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General Psychology
Dennis Miller
Study Guide
Psychology, Miller
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jovani Jones on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1000 - 02 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dennis Miller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 636 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.




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Date Created: 12/06/15
Chapter Ten 10.1  Emotions can be classified as primary or secondary. Primary emotions are innate, evolutionarily adaptive, and universal (shared across cultures). The emotions include anger, fear, sadness, disgust, happiness, surprise, and contempt. Secondary emotions are blends of primary evolutions, which include remorse, guilt, submission, shame, love, bitterness, and jealousy  Emotions can have either a positive or negative valence and a level of high or low activation  The insula receives and integrates somatosensory signals, helping us experience emotion, especially disgust, anger, guilt, and anxiety. The amygdala is associated with emotional learning, memory of events, and the interpretation of facial expressions of emotion  Three main theories of emotion differ in their relative emphases on subjective experience, physiological changes, and cognitive interpretation. The James-Lange Theory states that specific patterns of physical changes give rise to the perception of associated emotions. The Cannon-Bard Theory proposes that two separate pathways-physical changes and subjective experiences-are activated at the same time. The Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory emphasizes the combination of generalized physiological arousal and cognitive appraisals in determining specific emotions  Consistent with the Schachter-Singer Theory, research has shown that people can misattribute the causes of their emotions, seeking environmental explanations for their feelings 10.2  Emotions are adaptive because they bring about states of behavioral readiness  Emotions influence decision making, serving as heuristic guides for quick decisions. They also give rise to somatic markers, bodily reactions, that facilitate self-regulation  The evolution basis of emotions is supported by research on cross-cultural agreement in the display and recognition of some emotional expressions  Display rules are learned through socialization and dictate which emotions are suitable to given situations  Across cultures, display rules differ for females and males  Emotions that are interpersonal in nature-for example, guilt and embarrassment-are particularly important for the maintenance and repair of close interpersonal relationships 10.3  Motivation energizes, directs, and sustains behavior  Maslow describes a Hierarchy of Needs: People must satisfy lower needs like hunger and thirst, before satisfying safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs  Needs arrive from states of biological or social deficiency. Drives are psychological states that create arousal and motivate behaviors to satisfy needs  Drives help maintain homeostasis-that is, equilibrium of bodily functions  The Yerkes-Dodson Law suggests that if people are underaroused or overaroused, their performance will suffer  People are also motivated by incentives, external objects or goals  Some incentives are extrinsically motivated (directed toward an external reward). Other incentives are intrinsically motivated (directed toward an internal reward or simply enjoyable)  Providing people with extrinsic rewards can undermine their intrinsic motivation  According to research, the most successful motivation comes from goals that are challenging and specific but not overly difficult  People who are high in self-efficacy and have a high achievement motive are more likely to set challenging but attainable goals for themselves  People who are able to delay gratification are more likely to report successful outcomes later in life  The Need-to-Belong Theory suggests that people have a fundamental need for interpersonal attachments. Not to belong explains the ease with which people make friends, their sensitivity to social exclusion, the adverse feelings experienced in the absence of social contact, and efforts to affiliate with others when anxious 10.4  A number of neural structures are associated with eating behavior, including the frontal lobes, hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, and limbic system  Two theories have been proposed to explain eating behavior: Glucostatic Theory and Lipostatic Theory. Glucostatic theory maintains that eating is under the control of receptors in the bloodstream that monitor levels of glucose-the body’s primary metabolic fuel. Lipostatic theory asserts that eating is required to maintain a body-fat set point  Two hormones have been found to be of central importance to eating behavior: Leptin and Ghrelin. Leptin is associated with long-term body fat regulation. Ghrelin motivates eating behavior  Eating is strongly affected by learning. Through classical conditioning, people associate eating with regular mealtimes  Sensory-specific satiety has evolved in animals to encourage the consumption of foods that contain diverse nutrients. Because of this mechanism, people quickly grow tired of any single flavor  What people eat is greatly influenced by cultural rules regarding which foods are appropriate to eat in different contexts 10.5  Hormones influence the development of secondary sex characteristics during puberty and motivate sexual behavior  The hypothalamus organizes sexual behavior and influences the production of hormones  The hormones Testosterone and Oxytocin are particularly important determinants of sexual behavior. Neurotransmitters, including dopamine, serotonin, and nitric oxide, have also been found to influence sexual functioning  Masters and Johnson identified four stages in the human sexual response cycle that are very similar for men and women: Excitement, Plateau, Orgasm, and Resolution  Sexual behavior is constrained by sexual scripts: Socially determined beliefs regarding the appropriate behaviors for men and women to engage in during sexual interactions  On average, men have a higher level of sexual motivation and engage in more sexual activity than women  Men and women look for similar qualities in potential patterns, but men are more concerned about a potential partner’s attractiveness, and women are more concerned with a potential partner’s status  Sex differences in preference for partner qualities may be due to the different adaptive problems that sexes faced over the course of human evolutionary history  Researchers have theorized that prenatal hormone exposure, genes, and functional differences in the hypothalamus may influence sexual orientation. However, the data supporting these theories are correlational and cannot be used to make casual inferences. Many psychologists believe that multiple biological and environmental factors determine sexual orientation Chapter Eleven 11.1  The leading causes of death in industrialized societies are influenced by lifestyle choices  Racial and ethnic groups exhibit health disparities, some of which can be attributed to differences in their health behaviors  Excessive eating, smoking, and lack of exercise contribute to most major causes of death in developed nations  Excessive eating is most likely to occur when a variety of high-calorie foods are available and larger portions are served  Although obesity is largely influenced by genetic makeup, excessive intake of fat and sugar may also contribute to obesity  In addition to the adverse health consequences of obesity, individuals who are obese face a substantial social stigma  Restrictive dieting is relatively ineffective in accomplishing weight loss because body weight is regulated at a set-point  Restrained eating also tends to be ineffective because restrained eaters are prone to overeating when they believe they have broken their diets  In extreme cases, individuals may develop an eating disorder-anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge-eating disorder- as a consequence of their efforts to control their weight and body shape  Smoking continues to be a major health concern  Individuals typically begins smoking in adolescence as a consequence of social influence or in an effort to exhibit the positive qualities sometimes associated with smokers (such as being tough and independent)  Methods for quitting smoking include nicotine replacement therapy (e-cigarettes, the patch, or nicotine gum), prescription medication therapy, and behavioral modification techniques. Even in the most effective programs, only 10-30 percent of smokers are able to quit long term  Exercise is one of the best things people can do for their health. Regular physical activity improves memory and cognition, enhances emotional experiences, and strengthens the heart and lungs 11.2  Stress is a response that usually involves an unpleasant state  Stressors are things in the environment that are perceived as threatening or demanding and therefore produce stress. They include major life changes as well as daily hassles  Stressors quickly activate the sympathetic nervous system which leads to the adrenal glands to release epinephrine and norepinephrine, preparing the body for action  The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis is a complex series of biological events that also occur when a stressor is encountered. The hypothalamus sends a signal to the pituitary gland which causes the adrenal gland to release cortisol into the bloodstream. This lower system prepares for prolonged stress  Early childhood stress is a risk factor for developing psychological disorders later in life  Stress experienced by mothers may be passed along to their offspring through epigenetics  Research suggests that when confronted by a stressor males characteristically exhibit the fight-or-flight response. Females characteristically exhibit the tend-and-befriend response  Hans Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome consists of three stages of physiological coping: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion 11.3  Stress has a negative effect on the immune system  Specifically, stress decreases the production of lymphocytes: B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells. Fewer lymphocytes means the body is less able to fight off infection and illness  Individuals who hostile, depressed, or exhibit a Type A behavior pattern (competitive, achievement-oriented, aggressive, and impatient) are more susceptible to heart disease than people who exhibit Type B behavior pattern (easygoing and accommodating). Presumably, the personality traits increase the frequency of negative physiological responses that adversely affect the heart  Cognitive appraisal of potential stressors and the coping strategies used can alleviate the experience of stress or minimize harmful effects  Emotion-focused coping strategies are attempts to prevent an emotional response by avoiding the stressor, minimizing the problem, or engaging in behaviors to try to forget such as overeating or drinking  Problem-focused coping strategies involve direct steps to confront of minimize a stressor, such as establishing alternatives and engaging in behaviors to solve the problem  People high in hardiness handle stress well because they are committed to and actively engage in what they do, see obstacles as challenges to overcome, and believe that they can control events in their lives 11.4  Positive Psychology is concerned with the scientific study of the strengths and virtues that contribute to psychological well-being  A number of studies have shown that people who are positive are healthier and live longer than their more negative counterparts  Social support and being socially integrated in a group are also protective health factors because concerned others provide material and emotional support  Research has shown that marriages that are low in conflict are associated with better health for both partners  Trust is another factor that is associated with better health and longer life  The hormone oxytocin has been implicated in the experience of trust  Spirituality also contributes to better health due to the support that people receive from their faith communities, health behaviors are promoted by religions, and a sense of meaning that can be derived from religious beliefs Chapter Twelve 12.1  People readily identify ingroups to which they belong, and outgroups to which they do not belong. Ingroup and outgroup formation and maintenance are affected by reciprocity (if Person A helps Person B, Person B will help Person A) and transitivity (friends having the same opinions towards other people)  The outgroup homogeneity effect describes the tendency to perceive outgroup members as stereotypically more similar than ingroup members are. People also tend to dehumanize members of outgroups  According to Social Identity Theory, individual’s social identity is based on identification with an ingroup  Ingroup favoritism is pervasive and may reflect evolutionary pressure to protect both self and resources  The medial prefrontal cortex appears important for thinking about other people. Research has found higher levels of medial prefrontal activity when people evaluate in group members than when they evaluate outgroup members  A number of phenomena demonstrate the influence of the group on the individual. These phenomena include social facilitation (improved performance of relatively easy tasks in the presence of others), social loafing (not working as hard when in a group than when along), deindividuation (loss of individuality, of self-awareness, and of attention to personal standards, when in a group), group polarization (adopting the initial opinions of the group more strongly through mutual persuasion), and groupthink (agreeing to bad decisions to maintain group harmony). Other forms of social influence include conformity, compliance, and obedience  People conform when they alter their behaviors or opinions to match those of others or the expectations of others. Conformity results from normative influence (the attempt to fit in with the group and avoid looking foolish) and informational influence (the assumption that the behavior of others is the correct way to respond). Conformity is influenced by group size and unanimity  People comply when they agree to the requests of others. Compliance is influenced by mood and by strategies such as foot-in-the-door and door-in-the-face techniques  People comply when they follow orders given by an authority. Obedience is influenced by personality and by proximity to the authority figure 12.2  Aggression is a fundamental human behavior  Situational factors that lead to negative emotions-factors including social rejection, fear, heat, and pain-can influence aggression  The MAOA gene and serotonin levels are especially important in the control of aggressive behavior. A modest correlation exists between testosterone and aggression  Societies that subscribe to a culture of honor are prone to higher levels of violence  Prosocial behaviors maintain social relations. From the evolutionary perspective, altruistic behavior is selfishly motivated. That is people help others in order to pass on genes or to increase the likelihood that others will reciprocate when help is needed  The Bystander Intervention Effect occurs when people fail to help someone in need when other people are present. Bystander Apathy is most likely to occur when people are in ambiguous situations, can remain anonymous, and perceive risk in helping others  Cooperation and working toward superordinate goals can increase harmony across groups 12.3  Attitudes are evaluations of objects, of events, or of ideas. Attitudes are formed through direct experience, are influenced by familiarity (the mere exposure effect), and it may be shaped by conditioning and socialization  Attitudes best predict behavior when they are strong, personally relevant, specific, formed through personal experience, and easily accessible  Explicit attitudes are those that people are aware of and can report. Implicit attitudes operate at an unconscious level. In socially sensitive situations, implicit attitudes are a better predictor of behavior than explicit attitudes  Discrepancies between attitudes, or between attitudes and behavior, lead to cognitive dissonance. People reduce dissonance by changing their attitudes or behaviors or by rationalizing or trivializing the discrepancy  Persuasion is the active and conscious effort to change attitudes through transmission of a message  According to the elaboration likelihood model, persuasion though the central route (which involves careful thought about the message) produces stronger and more persistent cues, such as the attractiveness of the person making the arguments 12.4  Social interaction requires people to form impressions of others  People are highly sensitive to nonverbal information (e.g., facial expression, eye contact), and they can develop accurate impressions of others on the basis of very thin slices of behavior  People use personal attributions and situational attributions to explain behavior. The Fundamental Attribution Error occurs when people favor personal attributions over situational attributions in explaining other people’s behavior. The actor/observer discrepancy is people’s behavior and situational attributions when explaining their own behavior  Stereotypes result from the normal cognitive process of categorization and may be positive, neutral, or negative  People tend to develop prejudices and engage in discrimination against outgroup members- that is, members of groups to which the person does not belong  Modern racism is a subtle form of prejudice that has developed as people have learned to inhibit the public expression of their racist attitudes  Stereotypes may be inhibit-for instance, by presenting people with positive examples of negatively stereotyped groups. Prejudice and discrimination can be reduced by sharing outgroup members, and engaging in perspective taking and perspective giving 12.5  People are attracted to the individuals with whom they have frequent contact, with whom they share similar attributes, who possess admirable characteristics, and who are physically attractive  Men are attracted by physical signs of youth and fertility. Women are attracted by signs of dominance, strength, and earnings potential, and these signs may include faces with a higher width-to-height ratio  People find “average: faces and symmetrical faces to be most attractive  Physically attractive people experience many social benefits, but they do not report greater happiness  In the context of romantic love, researchers distinguish between passionate love and companionate love. Passionate love is characterized by commitment and support.  Passion typically fades, but the development of friendship, support, and intimacy over time contributes to the stability of romantic relationships  How a couple deals with conflict influences the stability of their relationship. Being overly critical, holding a partner in contempt, being defensive, and mentally withdrawing are maladaptive strategies for coping with interpersonal conflict. Couples that attribute positive outcomes to each other and negative outcomes to situational factors report higher levels of marital happiness Chapter Thirteen 13.1  Personality is a person’s characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behavior. A personality trait is a personality is a pattern of thought, emotion, and behavior that is relatively consistent over time and across situations  The results of twin results and adoption studies suggest that 40-60 percent of personality variation is the product of genetic variation  Parents play an important role in selecting the environments that shape their children’s personalities  Personality characteristics are influenced by multiple genes, which interact with the environment to produce general dispositions  It is difficult to identify the influence of specific genes on personality. Some traits, such as novelty seeking, have been linked to a gene associated with dopamine levels, and emotional stability has been linked to a gene associated with serotonin levels  Temperaments, biologically based personality tendencies, are evident in early childhood and have long-term implications for adult behavior  Sex differences exist in temperaments. Girls are more able to control attention and impulses, and boys are more active and gain more pleasure from physical activity  Childhood temperaments can predict adult personality traits. Personality traits that facilitate survival and reproduction are adaptive. Individual differences in personality within a group may be advantageous to the group’s survival  Research has provided evidence of basic personality traits in nonhuman animals, suggesting that some traits are biologically based 13.2  According to Freud’s psychodynamic approach, mental activity can be conscious, preconscious, or unconscious, with unconscious forces primarily determining behavior  Freud argued that personality consists of three structures: The id, the superego, and the ego. The ego mediates between the id and the superego, using defense mechanisms to reduce anxiety due to conflicts between the id and the superego  Freud proposed that people pass through five stages of psychosexual development and that these stages shape personality. In contrast to Freud, neo-Freudian have focused on relationships-in particular, children’s emotional attachments to their parents. There is little empirical support for Freud’s theories  According to social-learning theories, people learn patterns of responding that are guided by their personal constructs, expectancies, and values  Humanistic theories emphasize experiences, beliefs, and inherent goodness. Rogers’s person-centered approach suggest that unconditional positive regard in childhood enables people to become fully functioning 13.3  According to Mishel’s Notion of Situationism, situations are more important than traits in predicting behavior. The person/situation debate revolves around whether personality traits of situations are more important in predicting behavior. Research suggests that when evaluated over time, personality traits do predict behavior  Interactionism maintains that behavior is determined by both situations and dispositions. Most trait theories adopt an interactionist view  Strong situations, such as funerals, largely dictate behavior and mask differences in personality. Weak situations, such as hanging out with friends, allow more behavioral flexibility and can reveal differences in personality  A variety of studies show that personality traits are stable over the life span. Although traits are stable, they do not undergo developmental change  Developmental changes are caused by changes in self-perception generated by life experiences. Most changes in personality occur between the ages of 20 to 40, likely due to the large number of life experiences that happen during this period  Common developmental changes in the Big Five personality factors include decreased neuroticism, extraversion, and openness and increased agreeableness and conscientiousness  Cross-cultural research suggests that the Big Five personality factors are universal among humans. The structure of personality is stable across cultures, although self-reports concerning some traits differ across cultures. These differences may be attributed to biases in self-report 13.4  Idiographic approaches to the assessment of personality are person-centered. That is, they focus on individual lives and each person’s unique characteristics  Nomothetic approaches assess individual variation in characteristics that are common among all people  People typically define themselves using central traits, which are core traits that can be used to predict behavior  Secondary traits are nonessential traits. The same trait can be considered central by one person and secondary by another  Personality can be assessed via several measures. Projective measures, such as the Rorschach inkblot test and the Thematic Appreciation Test, assess unconscious processes by having people interpret ambiguous stimuli. Self-report measures, such as the MMPI and the California Q-Sort, are relatively direct measures of personality, typically involving questionnaires  Life history data and behavioral observations can also reveal personality traits  Close acquaintances may better predict a person’s behavior than the person can. This effect may be due to failure to pay attention to one’s own behavior or due to biases in self- perception  Acquaintances are particularly accurate when judging traits that are readily observable 13.5  Everything a person knows about herself or himself constitutes the person’s self-concept  The self-schema is the cognitive aspect of the self-concept. It helps he individual process self-relevant information efficiency and quickly  The working self-concept refers to each person’s immediate experience of the self and varies from situation to situation  Self-esteem is the evaluative component of the self-concept  Several theories have been proposed to explain the basis of self-esteem, including sociometer theory (self-esteem is a mechanism for monitoring the likelihood of social exclusion) and terror management (self-esteem gives meaning to our lived and reduces anxiety over our mortality)  Although self-esteem is associated with happiness, it is only weakly related to objective life outcomes  People use numerous unconscious strategies to maintain positive self-views, including social comparisons and self-serving biases  Research has found cultural differences in how the self is construed Chapter Fourteen 14.1  Because psychopathological takes many forms, psychological disorders are difficult to define and categorize. The behavioral manifestations vary widely, but people diagnosed with these disorders have two things in common: Their behavior deviates from cultural norms and is maladaptive  The DSM-5 is used by clinicians to classify and diagnose psychological disorders  Psychological disorders are often comorbid-that is, they occur together  Due to comorbidity, it has been proposed that all psychological disorders involve a common underlying factor, p. High scores on the p factor have been found to be associated with more-severe psychopathology  Rather than classifying disorders, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) method strives to understand the processes that give rise to psychopathology. The RDoC defines basic domains of functioning such as attention and social communication and considers them across multiple levels of analysis, from genes to brain systems to behavior  Clinical assessments help with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. Assessments may include interviews, behavioral assessments, psychological tests, and neuropsychological tests. The Diathesis-stress Model suggests that psychological disorders result from an underlying vulnerability coupled with a stressful, precipitating event  The causes of most psychopathology are unknown and may result from complex interactions between biological, environmental, and cognitive-behavioral factors  In general, females are more likely to suffer from internalizing disorders, such as Major Depressive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Males are more likely to suffer from externalizing disorders that are strongly influenced by learning and context. The DSM includes a number of cultural syndromes-that is, disorders that occur in specific cultures or regions 14.2  Anxiety disorders are characterized by excessive fear and anxiety in the absence of true danger  Common anxiety disorders include, specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic disorder  Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD) involves frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive actions. OCD may involve learned behaviors or may be caused by biological factors  Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma- or stressor-related disorder that appears after exposure to a traumatic event. PTSD affects women more than men  PTSD is characterized by frequent and recurring unwanted thoughts related to the trauma, nightmares, intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, and avoidance of situations related to the event  Major depressive disorder is characterized by sad, empty, or irritable mood or a loss of interest in pleasurable activities. Among other symptoms. Persistent depressive disorder is less disruptive but leaves a person feeling sad on more days than not for at least two years  Depressive disorders have biological components, including dysfunction of the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin, low left frontal lobe function, and disrupted biological rhythms  Situational factors (such as poor relationships and stress) and cognitive factors (such as the cognitive triad and learned helplessness) also contribute to the occurrence of depression  Bipolar disorder include episodes of both mania and depression. The impairments to daily living for bipolar I disorder are the manic episodes, whereas the impairments for bipolar II disorder are the major depressive episodes  The best predictor of bipolar disorder is a family history of the disorder, suggesting that genetic factors are an important cause 14.3  Dissociative disorders involve disruptions of identity, memory, or conscious awareness  Dissociative Amnesia involves forgetting that an event happened or losing awareness of a substantial block of time. Dissociative fugue involves a loss of identity  Dissociative Identity Disorder involves the occurrence of two or more distinct identities in the same individual, along with memory gaps for everyday events  Dissociative Identity Disorder is believed to emerge as a consequence of severe abuse- through repeated dissociation, different identities develop to cope with different traumas. However, dissociative identity disorder remains a controversial diagnosis for two reasons: The condition is often diagnosed after someone has been accused of a crime, and a sharp rise in reported cases has occurred in recent years  Schizophrenia is characterized by a split between thought and emotion  The positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia reflect excesses and include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and disorganized behavior. The negative symptoms of schizophrenia reflect deficits and include apathy, lack of emotion, and slowed speech  Research suggests that schizophrenia is largely a biological disorder. Twin, adoption, and family studies have highlighted the critical role of genetics in the development of schizophrenia, and recent advances in genetic analysis have indicated that multiple genes with abnormalities in brain anatomy and neurotransmitters  Most researchers agree that environmental factors play a role in schizophrenia. In particular, environmental stressors such as dysfunctional family dynamics, urban stress, and exposure to pathogens may contribute to the genesis of schizophrenia 14.4  Ten personality disorders, clustered in three groups, are identified in the DSM: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal (odd or eccentric cluster), histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial (dramatic, emotional, or erratic cluster), and avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive (anxious or fearful cluster)  Borderline Personality Disorder is characterized by disturbance in identity, in affect, and in impulse control  Research had shown that people with borderline personality disorder often have diminished frontal lobe capacity, low levels of serotonin, and a history of abuse or rejection by caregivers  These with Antisocial Personality Disorder engage in socially undesirable behavior, are hedonistic and impulsive, and lack empathy. Psychopaths have an extreme version of APD  Antisocial personality disorder is associated with lower levels of arousal, a smaller amygdala, and deficits in frontal lobe functioning  Twin and adoption studies suggest that genes play a role in antisocial personality disorder. However, environmental factors (such as low socioeconomic status, dysfunctional families, abuse and malnutrition) also contribute to the development of this disorder 14.5  Disorders in children are considered within the context of normal development  In some cases, psychological disorders identified in childhood have lasting impacts on the individual, and the problems apparent early in life continue throughout maturation  Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by impaired social interaction, deficits in communication, and restricted interests  Research suggests that autism is heritable  Causes of autism include gene mutations, unusual patterns of brain growth, exposure to unusual patterns of brain growth, exposure to unusual antibodies in the womb, faulty brain wiring, and impairments in mirror neuron activity  ADHD is characterized by inattentiveness, restlessness, and impulsivity  Environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of ADHD  Abnormalities associated with frontal lobes, limbic system, and basal ganglia have been identified in individuals with ADHD Chapter Fifteen 15.1  Psychotherapy is the formal psychological treatment aimed at changing thought and behavior  Psychodynamic therapy provides people with insight  Humanistic therapies foster growth through self-understanding  Behavior therapies change maladaptive behaviors  Cognitive therapies change maladaptive thought patterns  Group therapies vary widely, but generally they are inexpensive, develop participants’ social skills, and provide social support to participants  Family therapy focuses on family dynamics, adopting a systems approach to psychotherapy  An individual’s cultural background can be an important determinant of whether she or he will seek therapy and what type of therapy is most like to be effective  Psychopharmacology is based on the idea that maladaptive behavior results from neurological dysfunction, and psychotropic medications are therefore aimed at correcting imbalances of neurotransmitters in the brain  Categories of psychotropic medications include anti-anxiety drugs, antidepressants, and antipsychotics. When traditional treatments fail, alternative biological methods may be used, including ECT, TMS, and DBS  Evidence-based treatments should be used for psychological disorders 15.2  Cognitive and behavioral therapies-including cognitive restructuring, systematic desensitization, exposure, and response prevention-are particularly effective in the treatment of anxiety disorder  Drug treatments and CBT are both effective in the treatment of OCD  Among the treatment strategies for depression are antidepressants, cognitive-behavioral therapy, exercise, electroconclusive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and deep brain stimulation  Sex differences in the incidence of depression have led to the development of specific guidelines for psychotherapy that remind therapists of gender-specific factors associated with the experiences, recognition, and treatment of psychological disorders  Lithium is a mood stabilizer that is effective in the treatment of bipolar disorder, but it has a number of unpleasant side effects  Atypical psychotics such as quetiapine can also alleviate symptoms of bipolar disorder  Antipsychotic drugs are recommended for treatment of schizophrenia 15.3  Personality disorders are characterized by long-standing maladaptive ways of interacting with the world  Personality disorders are notoriously difficult to treat  Efforts have been made to develop treatment programs for borderline personality disorder and antisocial disorder  Dialectical behavior therapy-which combines behavioral, cognitive, and psychodynamic approaches to foster self-acceptance-is the most effective method for treating borderline personality disorder  Behavioral and cognitive approaches are sometimes used to treat antisocial personality disorder. At this point, however, no treatment approach appears to be particularly effective for this disorder 15.4  Medication such as Ritalin can be quite effective in treating children with ADHD. However, side effects (such as sleep problems, reduced appetite, and body twitches) are associated with the use of this type of medication  Recent research suggests that, in the long term, behavioral therapy may be more effective for treatment of ADHD than the use of psychotropic drugs  Applied Behavioral Analysis is an intensive treatment for autism spectrum disorders that is based on the principles of operant conditioning, It is the most successful treatment for autism spectrum disorders  A biological treatment for ASD has not been identified, but oxytocin may prove helpful  Using SSRIs such as Prozac to treat depressive disorders in adolescents is controversial. Although effective for managing symptoms, SSRIs pose a risk of increasing suicidal thoughts, especially in high doses  Research suggests that combining drugs and psychotherapy is most effective in treating depressive disorder in teens iClicker Questions (Review & Answer as needed) 1. Miguel woke up one morning in a strange hotel in Detroit. He has no memory of how he got there and cannot remember his name or where he is from. Miguel is most likely suffering from ___, a mental disorder that involves a person’s losing awareness of time and events. a. Depression b. Bipolar Disorder c. Schizophrenia d. A Dissociative Disorder * 2. Someone changes periodically from one identity to another, complete with different names, memories, and preferred activities. What condition does this person have? a. Borderline Personality Disorder b. Bipolar Disorder c. Schizophrenia d. Dissociative Identity Disorder * 3. As a research psychologist, Dr. Brown wants to be sure that she gathers information from all her patients in the same way, and that she asks questions about all of the same areas. Dr. Brown probably uses a(n) ___ interview a. Unstructured b. Structured * 4. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a book that describes ___ a. Ethical standards for psychological experiments b. The facilities and practices of the larger mental hospitals in the United States c. Accepted labels and classifications of psychological illnesses * d. The drugs that are used in psychiatry and their side effects 5. The DSM classifies psychological disorders along five axes. Which is not one of the five? a. General Medical Conditions b. Psychosocial and Environmental Problems c. Rorschach Response Pattern * d. Global Assessment of Functioning 6. “I am a ___. I learned my master’s degree and focus on helping people who are experiencing abuse, neglect, and poverty. I help them get resources (e.g., food and housing assistance) they need to get by.” a. Clinical Psychologist b. Psychotherapist c. Social Worker * d. Psychiatrist 7. The primary goal of rational-emotive therapy is to get the client to ___ a. Change his or her outward behavior, regardless of what is going on inside b. Understand the early life experiences that have led to his or her thoughts c. Replace irrational beliefs with more realistic internal sentences * d. Reduce transference 8. “I feel like I’m constantly worried. I worry about everything. Because of it, I have trouble sleeping and then I start worrying about not getting enough sleep.” The most appropriate diagnosis would be ___ a. Social Phobia b. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder c. Agoraphobia d. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder e. Generalized Anxiety Disorder * 9. “I was worried all the time about everything. It didn’t matter that there were no signs of problems, I just got upset. I was having trouble falling asleep at night, and I couldn’t keep my mind focused at work. I felt angry at my family all the time.” This best represents ___ a. Panic Disorder b. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder c. Generalized Anxiety Disorder * d. A Phobia 10. Agoraphobia, an excessive fear of open places or public places, is frequently associated with ___ a. Panic Disorder b. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder c. Generalized Personality Disorder d. A Phobia * 11. Which is not a characteristic of children with autism spectrum disorder? a. They obsessively attempt to change the placement of things in their surroundings, such as furniture * b. They may exhibit repetitive behavior that can at times be harmful c. They focus on trivial details rather than social aspects of their surroundings d. They show severe impairments in both verbal and nonverbal communication 12. Which represents a symptom of Major Depression? a. Chang says he feels like he’s “worthless” and says his life “has no meaning” b. Hong has gained weight and says he’s often hungry, even after eating a meal * c. Periodically, Li engages in reckless spending and cheats (sexually) on his wife d. Both A and B are correct e. A,B, and C are correct 13. Dr. Jahoda sees his patients’ problems as a result of distorted beliefs based on prior learning experiences. Dr. Jahoda is most clearly a ___ a. Behaviorist b. Neo-Freudian c. Humanist d. Cognitive-Behaviorist * 14. According to Beck’s Cognitive Triad, which demonstrates how a person with depression might think? a. “My kids won’t mind waiting although I’m late to pick them up.” b. “The first date went well because of luck.” * c. “I got into a car accident because I was in the wrong place at the wrong time.” * d. “I got promoted because I am good at my job.” 15. According to the learned helplessness model of depression, people ___ a. Make errors in logic when explaining outcomes they have experienced b. Attribute outcomes to situational factors that are both specific and temporary c. Explain negative events as a result of their own negative personality traits d. Think they have no control over the outcomes they experience * 16. What is a monomaine? a. A negative thought that contributes to depression b. A positive thought that is suppressed, which causes depression c. A region of the hypothalamus d. A neurotransmitter (e.g., serotonin or dopamine) * e. Both A and B are correct 17. According to the monomaine hypothesis, the antidepressant Paxil minimizes the symptoms of depression by ___ a. Changing the way an individual thinks about himself b. Increasing levels of serotonin in the brain * c. Increasing the number of action potentials in the brain d. Decreasing levels of serotonin in the brain 18. Lately Johanna has believed that her thoughts and behaviors are being controlled by the radio. She has also been hearing voices that are not there. She would likely benefit most from ____ a. Anti-anxiety b. Antidepressant c. Antipsychotic * 19. A woman says, “The eagle takes flight at three o’clock and flies here from General Electric. I get my check from the eagle; he goes from the mailbox to make a payment. He’s a secret spy for my husband and makes a shotgun sound.” This woman is displaying a ___ symptom of schizophrenia a. Positive * b. Negative 20. The diathesis-stress model of mental disorders takes the view that ___ a. An individual’s ability to cope with stress in the best predictor of mental disorders b. Certain biological or environmental factors make us vulnerable to mental illness, but do not directly cause it * c. If stress is sufficiently intense anyone can develop a mental disorder d. Mental disorders are common in families experiencing a high level of stress 21. According to the dopamine dysregulation hypothesis of schizophrenia, ___ a. Positive symptoms due to “too much” dopamine b. Negative symptoms are due to “too little” dopamine c. Positive symptoms are due to “too little” dopamine d. Both A and B are correct * e. Both C and D are correct


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