self-Conscious Emotions • Involve feelings of success when one’s standards are met & feelings of failure when they are not • Includes: guilt, shame, embarrassment, and pride - Relate to our senses of self & our consciousness of others’ reaction to us • Emerge during the 2 year of life - 15 to 24 months of age: embarrassment when they are made the center of attention - By 3 years of age, children’s pride is tied to their level of performance Development of Emotional Regulation • Emotional regulation: Process of initiating, inhibiting, or modulating internal feeling states, emotion related processes, and emotion-related cognitions or behaviors in the service of accomplishing one’s goals • Four components of emotional self regulation 1. Marshmallow Experiment • Marshmallow Task – used strategies such as smelling, touching, and not looking at the marshmallow • Testing delay gratification Temperament • Temperament: constitutionally based individual differences in emotional, motor, & attentional reactivity & self regulation across situations, as well as relative stability over time • Infants Temperament – Thomas & Chess - Three categories (based on parent’s reports): o Easy babies (40%): Adjusted readily to new experiences, quickly established routines, & generally were cheerful in mood & easy to calm o Difficult babies (10%): Were slow to adjust to new experiences, likely to react negatively & intensely to stimuli & events, and irregular in their bodily functions o Slow to warm up babies (15%): Were somewhat difficult at first but became easier over time - Six dimensions of child temperament 1. Fearful distress: distress & withdrawal & how long they last in new situations 2. Irritable distress: fussiness, anger, frustration, especially if child is not allowed to do what they want 3. Attention span & persistence: duration of orienting towards objects or events of interest 4. Activity level: how much they move 5. Positive affect: smiling and laughter, approaches to people, manageability 6. Rhythmicity: predictability of body functions such as eating & sleeping • Goodness of Fit - Different problems with adjustment are associated with different temperaments - Children’s adjustment depends on how their temperament fits with the demands and expectations of the social environment, a concept described as goodness of fit Social Referencing • By the end of the 1 year, infants in an unfamiliar or ambiguous environment often look at their mother/father as if searching for cues to help them interpret the situation • At this age, infants generally use parents’ emotional signals to guide their interpretations of & reactions to potentially upsetting or dangerous events or objects (e.g. child falling down the stairs) CHAPTER 11 Attachment Theory • John Bowlby’s Attachment Theory: Children are biologically predisposed to develop attachments with caregivers as a means of increasing the chances of their own survival John Bowlby • Secure base: an attachment figure’s prescience that provides an infant or toddler with a sense of security that makes it possible for the infant or toddler to explore the environment • 4 Phases of Attachment 1. Pre-attachment Phase (birth – 6 weeks): Infant produces innate signs that bring others to his/her own side & is comforted by the interaction that follows 2. Attachment in the Making (6 weeks to 6-8 months): Phase in which infants begin to respond preferentially to familiar people 3. Clear Cut Attachment (between 6-8 months and 1.5-2 years old): Characterized by the infants actively seeking contact with their regular caregivers & typically showing separation protest or distress when the caregiver departs 4. Reciprocal Relationships (1.5 years old – 2 years on): Involves children taking an active role in developing working partnerships with their caregivers Mary Ainsworth • Worked with Bowlby & expanded on his work • Strange Situation – infant placed in a room with mother and stranger, after child gets comfortable, mother leaves child alone in the room with stranger & observes how the infant reacts, developed 4 attachment types from this 1. Secure attachment: Infant or child has a high quality, unambivalent relationship with his/her attachment figure - In Strange Situation: maybe upset when the caregiver leaves but happy when they return, recovering quickly from any distress - Can us caregivers as a secure base for exploration - About 2/3 of American middle class children are securely attached 2. Insecure/resistant (or ambivalent): Clingy & stay close to their caregiver rather than explore the environment - In Strange Situation: tend to become very upset when the caregiver leaves the room, not readily comforted by strangers - When caregiver returns, not easily comforted & both seek comfort & resist comfort 3. Insecure/avoidant attachment: indifferent toward caregiver & may even avoid caregiver - In Strange Situation: seem indifferent towards their caregiver before the caregiver leaves the room & indifferent or avoidant when they return - If these children become upset when left alone, they are easily comforted by a stranger as by the caregiver 4. Disorganized/Disoriented: was subsequently identified - Infants seem to have no consistent way of coping with the stress of the Strange Situation - Behavior often confuse or even contradictory, & they often appear dazed or disoriented Strange Situation Across Cultures • In other countries, findings for the Strange Situation supported the attachment types found by Ainsworth • % of each type vary by culture • Some differences - Japanese infants did not reveal insecure/avoidant behavior - Possible due to the “oneness” between mother and child - Possibly due to the lack of separation from their mothers that Japanese infants experiences at the time Internal Working Model of Attachment • The child develops a mental representation of the self, of attachment figures, and of relationships in general. • This working model guides children’s interactions with caregivers and other people in infancy and at older ages. Factors the Impact Security of Infant’s Attachment • Differences in parental interaction with children • Parental Sensitivity: important factor contributing to the security of an infant’s attachment, can be exhibited in variety of ways, such as responsive caregiving & engaging in coordinated play - Securely attached 1 year old: parent tends to respond quickly & read babies signals accurately, many positive exchanges between the infant & the mother - Insecure/resistant: Parent tends to be inconsistent, sometimes they respond promptly, sometimes they don’t, mothers tend to be highly anxious & overwhelmed - Insecure/avoidant: Mothers tend to be indifferent & emotionally unavailable, occasionally attempting infants attempts at closeness - Disorganized/distressed: Mothers sometimes exhibit abusive, frightening, or disoriented behavior (may be dealing with unresolved trauma) Long Term Effects of Security • Grow up to be better adjusted & more socially skilled • Have closer, more harmonious relationships with peers (more regulated, sociable, and socially competent with peers) & are less anxious • Better able to understand others’ emotions • Predicts to positive peer & romantic relationships & emotional health in adolescence • Tend to be more attentive & involved in school The Self in Infancy • Infants appear to have a sense of self - Sense of their ability to control objects outside of themselves (2-4 months) - Understanding of their own bodily movements (3-5 months) - Separation anxiety (8 months) - Can follow a pointing finger to find an object & give objects to an adult in an apparent effort to engage the adult in activities (12 months) Early Childhood: The Self • Sense of self becomes more apparent when children can look in a mirror and realize they’re looking at themselves (18-20 months) - Smudge Test: Mom puts lipstick on daughter’s forehead, first test she doesn’t recognize that the person in the mirror is herself, 6 weeks later she does • Children begin to recognize themselves in photographs (2 years) • Exhibit shame & embarrassment & try to determine their own activities & goals independent of their parents (2 years) • Children also begin using language that identifies them as an individual (2-3 years) Childhood: The Self • As children progress though childhood, their conception of themselves becomes increasingly complex • Susan Herter: Studies children’s typical self-descriptive statements at different ages - Example of 3 year old describing herself: Describe concrete attributes (favorite things, hair color), description all over the place o Three to four: Understand themselves in terms of concrete, observable characteristics related to physical attributes, physical abilities & activities, social relationships, and psychological traits o Tend to be unrealistically positive - Example of elementary school student: Says negative & positive things about self, description not all over the place o Social Comparison: Comparing aspects of one’s own psychological, behavioral, or physical functioning to that of others in order to evaluate oneself; compare in terms of their characteristics, behaviors, & possessions Older Children • Self-reflect cognitive advances in their ability to use higher order concepts that integrate more specific behavioral features of the self • This allows older children to construct more global views of themselves – results in a more balances and realistic assessment of the self although they can feel sense of insecurity • Children’s self concepts are increasingly based on others evaluations of them (particularly peers), therefore self descriptions frequently focus on social elements and factors that influence their place in social networks The Self & Adolescence • Conceptions of self change in fundamental ways across adolescence, due to the emergence of abstract thinking • Adolescents can conceive of themselves in terms of abstract characteristics that encompass a variety of concrete characteristics and behaviors • Concern over their social competence and social acceptance of other • Adolescents can conceive themselves in terms of a variety of selves • Characterized by personal fables: a form of egocentrism that involves belief uniqueness of one’s own feelings and thoughts - “But you don’t know how it feels” • Imaginary audience: belief that everyone else is focused on the adolescent’s appearance & behavior Four Identity Statuses • Marcia: Developed a method in which participants are interviewed the extent of their exploration of and commitment to issues related to occupation, ideology, and sexual behavior 1. Identity-Diffusion Status: Doesn’t have firm commitments regarding the issues in question & isn’t making progress toward developing them 2. Foreclosure Status: Individual has not engaged in any identity experimentation and has established a vocational or ideological identity based on the choices or values of others 3. Moratorium Status: Still exploring various occupational and ideological choice and has not yet made a clear commitment to them Identity-Achievement Status: Individual has achieved a coherent and consolidated identity based on personal decisions; individual believes decisions were made autonomously and is committed to them • Most young adolescents seem to be in confusion or foreclosure CHAPTER 14 Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development • Children begin with a rigid acceptance of the rules – appreciation that moral riles are a product of social interaction and are therefore modifiable • Piaget believed that much of moral development happens through interactions of peers Piaget’s Two (And a Half) Stages of Moral Development • Stage One: Stage of the Mortality of Constraint - Most characteristics of children who have not achieved Piaget’s stage of concrete operations (children under 7) - Rules tend to be unchangeable and “given”, what adults say is right is right & punishments are always justified, consequences determine whether an action is good or bad • Why do you think kids might take this view of morality? - Children take what they see & make evaluations based on that, children are also very reliant on their parents & what they do and say • Transitional Period - Period from ages 7 – 10 - Children have more interactions with peers - Children begin to learn o take one another’s perspectives - Fairness & equality begin to be valued, & children become more autonomous in their thinking about moral issues • Second Stage: Stage of Autonomous Morality (Moral Relativism) - Occurs between ages 11 or 12 - Children no longer accept blind obedience to authority - Understand that rules are the product of social agreement & can be modified if the majority of the group says so - Believe fairness & equality among people are important factors to consider & they believe that punishments should “fit the crime” Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory • Research shows: - In general, children increasingly take motives into account with age * psychological takes are correlated with their level of moral judgment - Little evidence that peer interaction stimulates moral development - Many 4-5 year olds DON’T think that a person caused a negative outcome “on purpose” if they’ve been told it was an accident Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development • Kohlberg proposed his theory based upon 20 year longitudinal study • He asked children hypothetical moral dilemmas & then questioned them about the issues these dilemmas involved • Kohlberg identified 3 levels of moral judgment: pre-conventional, conventional, & post-conventional Pre-Conventional Moral Reasoning • Self-centered, focused on getting rewards & avoiding punishment • Stage 1: Punishment & Obedience - What is right is obedient to authorities - Children’s “conscience” is fear of punishment - Example from dilemma: “If you let your wife die, you will get in trouble. You’ll be blamed for not spending the money to save her & there’ll be an investigation of you & the druggist for your wife’s death - “You shouldn’t steal the drug, because you’re going to get caught & sent to jail. If you do get away, your conscience would bother you thinking how the police would catch up to you any minute • Stage 2: Instrumental & Exchange Orientation - What is right is one’s own best interest or involves equal exchange between people - Example: “If you do happen to get caught, you could give the drug back & you wouldn’t get much of a sentence. It wouldn’t bother you much to serve a little jail time if you have your wife after you get out - “He may not get much of a jail term if he steals the drug, but his wife will probably die before he gets out so it wont do him much good. If his wife dies, he shouldn’t blame himself, she had cancer. Conventional Level • Stage 3: Mutual Interpersonal Expectations, Relationships, & Interpersonal Conformity (Good Girl, Nice Boy) Orientation - Good behavior is doing what is expected by people who are close to the person to what people generally expect of someone is a given role. Having good motives, showing concern about others, maintaining good relationships with others - Example: “No one will think you’re bad if you steal the drug, but your family will think you’re an inhuman husband if you don’t, if you let your wife die, you’ll never be able to look at anyone in the face again - “It isn’t just the druggist who thinks you’re a criminal, everyone else will too. • Stage 4: Social System & Conscience (Law & order) Orientation - Fulfilling one’s duties, upholding laws & contributing to society or one’s group, individual is motivated to keep the social system going & to avoid a breakdown in its functioning - “Example: For most marriages, you accept the responsibility to look after one another’s health & after their life & you have the responsibility when you love with someone to try & make it a happy life Post conventional or Principled Level • Stage 5: Social Contract it Individual rights Orientation - Right behavior involves upholding rules that are in the best interest of the group are impartial, or were agreed upon by the group. However, some values & rights (Life & liberty) are universally right & must be upheld - “Heinz should steal the drug because the right to life is more important than the right to property” - “Heinz working from a hierarchy of values, in which life is greater than honesty … human life & its preservation must take place over other values …” • Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles - Right behavior is commitment to self-chosen ethical principles that reflect the universal principles of justice (e.g. equality of human rights, respect for the dignity of each human being.) When laws violate these principles, the individual should act in accordance with these universal principles rather than with the law Critique of Kohlberg’s Theory • Pros - Useful in understanding how cognitive processes contribute to moral judgments • Cons: - Doesn’t sufficiently account for cultural differences - Presumes that moral judgment is discontinuous Pro-social Development • Voluntary behavior intended to benefit another, such as helping, sharing, & providing comfort • Children with high-level pro-social moral reasoning tend to be: - More pro-social in their behavior than children ho use lower-level pro-social moral judgment - More sympathetic Domains of Social Judgment • Moral Judgments: Decisions that pertain to issues of right and wrong, fairness, and justice • Social conventional judgments: Decisions that pertain to customs or regulations intended to secure social coordination and social organization • Personal Judgments: Decisions that refer to actions in which individual preferences are the main consideration • Children begin to make distinction between moral and social conventional judgments around 3 years old
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