Final Exam Study Guide - SOC 204
Final Exam Study Guide - SOC 204 SOC 204
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Delaney Rea on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 204 at University of Oregon taught by Dreiling M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 169 views. For similar materials see Intro Sociology >2 >IP in Sociology at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
Sociology 204 Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 1- The Sociological Imagination • Sociological Imagination - the ability to connect basic aspects of life to impersonal forces • Social Institution - complex group of interdependent positions which perform a social role and reproduce over time • August Comte - inventor of social physics, sociology • Harriet Martineau - first to translate Comte to English • Emile Durkheim - founder of sociological discipline • Karl Marx - proceeded Communism, through Marxism, a sociological discipline • Max Weber - German founder of Verstehen, interpretive concept of understanding • anomie - sense of aimlessness or despair that come from a lack of predictability in life • positivist sociology - the social world can be described by certain social relationships • W.E.B. Du Bois - first African-American sociologist, founder of Double Consciousness theory • Double Consciousness - the presence of dual behavioral scripts • functionalism - theory that various social institutions of society serve an important purpose • conflict theory - conflicting forces serve to advance society and advance its change • midrange theory - attempt to predict functions of social institutions Chapter 2 - Methods • research methods - approaches scientists use to answer their questions • quantitative methods - seek to obtain numerically measurable data • qualitative methods - seek to obtain data that isn’t just converted to numerals • deductive approach - structured process to modify a theory • inductive approach - approach using empirical observations to form a theory • causality - notion that change in one factor causes a change in another • reverse causality - A is thought to cause B, but B causes A • dependent variable - outcome being explained • interdependent variable - variable that has a causal relationship with the dependent • reflexivity - considering one’s own role in the research • feminist methodology - set of systems that treat women’s experiences as legit forms of information Chapter 3 - Culture and Media • ethnocentrism - belief that one’s own culture is superior to others • nonmaterial culture - values, beliefs, etc. • material culture - everything constructed in culture, including technology • ideology - system of relationships and concepts, understanding cause and effect • cultural relativism - taking into account other cultures without judgment • socialization - process where people internalize values, norms, etc. within their society • reflection theory - theory that culture is a reflection of structures in the public sphere • hegemony - a dominant group uses its power to elicit “consent” from the public mass • consumerism - steady purchase of material possessions • culture jamming - act of turning media against itself Chapter 4 - Socialization and the Construction of Reality • self - individual identity of a person, as seen by that person • I - one’s own self of agency and identity • me - the self perceived as an object by “I’ • generalized other - the sense of the total expectations of others in all settings • resocialization - process in which a person’s values and beliefs are reengineered, often on purpose • total institution - the institution in which one is totally immersed in daily life • role strain - incompatibility of multiple roles within a single status • ascribed status - the status one is born into • achieved status - voluntary status one enters into • master status - the status within a set of status that stands above the rest • symbolic interactionalism - micro theory that shared meanings and assumptions form basic motivations • dramaturgical theory - view of human life as a performance, where roles are filled and acted out Chapter 5 - Groups and Networks • dyad - a group of 2 • triad - group of 3 • mediator - member of a triad who tries to resolve the conflict between the other 2 • primary group - social groups, i.e family and friends, who have intimate interactions that influence the ideals of those involved • secondary groups - groups with impersonal relationships • in-group - the majority, most powerful group • out-group - the minority, less powerful group • reference group - group that helps us understand our place in society, relative to other groups • social network - a set of what is essentially dyads held together by ties between people • embeddedness - degree to which ties are reinforced by indirect paths of the social networks • social capital - the info and connections people use to gain power • isomorphism - process that forces one unit of a population to resemble its peers Chapter 12 – Family - Endogamy – to marry someone within your social group - Exogamy – marriage o someone outside of your social group - Monogamy – practice of only having one sexual partner at any given time - Polygamy – practice of having more than one sexual partner at one time - Polyandry – practice of having numerous, simultaneous husbands - Polygyny – practice of having numerous, simultaneous wives - Nuclear family – the form of a family to consists of a father, mother and children - Cohabitation – living together in an intimate relationship without legal or religious sanctioning - Kinship networks – extended series of relationships connected through blood and/or marriage - Cult of domesticity – notion that true womanhood centers on domestic responsibility and child rearing - Second shift –alleged women's responsibility to do housework and child care - Miscegenation – technical term for interracial marriage. Literally means “mixing kinds,' term is controversial and not used anymore Chapter 17 – Science, the Environment, and Society - Paradigm – framework in which scientists operate and approach their workplace - Normal science – science conducted inside an existing paradigm - Paradigm shift – when enough scientific anomalies occur that the existing paradigm is able to be challenged - Normative view of science – notion that science shouldn't be affected by the personal beliefs of the scientists involved, but instead the objective rules of the evidence - Boundary work – work done to maintain a line between legitimate and non-legitimate science - Matthew effect – term used to describe the notion that some scientific findings receive more acclaim due to the researchers involved - Risk society – society that creates and is concerned with mitigating risks Chapter 18 – Collective Action, Social Movements, and Social Change - Collective action – action that takes place in groups and diverges from the social norms of the given situation - Convergence theory – theory of collective action that occurs when people with similar ideas and tendencies gather together - Contagion theory – theory of collective action claiming that it happens when people succumb to the tendency to conform to those around them - Emergent norm theory – theory of collective action emphasizing those who speak out in favor of new norms - Social movement – purposeful collective behavior, organized but not on an institutional level - Alternative social movement – social movements that seek the limited societal change and often target a narrow group of people - Redemptive social movement – social movements that target specific groups but advocate for more radical change in behavior - Classical model – social movement model based on the concept of structural weakness in society that results in psychological disruption - Political process model – focuses on the structure of political opportunities. Challengers with public favor are more likely to win their efforts for social change - Emergence – first stage of a social movement, when the problem is first being addressed - Coalescence – second stage of a social movement. Resources are out into play and actual action is taken to solve the issues from the first stage - Social movement organization – group developed to recruit new members and coordinate participation in a particular social movement - Grassroots organization – a type of organization that relies on high levels of community- based participation to promote social change - Premodernity – social relations characterized by circles of social affiliation - Modernity – social relations characterized by rationality, objectivity - Postmodernity – social relations characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history
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