KIN 371 Final Review
KIN 371 Final Review KIN 371
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alina Levy on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 371 at Michigan State University taught by in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Research Methods to Kinesiology in Kinesiology at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
Concepts for KIN 371002 SS 2015 Final Exam The nal exam will be 75 points Approximately 607 0 of the points will be devoted to concepts from new material covered after the Midterm Exam with about 3040 of points covering old material from the first half of the semester For the new material it is expected that students are familiar with information presented in assigned text even if it wasn t discussed in lecture The following provides a list of topics that students should be familiar with in order to do well on the Final Students are also encouraged to review their Midterm Exam Chapter lll Anything listed on the Concepts for Exam 1 is fair game In terms of calculations be sure you can calculate the following items Mean Average Median Middle number Mode The value number that appears the st Standard Deviation is a measure of how spread out numbers are It is the square root of the Variance Kappa Cohen39s kappa coefficient is a statistic which measures interrater agreement for qualitative categorical items P1 a 1316 h l P1 Chapter 15 Surveys Types of descriptive study methods Surveys Technique of distractive research that seeks to determine practices or opinions of a particular population 0 Con self report bias Interviews Pro How they felt speak their mind 0 Con very time consuming record amp transcribe Steps of survey development 1 Identify your variable of interest 2 Is a survey the best way to measure this variable 3 Literature review What is frequently used in published research Is the survey reliable and valid 4 Does the survey fit within your research proposal Timing how long it takes wording is it clear sample validated for the correct population etc Determining the objectives What information do you want How will you analyze data Need to specify variables in advance 0 Openended questions 0 Pro Easy to write and better external validity 0 Con Respondents can be annoyed Difficult to analyze Limited control over response 0 Closed questions 0 Difficult to write but better internal validity o Easier to analyze I Ranking forces a judgment EXRank the following group exercise classes on a scale from 15 with 1 being most interesting to you and 5 being least interesting I Scaled Strength of agreementdisagreement Very Somewhat Neutral NotVery Not atAII Interested Interested Interested Interested 5 4 3 2 1 Very Much Somewhat Undecrded Not Really NotatAIl 5 4 3 2 1 Very Much Somewhat Neutral Not Much Not at All Like Me Luke Me ere Me Like Me 0 5 4 3 2 t I Categorical Categorical data assigns numbers to represent different categories of answers In the example below the value quot1quot is assigned to male and the value quot2quot is assigned to female These numbers do not represent anything meaningful o How to word questions 0 Items must be clearly worded Questions should be short Do not use items that involve multiple ideas Avoid negatively worded items Avoid use of jargon Remain objective in wording 00000 0 Design of survey 0 Make layout as friendly and easy as possible 0 Provide clear instructions and examples for dif cult questions 0 Begin with basic questions 0 Purpose of a cover letter Explain purpose and importance Assure maintenance of privacy con dentiality Can be helpful to have endorsement signature Provide due date incentive information Thank participants 00000 0 Steps for piloting a survey Piloting is strongly advised 0 Pilot 1 friendscolleagues 0 Pilot 2 representative participants 0 Analyze items I Are questions dif cult to understand Are pagesquestions getting skipped Are you getting useful information How long does it take ProsCons of inperson vs mailed vs telephone vs internetbased survey 0 In person interview 0 Pro more adaptable more info collected higher response rate visual aids can be used 0 Cons interviewer may in uence responses may not get the same info from every respondent data loss greater concern costly o Mailed Stamped addressed amp sealed envelopes timemoney consuming low return rate 0 Electronic may be more attractive alternative 0 Software Security of data Cost of hosting survey ensure correct email addresses 0 Return rate and in uence of validity Qualitative Interview Question Types 0 Hypothetical questions ask respondents to speculate as to what something might be like or what they might so in a certain situation o Devil s Advocate the respondent is challenged to consider an opposing view or explanation to a situation 0 Ideal Position ask the respondent to describe an ideal situation 0 Interpretative questions the researcher advances tentative explanations of What the respondent has been saying and asks for a reaction 0 The Delphi method is a Widely used and accepted method for gathering data from respondents Within their domain of expertise The technique is designed as a group communication process Which aims to achieve a convergence of opinion on a speci c realworld issue 0 Reliability consistency of a measure 0 Stated in the instruments subsection Within each description of a measure 0 Validity degree to Which a test or instrument measures What it purports to measure I Logical content criterion construct face concurrent predictive Chapter 16 Other Descriptive Research Methods Descriptive Study Designs Crosssectional Examine a population at a given point in time 0 Limitation cohort problem are all these kids really from a different population Strengths Limitations I Hypothesis generation 39 COhort problem Estimation of the I Cannot study low magnitude and prevalence diseases distribution of a health 39 Cannot determine time problem order of lVDV Time ef cient Longitudinal cohort Study of a population group or subset thereof followed over a period of time o Cohorts can come from o a similar setting a similar classi cation 0 Lived in the same town but diverged in sport participation Strengths Limitations I Assess multiple IVsDVs I Requires large samples I Timeorder clear I Followup issues I Less potential for bias Thev die I Timeconsuming Case Studies Descriptive Interpretative Evaluative 0 Single case is studied in depth I Assumption representative of population 0 Types I Descriptive provides details I Interpretive conceptualization provide details I Evaluative merit of a program Select participants purposively Flexible data collection tricky analysis 0 Describe basics of each be able to match design to description Methodological problems of developmental research Observational Research De nition of behavior being observed Population of observation Setting of observations Number and timing of observations Narrative method method of recording in which the researcher describes the observations as they occur Tallying method method of recording observational research in which the researcher records each occurrence of a clearly de ned behavior within a certain period Interval method method of recording observational research used when it is dif cult to count individual occurrences in which the researcher records whether the behavior in question occurs in a certain interval of time Duration method method of recording observational research in which the researcher uses a stopwatch to record how much time a participant spends engaged in a particular behavior Correlational research 0 Examines relationships betweenamong variables no causality 0 Size of the correlation coef cient depends on spread of scores 0 Sample must be representative for predictions ie avoid shrinkage o Correlating variables should make sense Chapter 17 Physical Activity Epidemiological Research Epidemiology has been de ned as the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events in speci ed populations and the application of this study to the control of health problems 0 Distribution relates to the frequency and patterns of disease occurrence in a population 0 Determinants any factor whether event characteristics or other de ned characteristic or other de nable entry that brings about change in a health condition or other de ned characteristic 0 Population Examines disease occurrence among population groups not individuals 0 Health Phenomenon Epidemiology investigates many different kinds of health outcomes I Infectious diseases chronic diseases I Disability injury limitation of activity 0 Application Major goal of public health I Translationdissemination of knowledge PSA Risk Factor an exposure that has been found to be a determinant of a disease outcome or health behavior Epidemic vs Pandemic vs Endemic Epidemics Occurrence in a communityregion of cases of illness speci c healthrelated behavior or other healthrelated events in excess of normal expectancy o Obesity Pandemics Epidemic on a worldwide scale large numbers of persons may be affected and a disease may cross international borders 0 Black plague Endemic of a disease or condition regularly found among particular people or in a certain area Descriptive vs Analytic Epidemiology study designs associated with both Descriptive Examines distribution prevalence of disease in a population and observes basic features of distribution person place time Study designs crosssectional and ecological observational Analytic Design Testing speci c hypothesis about the relationship between disease and a putative cause by relating exposure of interest to disease of interest Study designs CaseControl Select a group who has the outcome cases cancer and a comparable group who does not have the outcome controlsno cancer 0 Identify possible causes of disease by nding out how the two groups differ Cohort a specified group of individuals who are followed over a period of time Experimental Prophylactic Think prevent o Evaluates the effectiveness of a substanceprogram that is used to prevent disease RTC Therapeutic Think treat type of RTC o Evaluates the effectiveness of curative drugs or a new program to improve the patient s health Strengths Limitations 0 Provide greatest control Limited scope of over potential impact amount of exposure timing and frequency 0f 0 Adherence to protocol exposure is difficult to enforce period of observation 0 Randomization reduces likelihood groups will differ signi cantly 0 Ethical dilemmas Community Community refers to a defined unit eg county school district 0 Community intervention trials determine the potential benefit of new policies and programs in a target population Strengths Limitations May be the only way to Less ability to control estimate directly the impact entrance into StUdY delivery of the intervention and monitoring of outcomes of change in behavior or exposure on incidence Affected by population dynamics secular trends and nonintervention in uences 0 Describe basics of each be able to match design to description Matching 0 Want to match cases and controls on variables that are not of interest to you but which may in uence disease risk 0 Once you have matched for a characteristic it can not be evaluated in relation to disease risk Odds Ratio Measure of association of the exposure disease relationship typically employed in casecontrol studies 0 OR l 9 null no risk 0 OR gt 1 9 increased risk risk factor 0 OR lt l 9 decreased risk Relative Risk is the probability that a member of an exposed group will develop a disease relative to the probability that a member of an unexposed group will develop that same disease Bias vs Confounding Threat to validity in analytic study design 0 Biassystematic deviation of a calculated estimated value from the true value 0 Confounding factor a factor that obscures that true relationship between an exposure outcome of interest Incidence vs Prevalence 0 Incidence is the rate of new or newly diagnosed cases of the disease It is generally reported as the number of new cases occurring within a period of time 0 Prevalence is the actual number of cases alive with the disease either during a period of time period prevalence or at a particular date in time point prevalence Ethical considerations for experimental studies Disadvantage to casecontrol studies 0 Recall bias systematic errors introduced by differences in the recall accuracy between comparison groups ie between cases and controls 0 Selection bias systematic errors introduced by differences in the characteristics subjects entering and not entering a study Randomization Chapter 18 Experimental and quasiexperimental Research pgs3443 52 only FYI in this chapter O observation T treatment R random assignment no random assignment each row one group De ne quasiexperimental design and know why you would use them 0 Research design in which the experimenter tries to fit the design to realworld settings while still controlling as many of the threats to internal validity as possible Reversal Design the purpose is to determine a baseline measurement evaluate the treatment again and evaluate a return to a notreatment condition 0 O 1 02 T1 03 04 T2 05 06 Nonequivalent Control Group Design a design using a nonequivalent control group is frequently used in realworld settings where groups cannot be randomly formed This is a pretestposttest without random 0 01 T 02 03 O4 Time Series Design This design uses several waves of observation before and after the introduction of the independent treatment variable 01 OZO3O4TOSOGO7O8 SingleSubj ect Design typically have one subject undergoing the same intervention 0 Describe basics of each be able to match design to description 0 01 T1 02 T2 Understand threats to validity Table 183 Threat to internal validity pg 323 controlled by random assignment O O O O 0 History events occulting during the experiment that are not part of the treatment Maturation process during the experiment that are not part of the treatment Testing the effects of one subsequent administration of the same test Instrumentation changes in instrument calibration including lack of agreement between and within observers Statistical regression that fact that groups are selected on the bases of extremes scores are not as extreme on subsequent testing Selection bias choosing comparison groups in a nonrandom manner Experiment mortality loss of participants from comparison groups for nonrandom reasons Selectionmaturation interaction the passage of time affecting one group but not the other in nonequivalent group designs Expectancy experimenters or testers anticipating that certain participants will perform better Threats to External Validity Reactive or interactive effects of testing the pretest may make the participants more aware of or sensitive to the upcoming treatment As a result the treatment Is not as effective without the pretest Interaction of selection bias and the experimental treatment when a group is selected on some characteristic the treatment may work only on groups possessing that characteristic Reactive effects of experimental arrangements treatments that are effective in very constrained situations labs may not be effective in less constrained settings more like the real world One speci c the of reactive behavior is called the Hawthorn Effect which refers to the fact that participants performances change when attention is paid to them This can be a threat to both external and internal validity Multipletreatment interferences when participants receive more that one treatment the effects of previous treatments may in uence subsequent ones Chapter 19 Qualitative Research De nitioncharacteristics of qualitative research 0 Seeks to understand the meaning of an experience to the participants in a specific setting and how the components mesh to form a whole I Focuses on the essence of the phenomenon One s view of the world varies with one s perception and is highly subjective I Naturalistic liberal relative and interpretive Quantitative conservative objective absolute Why use qualitative research 0 Some topics and research questions cannot be studied through objective paradigms emotions experiences etc Process Research How amp Why vs WhatWhenWhereWho Knowledge of Experts 0 O 0 Quantitative pvalue is less than 05 the ndings are said to be statistically signi cant meaning there is less than a 5 chance that the results were the result of chance pvalue of qualitative research you cannot validate trends by calculating a pvalue or an effect size 0 The key is to obtain rich thick narrative description this is our pvalue Formulating research questions and framework of qualitative study 0 Research Questions Guide the study 0 Theoretical frameworks Theories guide the all aspects of research process I Develop research questions I Frame the problem I Design the data gathering procedures I Design data analysis I Aid in interpretation of results 0 Can be situated in previous research Methods of data collection 0 Interview most common 0 Focus Group a small group of individuals interviewed concerning a speci c topic as a method of qualitative research 0 Qualitative observations give a quality or property of the thing being observed Usually adjectives like red big tall girl boy quiet or loud are qualitative o Proscons Data collection concerns Sampling types 0 Purposive not random selected for critical understanding 0 Typical case sampling illustrates or highlights what is typical or normal purpose is illustrative not de nitive 0 Extreme or deviant case sampling selects cases from the extremes cases that are highly unusual or special in some way 0 Homogeneous sampling selects all similar cases in order to describe some subgroup in depth 0 Snowball sampling one case leads to the next knowledge of similar cases obtained from people who know people who meet research interests 0 Convenience sampling selects cases on basis of convenience lowest credibility strategy Sample size and theoretical saturation o In practice sample size of 10 is most common Training in qualitative research Trustworthiness o Bracketing Identifying PRECONCIEVED beliefs and opinions about the topic studying Done by writing diarymemos after interviews to determine if they 1 In uenced participant response by accident 2 Are NOT analyzing data w openmind o Memoing using written notes during the analysis to help clarify and compare how you39re interpreting data 0 Triangulation using different methods to collect the information on the same thing Typical analyses goal of analyses 0 Quantitative Analysis conducted after data collection based 0 Qualitative analysis conducted during and after all data is collected presented through words descriptions images Paradigms of overall approach of quantitative vs qualitative research What makes a good qualitative study 0 Credibility a quality achieved when the participants and setting of a study are accurately o Transferability in qualitative research whether the results have the potential to be transferred to other settings 0 Dependability addresses the quality of the data in a qualitative study including how well the researcher deals with change 0 Conformability a characteristic of qualitative research that addresses whether another can place faith in the results Narrative vignette component of qualitative research report that gives detailed descriptions of an event including what people say do think and feel in that setting Chapter 20 Mixed Methods Mixed Methods Research where elements of quantitative and qualitative research approaches are combined to elicit breadth and depth of understanding and corroboration on a topic Concurrent designs parallel Both approaches quant And qual used at the same time o Triangulation I QUANT QUAL 9 Interpretation I Both at the same time 0 Embedded start with either qual or quant then describe with the other I QUANT qual 9 Interpretation I QUAL quant 9 Interpretation Sequential designs One approach used first followed by the other 0 Explanatory I QUANT 9 qual 9 Interpretation 0 Exploratory I QUAL 9 quant 9 Interpretation start with either qual or quant then describe with the other Design Timing Weighting Mixing Merge during analysis or Trlangulatlon Concurrent Equal interpretation Embedded concurrent can also Unequal Embed data in larger design be sequential Explanatory QUANT rst QUANT Connect between each phase Exploratory QUAL first QUAL Connect between each phase What a researcher should do wishing to conduct a mixed method design Chapter 21 and 22 Completing the Research Process Ways of Reporting Research Know the components of a Research Proposal 0 Abstract I Snapshot of your proposal I 150250 words max Simple as 6 sentences Speci c Aims Speci c aims are the goals of the proposal Introduction Methods FUTURE TENSE study design participants measures procedure planned analysis Conclusions O O O 0 DosDon ts for Tables and Figures Table 214 Make sure you need a table gure Similar characteristics should read vertically Headings should be informative and clear Table should stand on its own Tables Independent variables rows I Dependent variables columns I Units of measurement speci ed I Acronyms and abbreviations de ned 0 Do not use too many decimal points 0 Follow format for publication source 0 Figures 0 Independent variable on the abscissa X axis Dependent variable on the ordinate y axis Denote different data sets series with different data markers patterned lines or colors Do not overmanipulate the scale of the x or y axis to show a relationship 00000 000 DosDon ts for oral presentations and poster presentations Oral Know time limit and conference guidelines Figures often better than tables PRACTICE 0 Make sure you don t have too much text on your slides use short bullet points statements instead With oral presentations you control the show but with posters your audience controls it because you need to stand by your poster Poster Use short sentencesbullets Carefully choose font and font size Provide major headings Choose gures over tables
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