Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide MGMT 321
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jackie Dutton on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT 321 at University of Oregon taught by Reut Livine-Tarandach in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Managing Organizations in Business, management at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
MGMT 321 Exam 2 Review Worksheet Fall 2015 Dr. Reut LivneTarandach The study guide was prepared in the form of a workbook in which you can identify important concepts from each chapter in the text. It is important to recognize, however, that more is involved in mastering this material than simply being able to memorize important concepts. You need to understand the significance of each concept and how it relates to effective management in various contexts. In other words, you need to think beyond the study guide/workbook to master the material for this class; this includes thinking about the examples that are used in class, as well as the case discussion, and understanding how these illustrate the concepts. Motivation class 11 + Chapter 12 Motivation o The process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, (definition) direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal ^It is a force that energizes, directs and sustains behavior Extrinsic and Intrinsic Definitions and some possible examples motivators/rewards Intrinsic factors related to actually doing the job Recognition Achievement Growth can you? Nature of the work work load, variety of tasks, scope of tasks Responsibility degree of control over tasks ^Motivator factors they increase satisfaction Extrinsic factors related to the conditions surrounding the job Supervision Benefits Relations with coworkers Working conditions Compensation ^Hygiene factors only decrease dissatisfaction Maslow’s theory of Key components needs An individual is motivated to satisfy the most basic needs first, once those are satisfied they will move to the next level. However, if anyone’s basic psych and safety needs are threatened they will revert to a lower level. Psychological all humans have a need to feel respected Safety Belongingness ^^ these are satisfied externally Esteem accepted and valued by others (place people in tasks that they can master and feel good about) Selfactualization realization of your full potential ^ satisfied internally (provide training to move up) Draw the model we used in class slides: McClelland acquired Key components focuses on learned needs needs theory Need for Power desire to make others behave in a way that they wouldn’t on their own Need for achievement desire to accomplish something difficult to excel in some regard to the standard Need for Affiliation desire to spend time in social relationships and activities and be liked and accepted by others nPow nAch nAf What are the implications of this theory to the workplace? Easier to motivate someone if you know what their needs are If needs aren’t being met, they wont perform well Good leaders CANNOT be high on affiliation and power What kinds of jobs will high achievers be motivated to pursue? Prefer jobs that offer personal responsibility, feedback, and moderate risks Tend to excel in entrepreneurship all about personal ownership Work on moderate difficulty taks They want challenges but realistic challenges What jobs are they likely to excel at? Or perform badly? Are NOT good managers but good mentors – why? Jobs of high expertise What kind of jobs will employees who are high on power need and low on affiliation need be motivated to pursue? Manager jobs Ceos Coaches People who want to push people out of their comfort zone What kinds of jobs will employees who are high on affiliation needs be motivated to pursue? High school teachers, social workers, counselors, sales people Expectancy theory Key components/relationships: Theory that focuses on the process people use when choosing among alternative courses of action with their anticipated consequences Expectancy theory, Draw the model we used in class slides: ctd. Be sure to be able to identify all components Motivation is dependent on behavior. The model deals with the directional aspects of motivation. (once behavior is energized, what will happen next) Expectancy belief that ones effort will result in attainment of desired performance goals. This is usually based on past experiences, self confidence (self efficacy persons belief on ability to perform), and the perceived difficulty of the goal. (if someone thinks the goal is beyond their ability, motivation is low) ALSO for expectancy to be high, individuals must believe that they have some degree of control over the expected outcome. If they think they wont make a difference, motivation is low. EX: if I spend tonight studying, will it improve my grade on tomorrows test? If I make more sales calls, will I make more sales? For example, many profitsharing plans do not motivate individuals to increase their effort because these employees do not think that they have direct control over the profits of their large companies. Instrumentality belief that if one does meet performance expectations, he or she will receive a greater reward. This reward may come in the form of a pay increase, promotion, recognition or sense of accomplishment. It is important to note that when it is perceived that valued rewards follow all levels of performance, then instrumentality is low. For example, if a professor is known to give everyone in the class an "A" regardless of performance level, then instrumentality is low. Examples include: If a get a better grade on tomorrow's math test will I get an "A" in math? If I produce more than anyone else in the plant, will I get a bigger raise? A faster promotion? If my foul shooting improves will I have a shot a team MVP? If I make more sales will I get a bonus? A greater commission? If I make more sales will I believe that I am the best sales person or be recognized by others as the best sales person? Variables affecting the individual's instrumentality perception: Trust When individuals trust their leaders, they're more likely to believe their promises that good performance will be rewarded. Control When workers do not trust the leaders of their organizations, they often attempt to control the reward system through a contract or some other type of control mechanism. When individuals believe they have some kind of control over how, when, and why rewards are distributed, Instrumentality tends to increase. Policies The degree to which pay and reward systems are formalized in written policies has an impact on the individuals' Instrumentality perceptions. Formalized policies linking rewards to performance tend to increase Instrumentality. Valance V(R): The valance refers the value the individual personally places on the rewards. This is a function of his or her needs, goals, values and Sources of Motivation. Examples include: How much I really want an "A" in math? Do I want a bigger raise? Is it worth the extra effort? Do I want a promotion? How important to me is it to be team MVP? Do I need a sales bonus? Is the extra time I spend making extra sales calls worth the extra commission? Is it important to me that I am the best salesperson? Variables affecting the individual's Valance for outcomes: Values Needs Goals Preferences Sources of Motivation Potential Valued Outcomes may include: Pay increases and bonuses Promotions Time off New and interesting assignments Recognition Intrinsic satisfaction from validating one's skills and abilities Intrinsic satisfaction from knowing that your efforts had a positive influence in helping someone. How would you use this model to diagnose a job that is not motivating employees? Be ready to offer relevant solutions to diagnosed problems. For expectancy managers can offer encouragement and take steps to encourage employee motivation employees who believe they are capable of doing well, will do well For performance/ instrumentality: if people believe there is a high chance of award they will try harder – need to recognize accomplishments Key points: identify rewards that are valued Strengthen beliefs that effort will lead to reward Clarify understanding of where to direct efforts Make sure rewards are given directly after performance Provide consistent realistic awards Job Design What core job characteristics are identified in the job characteristics model? Be sure to know what every one of the components mean Core job Characteristics – o Skill variety degrere to which a job requires a variety of different activities o Task identity degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work (reut teaching a high number of classes, she has a sense of how what she is doing is contributing to the school) o Task significance degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the other employee or lives of people o Autonomy degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in determining procedures to be used to carry out (am I micromanaged) o Feedback obtaining direct feedback about performance How would you use this model to diagnose a job that is not motivating employees? Be ready to offer relevant solutions to diagnosed problems. We can use this model to find a MPS motivating potential score What is job rotation? When might it be The periodic shifting of a worker from one task to another used? THIS FIXES SKILL VARIETY What is job The horizontal expansion of jobs doing more jobs so you feel that enlargement? When you are doing something to make a difference for someone might it be used? THIS FIXES TASK IDENTITY What is job The vertical expansion of jobs enrichment? When might it be used? Increasing the complexity of a job to provide a greater sense of accomplishment THIS FIXES TASK SIGNIFICANCE Will greater motivation/satisfactio yes n lead to better performance? Individual Decision Making What are the basic steps of the rational STEP 1: IDENTIFY DECISION SITUATIONS (classical) model of decision making? problems/opportunities STEP 2: develop objectives and criteria (relative Assumptions: weightings STEP 3: generate alternatives from past solutions Problem is clear Objectives are clear and new ones Everyone agrees on STEP 4: analyze alternatives criteria STEP 5: select and weights given criteria STEP 6: implement decision – look into sources and reasons for resistance, sequence of actions, All alternatives are known required resources, delegation of tasks All consequences can be STEP 7: monitor and evaluate results anticipated This model is rarely followed. We think we do but Decision makers are fully rational we dont How does the rational model of decision Relaxes many assumptons of rational model making differ from the bounded More closely captures what people actually do rationality model? 1. Evaluate one solution at a time 2. Use decision heuristics (rules of thumb) 3. Satisfice rather than optimize Bounded Rationality assumes ppl usually settle for acceptable rather than maximum options What is satisficing? How does it differ choosing a minimally acceptable solution from maximizing? How does the retrospective decision make a decision and spend the rest of your life making model work? trying to explain it Be able to identify the types of decision Heuristic means people are limiting search to heuristics (decision biases) that areas that have a high probability of success we discussed in class as they are refer to what you know works relevant to individual decision making. Availability Bias: people base their prediction of the frequency of an event based on how easily an 1. Availability example can be brought to mind “k words” 2. Representativeness 3. Anchoring 4. Framing Representative Bias: snap judgment – we judge likeliness of something in terms of how well it Make sure you know the differences represents or matches a prototype between them, when do they occur and how do they challenge the rational decision making process Anchoring: make a decision based on an initial parameter – people can use past as a starting point whether or not it is relevant to the future Framing: manner in which something is presented What is Prospect theory? What Prospect theory is a behavioral economic theory behaviors can we predict when we use that describes the way people choose between this theory to anticipate decision making probabilistic alternatives that involve risk, behavior? In other words under which where the probabilities of outcomes are known. conditions will individuals be risk seeking/risk averse? Does this match or Individuals will be risk averse in GAIN situations challenge rational decision making need to secure gain ( you want returns with low processes? Why does this pattern occur? risk ) LOSS situation risk seeking Rational people – 100% of getting 10 or 50% of Objective vs. subjective value? getting 20 this is the same so rational people would not prefer one over the other. When people move from loss to gain opportunity and they become loss averse Group Decision Making (chapter 12) What are the advantages of group/team 1. Diversity of members’ skills, knowledge and decision making? expertise 2. Greater memory for facts Beware of hidden profiles and common information effect when people come into a group and don’t share their unique info because they just share what they think what everyone else knows. We need diverse info, this is bad. Have people talk about what info they know and that way we can uncover what info we need and people can contribute info that isn’t already known 3. Higher capability of error detection in groups 4. The likelihood that employees will accept a decision increases when individuals take part in the decision making processes What kind of information are groups facts likely to recall better than individuals? What are the disadvantages of 1. Time to make a decision group/team decision making? 2. Potential for Groupthink, escalation of commitment and group polarization What kind of problems may be better Complex problems handled by groups? Under what conditions groups will be Groups > best member given a complex better than their best individuals? problem and Heterogeneous members with complementary skills Ideas that can be freely communicated (psychological safety) Climate in which good ideas will be accepted Under what conditions groups may be as Groups = the best individual good as their best individuals? If someone in the group has the correct answer Members are willing to accept it Under what conditions groups may be Groups < best individual worse than their best individuals? If members won’t accept good ideas What kinds of problems may be better Quick problems handled by individuals? Describe Groupthink A mode of thinking in which premature striving What are the initial conditions, common for agreement overrides the search for groupthink characteristic, decision alternatives dynamics and outcomes of groupthink? A group is more concerned with achieving consensus than it is with exploring analyzing the situation Most likely to happen when a dominant leader comes in and says this is what we are going to do Initial conditions highly cohesive, insulated from outside input, dominated by leader Characteristics: illusion of invulnerability Illusion of morality ( they ignore ethical consequences) Stereotyping of opponents Peer pressure for conformity Selfcensorship Rationalization Illusion of unanimity Mind guards ( protect group from info that is problematic to decision) Decision dynamics Limited search for info Limited anal of alternatives Rejection of expert opinions Few if any contingency plans Outcomes Decisions of poor quality Poor group performance Wasted resources Lost opportunities Describe escalation of commitment So focused on course of action you are afraid to go back on it even if you know its wrong Describe Group polarization. Tendency of groups to make decisions that are more extreme than initial inclination – they build each other up List examples of group polarization (social media outlets) Therefore, in groups such as fraternities, sororities, and other groups that unify under a label, where ideas and beliefs are likely similar to begin with and further shared, group polarization is extremely commonplace. How is group polarization different from group polarization is the group building each other groupthink? up because the more likeminded people talk to each other they become more radicalized group think is when there is a negative vibe in a group because people get so focused on making a solution work that they start to try and fend out anything that could bring them down What steps can be taken to overcome the Escalation of commitment Fix: Break to assess tendencies toward groupthink, escalation situation and decision; use outside experts to of commitment and group polarization? challenge the group Groupthink: encourage each member to be a critical thinker. Promote open discussion appoint a devil’s advocate at meetings Overall: Organizations Train managers and group leaders in group DM challenges prevention techniques Set up several independent groups to study the same issue Leaders Be impartial, do not state preferences Be open to dissenting points of view Assign everyone the role of critical evaluator Assign the devil’s advocate role to at least one group member Use outside experts to challenge the group Individuals Be a critical thinker Discuss group deliberation with a trusted outsider, report back to the group. Discuss the link between Task conflicts increase team effectivesness task/interpersonal conflict and Interpersonal conflicts do not performance/productivity at work Leadership (2 classes, Coach Knight and Coach K cases and chapter 8) Define power The capability or ability to influence Describe the five types of power that Position power power based on a persons rank leaders/managers can draw from Personal power power based on a persons individual characteristics What type(s) of power does the First Legitimate power position power granted to a Elizabeth [ we will watch the video person by an organization about her next week] draw on when she contemplate persuading the House of Reward power a type of position power based on a the Lords to pass the Act of Uniformity? persons authority to distribute rewards What kind(s) of power does Coach k. Coercive power a type of position power based on draw on? a persons authority to administer punishment What kind(s) of power does Coach Referent power is power of an individual over the Knight draw on? Team or Followers, based on a high level of identification with, admiration of, or respect for the powerholder/ leader. Coach k – referent/ legitimate/ personal/reward Coach knight? Coercive power/ legitimate How is leadership different from Leadership: management? (Use the question below The ability to influence a group toward the to fully address this question) achievement of goals Define leadership vs. Management What do they do What do Leaders do? • Establish direction by developing a vision of the future What do Managers do? • Align people through communication • Inspiring people to overcome hurdles What is leaders’ focus of action? What is managers’ focus of action? Focus of action: Coping and fostering change Management: Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members What do they do • Implementing leader’s vision and strategy • Coordinating and staffing org. • Monitoring handling daily problems Focus of action Coping with complexity Is charisma necessary for effective No charisma is not enough to make an effective leadership? Why so? List two examples leadership, charisma =more power but they usually of charismatic leaders who were keep power to themselves, and rarely admit effective and two who were not. mistakes preventing learning within organizations. Charismatic leaders who are larger than life don’t necessarily act in the best interest of their organizations Charismatic leaders that were effective JFK, MLK, Opera Charismatic leaders that were not effective Hitler, Enron What personal characteristics/traits may 1. Extraversion leadership emergence(bring be used to identify individual’s potential people together), thrive on interaction, take for leadership? on a leadership roll when presented one 2. Conscientiousness aware of all situations 3. Openness 4. Emotional Intelligence especially empathy the ability to read other people, show care If we had to choose one trait it would be #4 What aspects of leadership will these ^ personal characteristics predict? How is empathy related to effective It is good to be empathetic – can have sympathy for leadership? someone and try to help (transformational leadership) Describe the managerial grid. What are the components of this theory, how A ninebynine matrix outlining 81 different could they be used to understand leadership styles. On the X axis it is the concern for effective leadership? production and the Y axis it is the concern for people. Ideally an effective leader would be a (9,9). What is the key assumption regarding effective leadership underlying this The assumption is that everyone can be high on theory? both all the time and that everyone responds to leadership the same We are going to be effective leaders by being in the middle on both “I want every little girl who’s told she’s bossy to be told instead that she has leadership skills” Sheryl Sandberg. Apply the managerial grid to this quote. What aspects on the managerial grid are used by bossy girls/boys? Do these behaviors portray effective leadership practice? Why so Describe Hersey and Blanchard’s 4 Have the knowledge and are motivated then you situation theory. just need to delegate 3 have the resources and knowledge but are not What are the components of this theory? motivatedsupporting, incline to use their ability in the situation. 1 Don’t have the knowledge but are motivated (ex. New summer internship) directing, explaining you Describe the 4 conditions that this how to do the job theory outlines? 2 Not motivated and and do not have the knowledge if you can, fire them, if not coach them. (intersection of support and directing) What is the appropriate approach leaders should take for each one of the conditions outlined? Why so? unwilling What is the underlying assumption this theory makes about leadership style/behavior? [ Hint: How is it different from the one underlying the willing Managerial Grid] people are different so they can be different leaders based on their personalities good leadership depends on the situation Able Unable What approach is Coach Knight using He uses directing the most – and this shows he most often? What does this say about thinks everyone is unable and believes that if his assumption regarding human nature people don’t play the way he wants them to then and his employees? they are wrong. He assumes he is the only expert Describe the Cognitive Resource theory. Cognitive Resource Theory suggests that he What is the relationship between benefits of experience changes as function of the experience, stress and leaders situation changes. performance? Low stress High stress situation situation What is the relationship between IQ, Experience Low High perfor stress and leaders performance? performance The higher the experience the The higher the experience, the higher lower the performance performance because I use availability bias I assume I am right the opposite is true for IQ. In low stress situation the higher the leader’s IQ the higher the leaders performance In high stress situation the higher the leader’s IQ the lower the leaders performance This is because people cant access their IQ under a limited amount of time (high stress) What is transactional leadership? Describe Transactional leadership focuses on the role of the four characteristics of Transactional supervision, organization, and group performance. leaders 1. contingent reward reinforces appropriate behavior, do well get some reward 2. management by exception (active) access as you go, take action when there is slight deviation from rules 3. management by exception (passive) intervenes only if standards are not met 4.LaissezFaire hands off, no monitoring What is transformational leadership? Is charged with identifying the needed change, creating a Describe the five characteristics of vision to guide the change through inspiration, and Transactional leaders executing the change in tandem with committed members of the group. 1.Idealized Influence Attributes instills pride, gains respect and trust, display confidence Behaviors re communicate what they value and their vision 2.Inspirational motivation talk optimistically and enthusiastically about future, expectations, give a sense of confidence that goals will be achieved 3. Intellectual stimulation reexamine critical assumption, different view points, push out of comfort zone 4. Individualized consideration people are different and have different needs What leadership characteristics does Marcus He is a transformational leader. Characteristics that Mariota exhibit? Marcus exhibits are Idealized influence and inspirational motivation, individualized consideration What leadership characteristics does Coach Management by exception (active) yells at players and Knight exhibit? What kind of a leadership fixes their mistakes right away. He is demanding, style does he portray? intimidating, temperamental, intense, passionate and a bully What leadership characteristics does Coach He is an idealized influence, inspirational motivation, K. exhibit? What kind of a leadership style and does individualized consideration. He is nurturing, does he portray? caring, modest, approachable, passionate, demanding What assumptions about motivation does Coach K assumptions are promotion and love Coach K make? What assumptions about motivation does Coach Knight assumptions are prevention and fear Coach Knight make? Are Coach K and Knight equally effective? Both are effective in the sense of the many victories, however, coach K’s methods are more beneficial for the players, not only improves their basketball skills but helps them grow as a person Change What is the difference Emergent change change is a continuous process and can be between planned and uncertain. There are no universal rules with regard to leading emergent change? change have to be able to adapt Planned change thought out, executed What is proactive Recognizing the need for change at the earliest possible time and recognition of change? systematically monitoring the environment Give example Starbucks and wifi What is reactive Not all change can be seen coming figuring out how and when to recognition of change? react when it happens. Give example What questions should Assess the strengths of that need guide organizational ◦ What should change evaluating the need for ◦ Who should change change? ◦ Why? Describe Lewin’s 3 step Three distinctive phases: Unfreezing Movement Refreezing change model Unfreezing moving away from an old behavior (introduce something) Movement Experiencing new things(implementing the change) Refreezingfinding effective alternative behavior and settling Use this model to with it (sticking with the change) diagnose at what stage might Yahoo be? What is the stage of change Yahoo is in the stage of unfreezing when they announced it, the evident in the First movement is when they start implementing it and the possible Elizabeth video? movement of desks, etc. , the freezing once everything is settled and then continuing it Elizabeth is in the stage of unfreezing What are the resistance Inertia being too comfortable challenges evident during Mistrust may be less likely to change ways bc I do not agree the unfreezing stage? with the solution Lack of information thinking about the change and not seeing what your benefits are from this change What actions can be taken Communicate reason for change to overcome resistance during unfreezing? What are the resistance Lack of clarity different from lack of info. You understand the challenges evident during change but now that it is there you don’t know what to do the movement stage? Lack of capability realizing what you need to change but not having the skills or knowledge Lack of sufficient incentives wanting to go back to your old ways because they were comfortable. You need incentives of why to suffer through the change What actions can be taken Educate people about the desired change to overcome resistance Verify capabilities train them or ensure they previously have the during the movement capabilities stage? Communicate anticipated benefits What are the resistance Pull of past competencies/habits/routines pull from the past. challenges evident during Your old habits are constantly pulling you back because you the refreezing stage? already mastered those and are comfortable with them Non immediate results pushing for a long time until you see results What actions can be taken Compensate for early negative consequences to overcome resistance Celebrate early “wins” during the refreezing stage? Is resistance an obstacle It is an obstacle but it can be a good thing because it can highlight organizations need to bad change. Need to be mindful of it and find the reasons for it minimize? Why so? Discuss the six Create a sense of urgency suggestions that people Make sure suggested change fits the problem and organizational need to keep in mind culture when they plan change Build support (coalition) effectively ( Urgency etc) Communication (whom to contract) Participation Incentives Who should be contact to A person who is high in influence and agreeability build a coalition for should build a coalition for change. change? Who is the least likely to be helpful for A person low in influence and low in agreeability is this task? least likely to be helpful for this task. List three reasons that Organizations that involve middle managers in the strategy explain why organizations process outperform those that do not do so should empower their Prevent TMT cognitive isolation employees to promote Org. that foster issue selling tend to learn more quickly about change from the bottom new upcoming problems up Org. that foster issue selling tend to react faster to changing markets List two reasons that Show upper management that you have what it takes display explain why lower level your leadership skill employees should Choosing the correct battle and perusing it can make your career engaged in promoting change from the bottom up Discuss the seven 1. Framing dimensions one should Framing change as opportunity will get you greater keep in mind when participation planning to issue sell (FBI Moral frame will speak to the heart (imply TMT HATS). responsibility) Business frame will speak to the head ( do NOT imply TMT top management TMT responsibility) teams Effective sellers are able to speak the “numbers to numbers person and morality with idealists” 2. Bundling Connect issue to another issue that is hot and central to the organizational agenda 3. Involvement Do you go at it alone or create a coalition? Coalition can include people that may tend to oppose your initiative and people that stand to gain the most of your proposal Why build a coalition? More sellers = more chances to get attention If things go wrong you will not face the consequences alone minimize image damage 4. Approach Formal vs. Informal Public vs. Private Know your organization and act in ways that align with tradition 5. Do your homework Know your facts and have credible resources to back you up Political homework is as important as your idea Study the history of the organization Identify who is likely to object, has the idea been brought up before? What happened then? Initiate informal conversations to test the waters 6. Offer a potential solution 7. It is all about the timing!! Punctuated equilibrium midpoint is a magical time
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