Hist. Final Exam Study Guide
Hist. Final Exam Study Guide HIST 101 001
Popular in European Civilization from Ancient Times to the Mid-17th Century
Popular in History
This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Margot Clary on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Schor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see European Civilization from Ancient Times to the Mid-17th Century in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
Part I: Term identification: Unit 10 (Late Medieval Disasters: Mongols, Disorder, and Black Death): • Mongols (Tatars, Tartars) before Chingiz Khan o Background § Mongols were a major force for change in world history § Called Tatars often (in Islamic sources) or Tartars (meaning residence of Tartarus [hell] in Christian sources) o Society § Nomads here had less concern about land ownership (nomad wealth = large flocks); relatively socially equal members § C. Asian nomads had mix of religious traditions and groups (Christian, Muslim, Buddhist, local polytheist, etc.) § Big difference: In nomad society most men were fighters (50% of population could go to war) vs. 5-10% fighters in farming society § Made of multiple tribes • Temujin (Chingiz Khan) and the Mongol Conquests o In late 12 c.,Temujin turned to local Mongol leadership into huge alliance; in 1206 he was given the title Chingiz Khan (universal ruler) o Took 200,000 horsemen and conquered N. China, all of C. Asia west to Caspian sea o Famous for brutality with those who defied him o When he died his army affirmed his 4 sons as new khans (one as Great Khan) and then conquered in all directions • The Mongol’s impact on Islamic societies: effects of conquest o Conquest had serious impact; authors “terrified” writing about it o Khans destroyed Islamic armies, elite class, religious scholars o Spared some merchants, doctors and peasants & Christians (more than Muslims) • Conversion of (some) Mongols to Islam: the role of Sufis o Mongols began converting to Islam in 1320’s o Most conversions due to preaching of Sufis (wandering Muslim mystics; missionaries) o Sufis were inclusive, tolerant of Jews, Christians; refused varied local traditions, promised connection to God • The Mongol’s impact in Christian societies: conquest of Russia o Early 13 c., Russia was raided and badly harmed; Mongol Khan Batu destroyed Russian Capital (Kiev) o Worst direct harm was to Southern plains o Conquering Khan took title of “Khan of the Golden Horde” and depopulated plains of farmers took no interest in Christianity o Christian Russians escaped direct Mongol rule by migrating Northward in the forests (now Moscow) which became the center for Russian life (survivors rebuilt farms, towns, and links to other Christians) • W. Christian leaders and the Mongols: hopeful rumors and missions o W. Christian leaders first grew excited hearing of Mongols because rumors said the Mongols were a kind of “long lost pro-Christian power” that might convert to Catholicism or at least become key allies in the wars with the Muslims o These rumors inspired hope among popes and kings o W. Christian leaders sent several waves of missionaries as ambassadors to the Great Khan in China; however, all of these missionaries ended in failure • Disorder in late medieval Christendom: “overpopulation” th o Overpopulation was a root cause of economic and social troubles in 14 c. W. Christendom o Some resources (fertile land, wood, etc.) were tight meaning costs for food and clothing rose; this was made worse by small climate shift (climate grew slightly colder, leading to famines) o Peasants resisted Lords, Lords resisted Kings, civil wars and local conflicts broke out o Merchants and some soldiers benefited (competition amongst selling goods and soldiers being hired for fighting, respectively) • Late medieval (14-15 c.) church conflicts: Popes in Avignon and Rome o French King invaded C. Italy and rigged papal elections to choose a Frenchman o This Frenchman pope was so unpopular he fled to Avignon (on French border), beginning a conflict within church system o Local lords rebelled in Italy and then locals decided to name their own pope in Rome; for 40 years, fights over 2 competing popes o Catholic Christian leaders forced to choose which pope they supported (to which they would give money); this resulted in the whole church structure losing a lot of support because they looked like power hungry warlords rather than holy men • The Black Death: beginnings of the epidemic o New strain of the old disease “Bubonic Plague” (species of bacteria endemic to some rodents of C. China) o Black Death would’ve been impossible without Mongol conquests: § 1345 Mongol army carried plague westward to Black Sea then merchant boats carried disease to Egypt & Italy, most populous centers of Medieval West • Impact of the Black Death in Islamic and Christian societies o Islamic § Disease spread to Iran and Iraq, harming more surviving peasantry than Nomads § Nomad dominance was furthered in Iran and Iraq due to their ability to avoid the disease more effectively (because of their separated social conditions) th § Killed 1/3 of Egypt and recurred every 10 to 15 yrs. until late 17 c. o Christian § More wider scale – affecting nearly every part of Europe spreading along roads and farms year by year § Eventually totaling ¼ to 1/3 population of Europe being killed § Cities suffered worse initial effects (total breakdown of social institutions and governments) but eventually recovered; rural areas suffered long term: whole areas depopulated and/or abandoned o Overall: W. Christendom at last had its solution to overpopulation Unit 11 (The Renaissance and its Impact in Context) • Merchants, bankers, and city-states in late medieval Italy o In 15 c. N. Italy, cities were competing for land and wealth § Venice and Genoa ruled webs of islands and coastal trading posts in the Mediterranean and Black Seas § Milan, main cloth center § Florence, famous for banking o These cities fought small wars and feuded over territory but also struck treaties and were economically interwoven (biggest & riches cities in Christendom) o Italy was linked by trade ties and links between noble families but was separate because it was made of city-states where the dominant class was made of big cloth merchants, bankers, and other businessmen • Ottoman Tuths th Anatolia o 14 -15 c. rose as a new key Islamic power based in Anatolia o Initially a Turkish nomad group led by Osman o After Osman’s death, Ottomans continued raids and captured Bursa (capital) and decided to abandon nomadic life to form a more stable state based in Bursa nd o Captured mixed religious lands - extended 2 class rights to Christians and Jews & enslaved them to form cheap and sizable army • Gunpowder, the Janissaries, and Ottoman Conquests o Ottoman’s military system utilized special core of soldiers called Janissaries who worked with gunpowder weapons, the first cannons and handheld muskets (crude and dangerous to shooter, which is partially why this work was assigned to slave-soldiers) o Gun-wielding Janissaries cut down army after army of Christian knights o Ottoman conquests had taken the whole of the S. Balkans and Anatolia, and reduced Byzantine Empire to scattered land; Byzantines remained for 50 years due to huge tribute and alliances to/with Ottomans but power was waning • The Final Decades of Byzantium and its relations with Latin Christendom o Byzantine scholars took a renewed interest in past Roman and pre-Roman, Greek legacy to win backing from other Christian communities o Did this to convince Catholic leaders that they were all part of the same Christian community, at least enough to help again fight the Muslim warriors o Worked in a sense; Byz. scholars met with German and Italian leaders and tried launching new crusades against Ottomans and a reunion of E and W churches o Eventually, efforts failed and were met by large scale destruction by Ottomans and Ottomans captured Byz. capital in 1453 and ended the medieval Roman empire • Late medieval gender and family life (Christian and Islamic) o W. Christendom § Christian societies were monogamous societies which frowned on divorce § Women had few property rights but did participate in public life (key rules in links between families via marriage alliances) § Both men and women could join monasteries o In contrast, Italy was more patriarchal and family oriented than the rest of W. Europe; eldest male made most familial decisions & familial ties mattered deeply (esp. to get children key positions in monasteries, clergy, or govt.) o Muslim § Families often polygamous (esp. @ elite level) § Families remained private, separating homes from public markets and mosques § Large interest in family wealth and reputation from connection to holy orders & offices • Humanism, Latin Classical literature, and the reuse of Roman traditions o Overall, the Renaissance was about history; how people of the 15 c.h found and celebrated their roots, first in the pre-Christian Roman pasts, and then in ancient Greece as well as Rome o Humanism § First clear movement in Florence in 1340’s § Petrarch organized group of writers and teachers and focused on readings from the distant past (Ancient Latin writing) & the idea that new writers had lost the beauty of the language § Humanism started with aesthetic choices, a judgment that old Latin was better than new Latin o Petrarch and friends wanted to bring their discovery of “ancient beauty” of Latin classics to wider audience to educate others (not just in universities) o Most importantly wanted to revive Roman virtue; models of behavior • Late Byzantine scholars and the “recovery” of classical Greek traditions th o By 15 c., writers also started looking into ancient Greece as well (authors and Greek language) o Interest in Greek culture stemmed mostly from encouragement from actual Greeks (Byz. scholars in Italy as traders and diplomats and later as refugees) o Sense that Greece and Rome were linked; writers of the renaissance saw these as both pieces of “classical past” that humanists wanted to revive • Translation and Italian vernacular writing in the renaissance o Christian scholars studying the Latin past was not a new concept, but wanting to put this “wisdom” into a widely accessible form, was. th o By 14 c., humanist writers were writing in everyday language of Florence (Tuscan – now known as Italian) and were working to make this everyday language, “vernacular” speech more classical o Humanists translated Latin writings with polish and focus on classical models in order to get others to see ancient beauty • Renaissance arthand architecture o By 15 c., Renaissance trend moved beyond writing into art and architecture (influenced by Greek/Roman culture); artists saw it as a model for beauty, balance and style o Cathedral of Florence: town competition was held for designs for unfinished roof; Brunelleschi won and completed the dome by 1430’s (Roman style now being used to glorify God) o Art: classical art forms such as perspective landscapes, balanced pics, and celebration of human form; Michelangelo’s “David” sculpture • Renaissance philosophy, science and the occult o Renaissance revived interest in philosophy in a wider scope; revived interest in Plato (aided by influx of Byz. books which had great interest in Plato) o Medicine, optics, biology, geometry and algebra all received renewed attention o Occult (aka “pseudo”) science: interest in mystical wisdom from Jewish and Islamic traditions (esp. from Greek and Roman past) such as telling the future from palms or bumps on one’s head and alchemy (turning metals into gold) • Renaissance family values: Leon Battista Alberti o Beginning in 15 c., we see much less interest in humility, more interest on pride and above all, a shift from advice that drew on the Bible to advice that drew on Greek and Roman models of behavior (natural virtue) o Alberti’s advice is not at all anti-Christian, but makes very little reference to the Bible or Christian writings and instead on these natural virtues • Renaissance historical and political theory: Niccolo Macchiavelli o Main goal was to see a successful state and society (and success for his own family); when Florence became monarchy, he offered advice on how the price was to succeed and keep power (“ends justifies the means”) o Also stressed that Italians must think about themselves as a community, a nation; may be made of many independent cities but those cities should be able to act in the interest of the nation of Italy • Spread of the renaissance: vernacular literature and printing presses o Vernacular Literature § Impact of renaissance was limited when it came to rural farmers because of their limited access to urban life, merchants, or literature beyond the bible § But middle class farmers, urban craftspeople, common traders took interest in renaissance art (esp. in trade cities) § Northern cities interest in vernacular; each region sought out its own local values and roots inspiring new regional identities as people built their own vernacular languages and literatures o Printing Press § Most important factor in spreading cultural trend; made books cheaper § 1440’s borrowing of ideas from E. Asia woodblock printing methods then use of metal letters pressed into plates, then Gutenberg in 1450’s making first fully printed book (Latin bible) § Effect: books were cheaper, more people could learn to read, created fast community over long distances • Islamic philosophers and humanists o The Italian renaissance drew most directly on trends in Christian Byzantium o Byzantine scholar George Gemistos (aka “Plethon”) § Gave advice on how Byz. leaders might return to glory; said to embrace ancient, pre-Christian, Greek philosophy and to see themselves as rightful heirs to all ancient Greek wisdom § Had large scale influence in Italy – convinced leaders of Florence to start their own philosophic school modeled on Plato’s Academy o Basically, Byzantine scholars got humanists interested in Greece as well as Rome and got them to think of both Greece and Rome as shared classical past • Larger “Renaissance” trends: Transregional learning and national identity o The sprething of trends among Jews, Christians and Muslims created by the 15 c. a shared culture of philosophy, mysticism, occultist practices that crossed the borders between Christians and Muslims o 15 c. brought new ways for people to identify who they were; people start talking about their nationality, not simply the state or ruler they served but with the ancient roots to which they belonged Unit 12 (Christian and Islamic Global Expansionism 14-17 c.): th • Trade and tth spread of Islam in East Africa: Swahili society o 12 c. Islamic settlements and local E. African traders built states based on trade in crafts (from Mid-East) and slaves (from inland Africa) o Coastal E. Africans began converting to Islam to facilitate trade (for standardized laws) o Mix of Islam, Arabic with E. African traditions created “Swahili” language and culture • Trade and the spread of Islam in West Africa: Malian Society o In W. Africa, Muslim traders made contact with Niger River area (base of ancient agricultural kingdoms) o In 13 c., camel caravans traded luxuries, crafts for salt, lots of gold from rich gold fields (later some slaves) th o Wealthy leaders of large kingdom of Mali converted to Islam in 14 c. to facilitate business • Islamic Conquests in India: the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire o Turkish Muslim warriors from the Hindu Kush mountains captured Punjab (India’s most fertile region) and then several towns before setting up Sultanate based in Delhi; later conquered all of N. India and offshoot conquered half of S. India th o By late 16 c., nearly all of India united by single, Islamic dynasty: Mughals based in Delhi o When facing problem of religious/cultural conversion to Islam, Sultans decided to extend protected status to Hindus, Buddhists, and almost everyone in India to avoid revolts and the culture spread vastly but the religion did not (only about ¼ of Indians converted to Islam at its peak) • Expansion of Islam in SE Asia o India became a launching point for further expansion of Islam via trade ties and locals choosing to convert o S.E. Asia and S. India had trade and cultural connections (esp. with islands of Sumatra, Java and Malay peninsula – commodities such as spices and tea) o By 1500, SE Asia was quickly becoming another center of Islam, a “hybrid society” mixing local culture with traditions imported from the Middle East while some people still remained non-Muslim (religious blending) • Islamic recovery in Iran: the Safavid Sultanate o 1500: local Turkish dynasty established stable regional state; leader “Safavi” led a new group of nomads to conquer the whole region o Difference: Safavid Dynasty were devoted Shiites (while most other Islamic states were Sunni) and, over more than a generation, successfully enforced Shiite beliefs on every Muslim in Iran o This push for religious unity probably helped to solidify the Safavid’s control over this realm and built a national identity • Economic impact of Islamic expansionism: new crops and the slave trade o Muslims now controlled most of the traditional big long-distance trade routes creating hubs of a network of trade; new crops and products were introduced to Med. region (sugar cane, coffee, tea) o Global Islamic powers created a wide web of slave trading as well; slaves were imported from the Bulkans, Caucasus region, W. and E. Africa o Between 1300 and 1600, estimated 5 million enslaved • Portuguese exploration and colonization under Henry the Navigator o In order to compete with spread of Islam, Portuguese sought new wealth and new allies by heading out to sea o 15 c. Henry the Navigator (king) chose to lead an official effort by sea, leading expeditions down the coast of Africa in search of gold o Initially went to claim land, trade ties, and allies simply in W Africa but later hoped for a new route to India by sea o Eventually had success tracing the coast of West Africa and conquering several tropical Atlantic islands and even sparking a small scale colonial competition in the Atlantic (Spain and Portugal) • Portuguese routes to India: Dias and Vasco da Gama o 1487 Bartolomeu Dias (Portuguese sailor) sailed around the S. tip of Africa and guessed that his way would now be open to India and beyond; turned back (lacked supplies) o 1497 Vasco da Gama continued this effort w/ 4 boat expedition; rounded the cape & reached W. India; wasn’t received well but was readily armed and bought many spices; brought back to Europe (barely) and sold for a large fortune o This began the real Portuguese push beyond coastal Africa • Portuguese colonization in Africa, India, SE Asia and Brazil st o Took control of a dozen small coastal sites in S. Africa (both coasts) – 1 European colonies in Africa o Conquered Goa, India – served as fortress/trading post/base o In Timor and Java (SE Asia), they conquered some Muslim and Hindu-run lands, set up fortress trading posts, and took over the spice trade with Europe more directly; sea route brought enormous trade wealth o Accidentally found Brazil and set up colonies and supported larger sea trade around the coasts of Africa • Spanish exploration and colonization: Columbus o 1 voyage § Left first for the Canary Islands, then further West § Trip was nearly a disaster (2/3 boats badly damaged) until sighting of “San Salvador” islands (Bahamas); explored this and several other islands making contact with locals § Returned home and reported that he reached the “Indies” (islands off the coast of SE Asia) o 2 voyage § Returned with 12 ships, cattle, horses, and agricultural seeds, hundred+ people willing to found a colony § Stayed for 3 years as governor in Caribbean to explore and pushed massive effort to colonize these lands § Complete disaster – brutalizing conquered Indians and failing to keep colonists at peace • Before Spanish conquest: Aztec Mexico and Inka Peru o Aztec Mexico § Farming based, populous societies with their own writing system and polytheistic religious culture (human sacrifice) th § 14 c. conquered by N. Mexico (Aztecs) § Hierarchical societies with strict class boundaries & brutal (enormous taxes and thousands of human sacrifices) o Inka Peru § 13 c., Peru was conquered and unified by the Inkas (~10 mil. people) § No writing system, only copper and wooden tools § Record keeping using elaborate systems of knots, elaborate methods of building, trading, and organizing a massive imperial state • Spanish Conquest in the Americas: Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pisarro o Cortes § 1519 Hernan Cortes led 500 men to Mexico; over 2 years they traveled and organized revolt of frustrated Aztec subjects § 1521 Cortes met with Aztec king, took him captive, captured Tenochtitlan, and destroyed it. Mexico mostly fell to Spanish rule. o Pisarro § 1524-32 Francisco Pisarro scouted Pacific Coast to Peru § When Inkan king refused to pay, Pisarro’s men massacred Inkan army (200 vs. 80,000), held king for ransom and then killed him § By 1540, all of Inkan lands under Spanish rule • The “Columbian Exchange”: the “trading” of crops, animals, and gold o Massive transfer of wealth to Christian states – Spanish looted gold all across the Caribbean and the Americas (and mined for it in their new empires); initially they gained from this, funding larger armies, larger navy (Spanish armada) but ultimately the gold was spent, spread around Christian world and traded away (to E. Asia) and led to inflation o “Columbian Exchange” (crossing the Atlantic in 1493) involved the exchange of plants, crops and animals (ex. maize/corn, potatoes, beans, llamas, turkeys once only in the Americas were now in the Mediterranean and vice versa with wheat, rice, pigs, horses, cattle etc. being brought to the Americas from Spain) which resulted in a more varied diet • American Indian forced labor (encomienda), disease and population collapse o Colonizers destroyed American Indian societies; 80% Mexico/Peru pop. & 95% of Caribbean pop. died by 1650’s § Due to abusive policies (esp. in Caribbean): colonizers took over land, parceled it out to conquering military leaders and Indians living on that land were forced into serfdom. Spanish leaders then granted a certain amount of Indian serfs to a conqueror (encomienda); serfs were treated with brutality and abuse § New diseases (Mexico & Peru): Indians lacked “old world immunity” that colonists had so they were unable to resist new diseases brought over § Cattle and Pigs: animals ran wild on the Islands and Mexico and repopulated so much that they ate much of Indian food supply; malnutrition left Indians and Americans vulnerable to disease • African slaves and the slave trade in Atlantic Christian colonies o Colonists turned to importing African slaves (American native population had mostly been wiped out and there were not enough peasants to draft from Europe to fulfill the colonizer’s labor needs) o Preferred target: accessible, non-Christian societies in W and SW Africa (generally local African leaders were drafted as allies and given local power to capture slaves from local foes) o Unlike the Islamic slave trade, the Christian slave trade was racially based; dark-skinned people were preferred because they were seen as “hearty enough to do hard labor, but too stupid to do anything else”; stereotypes held as justification for abuse of slavery • “Sugar islands”: cash crops and colonial Atlantic society o Cash crops: a series of items grown by colonial land owners that could be sold back in Europe and around the world for high profit § High value, high demand itesm such as luxury goods (ink, spices), addictive luxuries (coffee, tea, tobacco, chocolate and most importantly sugar) o “Sugar Islands”: colonies with basic social pattern of small class of European settlers, a few European workers, and majority of population composed of enslaved Africans working in agriculture, working raising their own food and cash crops (huge and frequent turnover of labor force – kept dying because of brutal and intense work) § In order to support the sugar islands, a huge web of support colonies designed to support them with food and supplies • Christian Expansionism in context: old goals, radical consequences o Initially, traditional goals: new land, new wealth, new power and spread of Christianity o Consequences: found new continents, swiftly wiped out millions of American Indians, created new, horrific form of slavery o American colonies eventually became a new Christian society, filled with forcibly converted Indians, wealthy landowners, poor Christian immigrants, and many African-born slaves = addictive cash crops/goods to sell in Europe/world Lecture for 11/30 (The Reformation and Early Modern Wars of Religion) • “Worldly” popes, papal authority and the sale of indulgences o 15 c. popes had more money from lands, services and donation and ruled medium-size state in C. Italy as kings; “worldly popes” were acting and partying like kings o Indulgences were sold, especially for dead people, to ensure they left purgatory o This encouraged charity, but led to crass sales pitches that motivated reformers to “purge” this corruption • Martin Luther and his teachings: “by faith alone” and “the priesthood of all believers” th o Late 15 c. monk who authored “95 theses” (criticism of papal practices, idea was to spark debate of reform within Catholic church) – response was huge (printed pamphlets were key) o Taught popes were ordinary Christians with special jobs – all believers were priests o One is saved only by one’s own faith and faith alone – rejected indulgences • Other Protestants: John Calvin’s Reformed Church, Anglicans, and Puritans o John Calvin § Inspired by Luther (shared rejection of indulgences, clergy had no special power, etc.) but believed in predestination: God was all powerful, and gave grace of perfect faith to a select few o Anglicans § Headed by Henry VIII of England (wanted divorce); declared “Church of England” (Anglican church) w/ king as head o Puritans § Radical reformers who wanted to purify and simplify Christian practice § All claimed Anglican church was too moderate; pushed for radical leveling of society • The Catholic Counter-Reformation and the Council of Trent o Catholics first treated Luther, Calvin and the rest as heretics o 1545 Catholic leaders called for Council of Trent (met every summer until 1563) o Denounced and forbade specific teachings linked to Luther, Calvin, etc. (countered Protestant teachings) o Also pushed for reforms that addressed clerical corruption – indulgences remained but SALE of indulgences was banned • Early Catholic-Protestant violence: “peasant” revolts and localized wars o Germany had first bloody revolts to reformation o 1520’s huge “peasant” revolt in Swabia: peasants demanded to lessen clerical power and challenged powers/leaders; demanded to choose own pastors, end abuse by lords, end hidden taxes etc. o Demands disowned by Luther because he was seeking prince’s support and early revolts were crushed violently o Truce of Augsburg: (princes compelled Charles to accept) princes of German towns have freedom to choose Lutheran or Catholic faith (subjects follow prince’s faith); truce reduced violence for a while but forced Charles to step down & divide territory • France: Catholics vs. protestant “Huguenots” o Majority of France remained Catholic but 10% went Calvinist (Huguenots) o Huguenot nobles revolted, were crushed o 1598 Henry IV Bourbon – Edict of Nantes granted toleration to Huguenots but he was ultimately assassinated because of his leniency and violence continued • Britain and Ireland: Anglicans, Puritans and Catholics o Religious conflict split 3 ways: Anglican, Catholic and protestant “dissenters” o Religious feuds within Tudor family – Catholics in Ireland revolted against Elizabeth o 1603 - Feuding ended Tudor dynasty o Unsatisfied parties led to civil wars; fights about power of king vs. parliament • Netherlands: Sectarian violence and the Dutch Republic o Habsburg still ruled Netherlands; Calvinist preachers won merchant class followers o ½ Netherlands went protestant o 1580’s Habsburg rulers sent Spanish troops to favor Catholics; armed gangs fought back and brutalized local Catholics o Proestants moved N., Catholics S. o Dutch Republic – new protestant state in N. Netherlands; rapid success (colonies and trade) but at huge human cost • The Thirty-Years War in Germany and the Peace of Westphalia o 1618-1648 based in Germany; not just a local struggle o Protestant States: England, Dutch Repub., Sweden Catholic States: France, Spain, Austria o War dragged on until heavy losses on both sides, most parties came to peace conference in Westphalia o Peace of Westphalia: a religious freedom for state rulers only; many borders redrawn; main concern = sovereign rights and “balance of power” • Impact of Wars of Religion in Christendom o By 17 c. climate cooled; combined with warfare = serious famines o 17 c. Islamic societies had a few wars between Sunni and Shiites but th nothing like chaos in Christendom; no 17 c. state avoided favoring some religious sects over the others o A few thinkers later called for “freedom of conscience” reacting against chaotic secretarian violence Part II: Short answer •Mongol Conquests - what forces led to the rise of the Mongol Empire; what were the short term impacts and longer-term effects in E. Islamic (and E. Christian) vs. W Christian (and W Islamic) societies? • Temujin (Chingiz Khan) acting as Mongolian unifying leader to conquer N. China and all of C. Asia • Destroyed Islamic armies, elite class, religious scholars • Russia (Christian society) raided & badly harmed; some Christian Russians escaped and rebuilt in N. forests • W. Christian leaders sent missionaries with hope that Mongols were pro-Christian power but ended in failure •Late Medieval Disorder and the Black Death - what forces led to disorder, violence, and deadly epidemics in the 14-early 15 c. Mediterranean (especially, but not entirely in Latin Christendom); what were the short term impacts and longer-term effectsth • Overpopulation – root cause of economic and social troubles in 14 c. W. Christendom o This caused peasants to resist Lords, Lords to resist kings, resulting in civil wars and local conflicts • Church Conflicts – Popes in Avignon and Rome (French King) • Black Death – instigated by Mongolian Conquest (carried plague westward via boats) o Islamic Impact – nomad dominance was furthered due to their ability to resist disease o Christian – ¼ - 1/3 population killed; W. Christendom had solution to overpopulation •Islamic Global Expansionism - what forces led to the spread of Islamic power, and Islamic religion and culture, outside the Middle East and North Africa; what were the political, social and economic effects? • Ottoman Turks – key Islamic power based in Anatolia o Gunpowder & slave-soldiers created massive military advantage • Trade with East Africa – furthered the spread of Islam to coastal E. Africans (converted to facilitate trade; mix of cultures created “Swahili” culture) • Conquests in India – Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire – all of india united under single, Islamic dynasty; Sultans extended protected status to almost everyone in India to avoid revolts • SE Asia – by 1500 became another center of Islam (“hybrid society” /religious blending) • Economic Impact: new crops and slave trade •Christian Global Expansionism – what forces led to the spread of Christian colonial power, and Christian religion and culture, outside of Europe (especially, but not exclusively, in the Americas); what were the political, economic and ecological effects. • Portuguese exploration and colonization under Henry the Navigator o Traced coast of W. Africa and sparked small scale colonial competition in Atlantic (Spain and Portugal) • Dias and Vasco da Gama o Sailed S. tip of Africa, rounded the cape and reached W. India; brought back spices to Europe, sold for $$$; began real Portuguese push beyond coastal Africa o Colonization in Africa, India, SE Asia and Brazil created enormous trade wealth and power • Spanish Exploration & Conquest – Columbus, Cortes and Pisarro o Colonized Caribbean and Americas – mass brutalization of conquered Indians o Mexico & Inkans – completely conquered Inkan and Mexican lands under Spanish rule • African slaves/slave trade in Atlantic Christian societies • Effects: newfound continents, mass extinction of American Indians, new forms of slavery •Reformation and Early Modern Christian Wars of Religion -What led to the fragmentation of Latin Christendom into multiple churches; what were the political and social effects of these new religious divisions? • Popes abusing authority/sales of indulgences • Martin Luther’s 95 Theses – teachings of “all believers are priests” and “salvation by faith alone” gained massive following • John Calvin’s Reformed Church/Anglicans/Puritans all led to fragmentation into separate, reformed-aimed groups • Council of Trent pushed for reforms of clerical corruption & banned sale of indulgences but forbade teachings linked to Luther etc. • Peace of Westphalia: religious freedom for state rulers only Part III: Source interpretation: • Selection from Ibn Kathir (On the Mongols) o Muslim legal scholar and historian who worked closely with political leaders (Sultan of Egypt) o Provided one of the fullest accounts of Mongol conquest o Tried to offer some sort of explanation for disasters, rooted in Islamic theology and some fairly standard methods of fixing blame • Selection from Marco Polo, Travels (on Mongol rule in China) o Traveled with his father across Central Asia to Mongol Capital of China, Beijing o Served as secretary and diplomat to Kubilai Khan o This reading is a cross between a semi-sober travel journal and after-the- fact, romanticized adventure journey o Account is exaggerated, false claims, unreliable but useful in understanding how a Medieval W. Christian saw the Mongols • Giovanni Boccaccio, Decameron, introduction (on the Black Death) o Humanist poet who took interest in Latin classics; wrote about the plague and its cultural aftermath, using humanist ideas o Compendium of stories set together as the self-entertainment of a group of people who had isolated themselves for 10 days in an effort to escape the plague • Selections from Leon Battista Alberti, Books on the Family o Born in 1404 to one of the wealthiest families of Florence o This work combined statements of familial ideals with a loving depiction of his own family o Most useful for laying out a “renaissance” view of the proper roles for men, women and children • Selections from Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince o Most famous writer on politics of the Renaissance o Focused on what makes for success in war and politics o Supported republican government but saw value of monarchs in certain conditions o Wrote the Prince to seek favor but also hoping for a leader to bring some order and unity to the divided nation of Italy • George Gemistos Plethon, Political Advice, selections o Best known late Byzantine philosophic scholar and one of the main figures to introduce ancient Greek learning to wider audiences in N Italy th during the 15 c. Renaissance o Wrote about philosophy of Plato (superior to Aristotle), own vision of idealized society, political advice to Byzantine leaders of his day, etc. o Included is his advise to Theodoros Palaiologos (Byz. lord-governor of S. Greece) • Selections from Ibn Khaldun, Introduction to History o Best known late medieval Islamic philosopher, educated in Islamic law, philosophy and poetry o His observations on the way states and communities work prefigure a great deal of modern political science and sociology o Offers context for evaluating the significance of Christian Renaissance thinkers • Selections from Ibn Battuta, Travels (Muslim rule in India and beyond) o Born to a notable Muslim family, educated in Islamic religion, history and philosophy o Traveled through Syria, Iraq, Iran, East Africa, Anatolia, India, and beyond o Wrote a level-headed account of his journeys including the unfamiliar places, customs and wonders • Select Writings from Christopher Columbus and his Sponsors o Skilled navigator born in Italy but settled in Portugal and set out to chart trade routes and colonizing islands of Atlantic coast of Africa o Writings are an account of his voyages of colonial expansion of Christian powers in the Americas and Caribbean o Famous for constant pursuit of gold, willingness to draft Indians for forced labor, and failure to keep peace among colonists or Indians • Selections from Bartolomé de Las Casas, Devastation of the Indies o Born late 15 c. to merchant family; educated in Latin Christian culture and fascinated with Columbus’ first expedition o This writing was the attempt to sum up Las Casas’ experiences of Spanish conquest in a way that would forcefully make his case for better treatment of Indians Part IV: Map and Visual Source interpretation: - By 1280 the Mongol empire stretched from the Mediterranean to the Pacific - Geographically, the largest “state” the world as ever known - One artistic reaction to plague: new interest in gory, emotive art, such as bloody depictions of martyrdoms, or Jesus’ crucifixion - A source of solace for late medieval Christians to see Jesus suffering physically as ordinary people often did - City-states competed for land and wealth - Venice & Genoa ruled webs of islands and coastal trading posts; Milan was the main cloth center; Florence famous for banking etc. - These city-states were interwoven economically and were the biggest and richest cities in Christendom - 1320’s, Ottoman Turks slowly grew their territory and the Sultan grew his army - Began taking over half of Anatolia and some lands in the Balkans - Ottoman conquest continue due to largely enslaved army - Took over both Islamic and Christian lands - This success also due to use of gunpowder - In an effort to model Greek/Roman culture and beauty, Florence held town competition for designs for unfinished roof of Cathedral of Florence - Brunelleschi won and designed the dome - Roman style was now being used to glorify God - Michelangelo’s “David” reflected his deep interest in celebrating the human form; more specifically, the muscles on male heroes - Most famous example of Renaissance art - Example of how we see ancient style to glorify Christian tradition - Botticelli’s “The Birth of Venus” was painted at a time when he was particularly annoyed with church leaders - Used ancient tradition to express his frustration with Christian leadership - Michaelangelo Buonarotti was drafted to paint palaces for the popes as well as produce a design for grandest papal building of them all: the new St. Peter’s Church (1510’s - largest church in Christian world) • Most important factor in spreading cultural trend; made books cheaper • 1440’s borrowing of ideas from E. Asia woodblock printing methods then use of metal letters pressed into plates, then Gutenberg in 1450’s making first fully printed book (Latin bible) • Effect: books were cheaper, more people could learn to read, created fast community over long distances - Trade-based expansion: Islamic traders explored by boat and made contact with coastal African societies - Arab Muslims established seasonal trading posts on coastal sites or islands - Traders would trade crafts and luxury goodthfrom the middle east for high-value basic gods such as gold or slaves (by 13 c.) - Leader of Mali was Mansa Musa; made famous pilgrimage to Mecca and spet so much gold on route that he became known as one of the richest rulers in the Islamic world - India became a launching point for further expansion of Islam via trade ties and locals choosing to convert - S.E. Asia and S. India had trade and cultural connections (esp. with islands of Sumatra, Java and Malay peninsula – commodities such as spices and tea) - By 1500, SE Asia was quickly becoming another center of Islam, a “hybrid society” mixing local culture with traditions imported from the Middle East while some people still remained non-Muslim (religious blending) - Due to size of army (slave-soldiers) and mastery of gunpowder, Ottomans were able to defeat the Sultan of Egypt and capture Syria and Egypt, then Iraq and beyond. - Ottoman power led to expansion of Islam WITHIN the Mediterranean; by 1550, Ottoman state was one of the largest in the world; sultan was so wealthy, powerful and proud of his support for Sunni Islam that he claimed the title of Caliph - Henry the Navigator led expedition down coast of Africa searching for gold/land/trade ties/allies then later traced W. Africa and conquered several islands - Dias sailed around the S. tip but turned back - Vasco da Gama rounded cape AND reached W. India (wasn’t received well but brought back spices to Europe) which began the Portuguese push beyond coastal Africa - Columbus’s first voyage left first for the Canary Islands, then further West - Trip was nearly a disaster (2/3 boats badly damaged) until sighting of “San Salvador” islands (Bahamas); explored this and several other islands making contact with locals - Left a couple months after and reported that he reached the “Indies” (islands off the coast of SE Asia) th • 13 c., Peru was conquered and unified by the Inkas (~10 mil. people) • No writing system, only copper and wooden tools • Record keeping using elaborate systems of knots, elaborate methods of building, trading, and organizing a massive imperial state - Mexico/C America: many societies farming vegetables, with writing systems and complextheligion - By 15 c., half of Mexico ruled by Aztecs, from Tenochtitlan, 20 million subjects (and 1000s of state-sponsored human sacrifices) - All 5 powers conquered the lands in Caribbean, and Americas - Many ventures/expeditions to Americas ended badly but many succeeded and started colonial settlements - Islamic and Christian powers all competed in war, trade and piracy for Indian ocean trade Part V: Short Essay: TOPIC A: How big changes in the Mediterranean region (up to the 17 c.) helped toh create a “Modern West” (The question on topic A might ask you to pick 2-3 large scale changes that you think shaped the modern west, and to explain why; or it might ask you to compare the impact of 2 particular large scale changes) Possible Discussion Topics: - Religious changes (rise and fall of Roman Empire/Origins of Islam units 6 &7) - Economic/Social Changes (medieval societies units 8 & 9) - Geographical Changes (units 10 & 12) - Compare and contrast changes in government and/or religion - Compare and contrast social systems between powers TOPIC B: How to properly read historical sources of different kinds (narratives of events, memoirs/autobiography; laws, letters, advice books, Sections of the Hebrew Bible/Christian Bible/Qur’an, etc.), and use them as historical evidence. (The question on topic B might ask you to discuss 2 specific kinds of sources and how to read them in historical context; or it might ask you to decide what 2 types of sources really prove and what they do not prove) Possible Discussion Topics: - Tips for Government Documents (from those in power) o 1. Reading Closely, Looking for “Subtext” § Such as, who has what influence in shaping decisions o 2. Reading for Ideology, Instead of Factual Events § How a source explains and justifies power arrangements o 3. Reading Multiple Sources (on same subject) Together § How one source reveals distortions, viewpoint of another - Compare/contrast opinionated, unreliable sources such as Marco Polo with objective, reliable (supported) sources such as Ibn Buttata TOPIC C: How to Define “Western Civ” in a Way that is Fair to the Historical Record of Evidence (The question on topic C might ask you to talk about 2 elements that have been considered “Western” and why these definitions are or are not fair to the historical record; It might ask you to state 2 things that you think DO define “western civ,” and why you chose them) - Possible Topics o Christian/Islamic Societies in the West and East (unit 8 & 12) o Old age society and culture (ex. Ancient Greece and Rome; unit 2) vs. new-age societies (ex. colonized Americas; unit 12) o Global expansionism & its effect on the West (unit 12) o Religious transformation across history, eventually resulting in Westernized religion (all units, specifically 5, 8, 13)
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