I. Tang Dynasty- 618-907 (pronounced “Tung”)-
-Their background was not strictly Chinese, part Turk and part Chinese. The period of the Tang Dynasty was a very international period. They were open to foreigners (Turks, Indians, Japanese, Persians, etc.) The second emperor was very important. His name was Li Shimin, a great military leader. He was also a poet/writer who wrote often about what was essential in being a good emperor. He believed one needed to be well-educated and drawn to the humanities/literacy, as well as a good military ruler.
-The capital at this time (City of Chang’an/Xi’an) was the largest and cosmopolitan city at this time. It was actually a planned city laid out in a perfect grid, separated into specific gated neighborhoods. Having about one million people, it was enormous during its time. -Many foreigners resided there and many merchants came and went to the major markets. Japanese would come to study Buddhism. Many Indians resided there to teach Buddhism. It was a hot spot for spreading Buddhism. Li Shimin’s son was obsessed with Turkish culture. For example, he loved to play polo which was a new sport from the Turks. -Li Bo was a famous poet who wrote some twenty thousand works. Poetry was very famous during this time. If you were attending a party, one would write a poem, or would buy one from a writer.
-An Lushan was a general that had a notion that he wanted to break away and become a warlord. He recruited troops from all outside of the border to start a rebellion (755). After eight years, the net result was a new rattled feeling of China. The welcomeness to foreigners and exuberant China was now gone. We also discuss several other topics like What are the 3 ritual places associated with ex-lacandon religion?
II. Song (Sung) Dynasty
-The focus went from Buddhism to Confucianism during this age. They wanted people to create focus in on the beliefs and fully uphold them in their daily lives.
-Scholar-gentry was the system where people were educating their sons to sit in the government exam to be a part of the government. They needed to know the writings of Confucianism inside and out. In general, the administration neglected the military and the border. This made it vulnerable to invasion and conquest by the Mongol empire. III. Mongol Empire
-These people lived in the north of China. The famous Chingis Khan (Genghis Khan) started the unaffected of the tribes and then this led to expansion. Many people looked down on the Mongol Empire, but the thing that enabled this expansion to occur was their military skills. They were very well trained atop of a horse. They were also great with a bow atop of a horse. Since speed was such a big factor, they were very intimidated. They also developed a system of flags to communicate. Kublai Khan was another leader of this time. -They embraced the idea of foreigners because they themselves were different ethnicity. Marco Polo was one person who maintained a travel journal who stayed for several years. He was overwhelmed by the wealth and material culture of China.
IV. Ming Dynasty
-Ming Taizu (Hung Wu) led a secret society in taking military action against the Mongol rulers, who achieved success and then was installed as the emperor. He lays the blueprint for
Ming rule. The ruled without a minister with “personal rule”. He didn't trust anyone else and had to do a lot of work. The reason why this may have been problematic was because it was not very efficient and may have been non-consistent. However, he did rely on the scholar gentry. The governments at this time were very legalistic and conformed by law and order. This could be very harsh. For example, one of his men deceived him, so he killed him, his family, and anyone who knew them in any way. By the end, some forty thousand people were killed. Don't forget about the age old question of What is lascaux?
Don't forget about the age old question of Republicanism refers to what?
-Cheng Ho (Zheng He) was a major explorer of this time. He was a Muslim who made a pilgrimage to Mecca himself. Therefore, he traveled many miles. The Chinese in general had giant ships compared to the Europeans to travel for a very long period of time a very long distance. It was an age of exploration. The Chinese were using this as a diplomatic mission and would take gifts to present to other governments. They were also trying to use this as a contact for trade. However, this type of exploration came to an abrupt end in 1453 by governmental rulers. Historians are not sure exactly why they decided to stop this. One idea is that the influence of the scholar-gentry did not support this and their influence may have caused it to cease. It was preferable for them to stay at home and tend to their own needs. This was the beginning of “turning inward”.
-In turn, an agricultural revolution took place. The government got aggressive in assisting farmers. They published an almanac, sponsored infrastructure projects such as dikes and levies. In result, by the seventeenth century, the Chinese had the best fed population in the world. In addition, there were a few very important commodities. These included porcelain (first used during the Han dynasty) vases etc., silk, and also tea. The rest of the world was very obsessed with Chinese porcelain. Therefore, they became a super-producer. -Christian Missionaries: This was an extension of the Catholic reformation. A Jesuit man named Matteo Ricci began to circulate some interest in Catholicism in the top level of society in China. He would bring European goods to spike interest, such as the mechanical clock. Others from the Franciscans also came. One thing they argued about was the language of the mass. The Franciscans wanted to mass to stay in Latin, but the Jesuits wanted the mass to be in Chinese. They liked to learn the people’s native language. Ultimately, this issue was referred to the pope, who decided to favor the traditional Latin mass (Rites Controversy). The conflict among these missionaries actually happened to undermine their effort at this time. If you want to learn more check out What types of social media data can be analyzed?
I. Expansion of the Empire
-Many question how they became such a large superpower. One idea was that they had great rulers. The sultan was their emperor and one important sultan they had was named Mehmet the Conquerer. He conquered Constantinople, the Byzantine empire. One tool they used was the canon. Suleiman the Magnificent ruled during the largest geographical expansion of the
empire. He played the part in the siege of Vienna in 1529 who tried to take Habsburg lands to extend the empire. One big cause for this was that he had an extremely large military. Additionally, he had special forces called the Janissaries. The way that they differ is that they were not born into Turkish or Muslim families. They were born into Christian (usually Greek Orthodox) families. They were taken from their families as a kind of tax and were reared to be fighting machines. They were enslaved elites. They could not marry or own property. Traditionally, when a man became a sultan, he would round up all of the possible relatives that could have replaced him and execute them. The Ottomans abandoned this law of fratricide and replaced it with simply locking them all up for the duration of the reign in a hiram. In turn, a decline in the quality of the sultan occurred because they were basically growing up in a hiram. However, later on, an official position by the name of the Grand Vizier came into play. The Koprulus family were the grand Vizier of this time. Therefore, even though they had trouble with sultans, the Grand Vizier played an important part which allowed them to try to have a comeback. John Sobieski was the king of Poland at the time and had invested time in pushing back the Turks. He actually was able to push them back out of Vienna.
II. Ottomans in Eastern Europe
-Their imprint of the area they resided was lasting. The ethnic composition altered. For example, many Greeks left their homeland. However, there were not tremendous numbers of Turks moving into the area. Therefore, there was a limited effect of the ethnicity. -The administration was not particularly harsh. Sometimes it was known to be better than the Christian reigns of that time. They did not bleed their economic resources dry. They would usually leave the areas (especially on the borders) to practice their own government. -Additionally, people were not forced to become Muslims. They could remain a Christian or a Jew by paying a tax. However, conversions did take place in pockets. For example, Bosnia was a state in the Balkans where a large amount of people became Muslim and that remains to this day.
-They were also very culturally tolerant. They did not impose their culture or language. Historians believe this was one reason why their empire declined gradually (1683-1919). Therefore, not unifying the area and also being at war with another group of Islamics, it would become weaker and then what was finally left was the modern state of Turkey.
Consumer Revolution in World History
People started buying things without it being necessary. They would buy things to make them happy. It became an economic and social phenomena. This was a consumer revolution. This occurred due to expansion and also caused expansion in return.
I. Relationship Between Goods and People
-This relationship shifted. These good were not needed to survive; they were wanted. This was obviously a social idea. For example, some people may try to emulate the upper class. However, another big part of what was driving this was the concept of fashion. The idea that
something is “trending” was new. This was kept alive by the concept of novelty (new) and obsolescence (old). Luxury consumption was a very important idea of this. Historians have looked into the idea of “therapeutic” shopping.
-At this time, it was very controversial. This bothered intellectuals and actually caused a “luxury debate”. Those that were against it believed it was very wrong and against the Christian backbone. Others did not mind that much. However, they all understood that it stimulated the economy.
-Imported goods were basically sustaining this. One main area this consumer revolution was occurring at was in Europe. They wanted rugs from the middle east, silk from China, and coffee. There were coffee houses in England often mainly for men where they would usually go and talk politics. One French cafe was known as “Cafe Procope” which had men and women, and there was also food. Also, there was cocoa, chocolate from Africa and the Americas, tea from India and China, and tobacco. Tobacco started in a pipe and even peasants smoked. Also, fabrics from India, especially the cherished calicos (printed cotton textiles). These were printed with great detail. Ceramics/porcelains from China (especially blue and white); lacquerware from China and Japan (“English Japanning” was what was Europe’s imitation products); metalware from the Middle East; and rugs from the Middle East (very intricately, hand woven, often put on tables) were all products as well. In the eighteenth century, the wealthy would send to China to get their dinnerware made with their family code of arms on it (very expensive). Isnic was a city of the Ottoman Empire that shipped a good bit of ceramics as well. English, French, Dutch, etc. would actually try to make knockoffs of many of these various goods. Meissen was a place in Germany where they finally were able to produce the same kind of porcelain that the Chinese were able to. Tulips were from the Ottoman Empire and the style of tulips changed almost annually. This was another status idea and people would need to keep up with the style as well as people speculating the future look of the new tulip. Animals also became another consumer goods (birds, monkeys, exotic animals). There were many paintings of this time, including still life’s. Ottoman Empires, II
I. The Safavids
-1501- It becomes a ruling dynasty. Ismail was the founder. Before that, the Safavid family became very religiously motivated (Shi’ite Muslims) and has encountered sufism. They then went on a course to reform Islam in their part of the world, which is when they encounter the Ottoman Empire (which where Sunnies). Tabreaze is the city where they get their start in 1501.
-They attempt to reform Islam by infusing it with sufistic mysticism. Most areas at this time were dominated by Sunnis, but the Safavids were Shi’ites and caused it to spread. (The Shi’ites supported Ali as the rightful successful to Muhammad as a callaph while the Sunnis did not agree.) The leaders of the mosques were known as mullahs, and were payed on a salary from the government. Also, children were meant to be taught specific things. Therefore, the government and religion is closely tied.
-Shah was their leader. Abbas the Great was one prominent shah of this time. He largely pushed the idea of commerce. The Arabs were extremely involved in commerce, and this
was one important way Islam spread. During this period, their role grew even more. Abbas tried to develop the infrastructure so that goods could flow more freely from one empire to another. This caused many roads to be built as well as places to stop along the way. He encouraged the production of exports (high quality, luxury goods- textiles and rugs). Abbas also loved architecture. Many mosques of his time were known to be “architectural jewels”. -What brought this empire down was conflict with the Ottoman empire. Their conflict drained resources from both empires. The Ottomans tended to have the advantage because they had more advances in military technology. The battle of Calderon was one example where the Ottomans came out on top. However, in the end, their conflict drained both empires.
II. Mughal Empire
-1525, Babur (descendant of Chinghis Khan) was the leader of this empire. This was a Muslim empire who conquered in India. Babur’s grandson Akbar finished this expansion. This was a political unity of India that was imposed.
-Akbar decided that his administration would be centered around talents more than family ties. People would go into positions that fit them the best. He also had a cabinet in his government. This let the government function quite well.
-Akbar was a social reformer. He tried to make India society function better. He would go to urban areas and construct housing for the homeless. He was also concerned with the way women were within the culture. He allowed widows to remarry and stopped child marriage. The custom of Sati (suicide of a widow) was one that he tried to eliminate. Purdah was the tradition of seclusion and veiling of women. Akbar went to certain cities to speak to leaders and merchants to set up a few days a month where women could come from their homes to go out into the public to the shops.
-India was majorly Hindu, but the Muslim religion would grow. Akbar was very tolerant to religion. He even had Hindu wives. He wanted people to go to the court to speak and be able to worship freely. He also wanted Hinduism and Islam to blend. He attempted this into the idea of the Divine Faith. This focused on reincarnation and monotheism. His administration didn’t really like this idea.
-Architecture was very important of this time. The Taj Mahal was constructed in the seventeenth century by an emperor, San Jahan, who’s wife passed away. Many architects believe this is the most beautiful structure.
I. Geocentric Cosmology
-Cosmology was the study of astronomy and the idea of the earth’s position in the universe. Western science was very interested in this. Aristotle believed that the earth was stationary at the center of the universe and everything else revolved around it- hence, “geocentric”. He also believed the universe was finite and not infinite, believing there were layers/crystalline
spheres that were hard and clear. He claimed there was a sphere for each planet and then one nest for all of the stars. Lastly, he had a large distinction between the lunar and sublunar region. Lunar meant the heavens and sublunar meant the earth. The lunar region was everything outside of the middle sublunar region. This sublunar region was imperfect and constantly changing, while the lunar region was perfect and never changing. Aristotle believed that the last sphere carried the stars, and after that, God and the existed and they were the ones who controlled the universe’ motion (active involvement).
-Aristotle also derived a system of physics for this universe. God was the prime mover, but the physics of the earth was more complicated. Motion that result in gravity, inertia, etc. was that: the sublunar earth was made of four elements- earth, air, fire, and water. These four elements were all scrambled up and were always trying to get back to their natural resting place. For example, if one holds a rock, it will drop down to the earth after one lets go. -A few centuries later, Ptolemy emerged. He was struggling to make things more accurate. He created the idea of an epicycle. This explained apparent retrograde motion (the appearance that planets move backwards sometimes). He noticed planets were not coming around in the right spot at the right time, so he noticed that these spherical circle routes have deviations.
II. Heliocentric Cosmology
-Copernicus didn’t believe that these epicycles could become as complicated as they had been. Therefore, he wanted to get rid of it. He had read about a heliocentric theory from Aristarchus. Once he switched the sun and the earth, most epicycles were no longer needed. There were many objections, such as from the church, but people actually did go on to prove him correct.
-There was always a reluctance to change paradigm shifts. The biggest issue in accepting this was that the system of physics that they had didn’t work for this idea. The Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe was the royal astronomer. He sat and observed very keenly. He created a hybrid system. However, the significance of his data was that it was so detailed and would be later used by Kepler. Kepler was a brilliant mathematician. He found three laws of planetary motion: they travel in elliptical patterns, they travel at different speeds, and he could calculate how long a rotation would take based on distance from the sun. Galileo was the first scientist to use the telescope after he had heard about it. He published his findings in a work called The Starry Messenger. He could seen sun spots on the sun, craters on the moon, the phases of venus, the rings of saturn, and four of Jupiter's moons, etc. This helped to undermine what was left of the authority of Aristotle. This caught the attention of the church. Pope Urban VIII was quite interested. Galileo had a meeting with the cardinal, telling him not to reach heresy because nothing had been proven yet. He was suppose to treat it as a hypothesis. Years later, Galileo published the Dialogue with three characters: the old view, a new view, and then a neutral central figure each is trying to persuade. He makes the old view character seem very dumb and had used actual dialogue from the pope. Pope Urban was quite intellectual, and was obviously offended. The issue was that there was no final proof yet and he was sentenced to house arrest. Galileo had many important experiments over motion on earth. He rolled spherical shaped objects down inclined planes. He noticed that unless another force acts upon it, they will travel infinitely in a straight path. He then
observed that if that force was constantly applied to them, they would accelerate. This would be known as the modern law of inertia (Newton’s second law). He also looked at dropping balls of different weights that would arrive on earth at the same time. The difference in weight would not make one fall faster. All of this knowledge was pulled together by Sir Isaac Newton. Newtonian’s synthesis questioned what kept planets on their orbital path. He realized that this was caused by gravity. He found that Kepler and Galileo had found the same things: gravity and inertia. This was published in Newton’s Principia.
These ideas were based on reforming- to create a better world.
I. Seventeenth Century Roots
-When the scientific revolution occurred, the idea that the universe was mechanical became an understanding. The idea that it ran under natural laws allowed it to be understood. The idea of science started to become like a religion.
-This created the ability to observe and freely make implications. This was the ‘overthrow of authorities’ so to speak because previously, to understand science, they would have to dust off Aristotle’s work or the bible, etc. The idea of unlimited progress came into being. The idea of the Scientific Method was very important.
-John Locke was a non-scientific route of the enlightenment. He was an Englishmen who wrote about the state tried to argue that the government’s power is not unlimited. He was one to speculate freely. The state of nature was an idea of his that said he believed there was a time when there were no governments and he came to believe that there were natural rights in the state of nature. He put this as “life, liberty, and property” and said that this should be the main purpose of a government. To him, people created government and there was a contract set up to have the government protect the rights of the citizens, and if it doesn't do that, they can break the contract. John Locke also wrote an idea about how people learn. He wrote about a concept called Tabula rasa, which is latin for “blank slate”. He argued against the idea that people come into the world smarter than others.
II. Ideas of Enlightenment
-Natural Laws- The universe was governed by natural laws such as gravity and inertia. Rational orderly laws kept it running like a ‘clock’. Natural laws were applied to non scientific ideas as well such as the economy.
-Reason- There is a large celebration of the idea of being able to apply reason to the universe and implied everything should be tested and not just tradition.
-Progress- If you apply natural laws and reason, there was progress.
III. Philosophes (French for Philosopher, because France was a hot spot) -Voltaire was a reformer. He understood how unfair is was for people who were not in the upper class. He wanted a social reform and was even thrown into jail. He also had a Deistic religious perspective, which was the idea that God was a ‘clock maker’, and that he set it in motion and allowed it to move on its own. There were many intellectuals who were Deistic.
-Montesquieu was a social critic as well. He wrote a work entitled the “Persian Letters” which used a character to criticize traditional ways and showed the idea that these do not connect to natural laws/reason.
-Diderot was the head of a massive collaborative effort to pull all of the knowledge together into one place. This created 17 volumes of an encyclopedia. The purpose of this was to make knowledge assessable. This was also used as a form of propaganda because they would bash
things and praise others. Anti-clericalism was a form of hostility to the clergy, and in this case that was towards the Catholic Church in France.
IV. Economic Theory (Classical Liberalism)
-In France, these economists were known as Physiocrats. There was a Scottish economist known as Adam Smith. They came to believed that the economy works on natural laws such as supply and demand/market forces. This was self-regulating like a clock. This meant that it would adjust itself when it needed to. Therefore, to have governments to mess with the economy, it was done in vain. This concept of Laissez-faire meant ‘hands-off’. They also argued that people should be allowed to accumulate wealth because of the benefit it passes onto the government.
V. Political Theory
-Montesquieu also studied the state. He wrote the Spirit of Laws to look into what type of government would best protect the rights of citizens. His best bet was the government of England after the Glorious Revolution. This was when Parliament had powers which elevated over the king. What he liked about it was the separation of powers. This is how America got the ideas of the three branches of government with ‘checks and balances’. -Rousseau was more radical and was quite the idealist. He wrote a work called the Social Contract. He wanted to see a government where people were governed by the general will of those people and a government was just there to implement this (democracy). He wanted to see a day where every person was involved in the political process of voting. However, he believed majority rule was flawed and was different from general will and that this general will of the people would become clear. This is idealistic, to say the least. But, he said that sometimes it may be essential for the government to show the people what the general will would be.
VI. Limited Enlightenment
-Not many people reflected on the idea of the issue of slavery and the status of women. Rousseau did go on to raise the idea of abolitionism as well as religious figures. Toussaint L’Overture led the slave uprising in Haiti. On the issue of women, Mary Wollstonecraft (English) and Olympe de Gouges (French) went on to explain how enlightenment needed to touch the other half of the population.
Book Notes (pages 630-639)
I. Japan’s Middle Ages (1400-1600)
-The capital of the Kamakura Shogunate was in Kamakura which was later changed to reside in Kyoto by leader Ashikaga Shogunate. Muromachi culture really pushed Sen Buddhism which in turn led to the simplicity of the arts. Shoguns (leaders) also liked No theatre and skits where popular during this time.
-Civil war began in 1467 over a power struggle of succession of the shogunate. During this time, power became more locally focused and warlords (daimyo) would built up their seized territories. The war was between Nobunaga and Hideyoshi and Hideyoshi came out on top. II. The Tokugawa Shogunate
-This period was also known as the Edo period. There was an alternate residence system where the daimyos would have to leave their families every other year. This was a way to indirectly control the daimyos. Under this rule, there was peace as well little contact with
other areas of the world. However, mercantilism was a very large conductor of the economy. This was the basis of modern Japanese growth economically. Civil war had been ended due to strong military control. Theatre during this time was known as kabuki theatre. Peasants and farmers were treated very poorly.