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FINAL Study Guide

by: Jessica Twehous

FINAL Study Guide PSYCH 3510 - 01

Jessica Twehous
GPA 3.8
Intro to Clinical Psychology
Erika Waller

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About this Document

These are the complete notes straight from the lectures!
Intro to Clinical Psychology
Erika Waller
Study Guide
clinical psychology, clinical, psych
50 ?




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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Twehous on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 3510 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Erika Waller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 147 views. For similar materials see Intro to Clinical Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 12/06/15
Chapter 16 Community Psychology Definition 0 Community Psychology emphasizes the role of environmental forces in creating and alleviating problems History 0 1955 0 Congress created Joint Commission on Mental Health and Illness o 1963 Kennedy Bill 0 Calls for prevention 0 Preent quotwarehousingquot of patients in mental hospitals 0 1965 Swampscott MA Convention 0 quotOfficialquot birth of community psychology Contributing Factors 0 Deinstitutionalization Shortage of trained professionals Questioning psychotherapy costeffectiveness Reaction against medical model Spirit of the 1960s activism Increased awareness of environmental problems 0 Poveny 0 Educational opportunities 0 Sexism 0 Racism influence of civil rights movement Key Concept Ecological levels of analysis amp interdependence of individuals amp society From broadest to most specific Macrosystems Localities Organizations Microsystems Individuals Key Concepts Concept of Community Mental Health 0 Joint Commission39s recommendations 0 Improved mental health research 0 Broader definiton of providers 0 Community availability of services 0 Awareness of contributing social factors 0 Federal financial support 0 1963 federal funding guidelines that community mental health centers have to provide 0 Inpatent care Outpatient care Partial hospitalization 24 hourr emergency services Consultation services 0000 Prevention 0 More efficient amp effective to prevent a problem than wait until it develops o 3 types of prevention 0 Primary I Correct negative social circumstances before problems emerge 0 Secondary I Early detection and treatment during a problem 0 Tertiary I Reduction of duration amp negative effects of problems m they occur Consultation 0 Four types 0 Client centered case I Help specific client solve current problem 0 Consultee centered case I Help consulteee enhance skills needed to handle future cases 0 Program centered administrative I Assist in administration of specific program 0 Consultee centered administrative I Help improve skills of an administrator to enable better functioning in future Methods of Intervention 0 Alternatives to Hospitalization 0 Community lodge I Formerly hospitalized patients learn independent living skills 0 Mendota program I Helps patients find jobs learn to cook shop etc 0 Day hospitals 0 Use of paraprofessionals o lay persons with no formal training 0 Effective o More available 0 Group Activity pick a societal problem design a prevention program Chapter 17 Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine 0 Definitions 0 Behavioral Medicine I Integration of behavior and medicine in science 0 Health Psychology I Psychology39s role in behavioral medicine Backgrounds 0 Rising health costs 0 Increased emphasis on healthwellness 0 Many infectious disease cured attention shifted to chronic diseases that are influenced by unhealthy behaviors 0 Examples HIVAIDs obesity diabetes 0 Biopsychosocial model theory that health and illness are a function of 0 Biological o Psychological and 0 Social influences Stress and Health 0 Stress 0 Process that involves I Environmental events a stressor I Appraisal by the individual Is it threatening I Responses of organism physiological emotional cognitive behavioral I Resulting reactions 0 Physiological factors 0 Sympathetic Nervous System SNS I Increased heart rate blood flow respiration I Mobilizes body resources in urgent situations I BUT prolonged activation negative effects 0 Can affect the hormonal autonomic and immune systems Behavioral and cognitive factors 0 Unhealthy behaviors 0 Diet hygiene substance useabuse exercise 0 Cognitive Variables o Selfefficacy people39s beliefs about their ability to exercise control over events that affect their lives Personality factors 0 Type A personality 0 Sense of time urgency work at maximum capacity need to maintain control aggressive when frustrated 0 Increased risk for coronary heart disease Social support 0 Quantity AND quality of relationships 0 Higher social support leads to lower mortality with coronary artery disease 0 Social support acts as quotbufferquot against adverse health outcomes Methods of Intervention o Primarily CBT techniques applied to health issues 0 Psychoeducation relaxation exposure behavioral contracting selfmonitoring altering environmental triggers and reinforcers changing cognitions modeling 0 Biofeedback 0 Physiological functioning measured eg heart rate blood pressure temperature Some apparatus feeds information back to patient Patient learns to control physiological processes Concern may not be any better than relaxation and costs more Prevention 0 Smoking 0 Newsflash cigarettes can kill you 0 but people smoke anyway 0 Most effective to warn young people of immediate negative consequences 0 Alcohol Abuse 0 Newsflash 2 excessive amounts are not so good for your liver brain heart cancer risk etc 0 Treatment controversy I Abstinence vs controlled drinking 0 Obesity 0 Risks I Diabetes Hypertension Cardiovascular disease I Selfesteem o Treatments I Prevention I Family involvement Other applications 0 Coping with Medical exams and procedures 0 Surgery preparation 0 Treatment regimen compliance Future Directions 0 Healthcare trends 0 Longer life expectancy health psychology to target older populations 0 Increase in prevention 0 Hospital teams to include health amp pediatric psychologists 0 Training issues 0 Health psychology grated onto existing clinical programsinternships 0 Increasing number of specialized programs 0 Challenges 0 Role ambiguity what is the health psychologist responsible for 0 Issue of status vs physicians Chapter 18 Neuropsychology 0 Definition 0 Study of relation between brain function and behavior Perspectives and History 0 Rose of neuropsychologists 0 Research on brainbehavior 0 Assessment through noninvasive testing 0 Interventions and rehabilitation The Brain 0 2 Hemispheres 0 Left I controls right side of body I controls language functions logical inference detail analysis 0 Right I controls left side of body I controls visualsptial skills creativity perception of direction musicality o 4 lobes per hemisphere I Front higher and executive functions I Temporal hearing linguistic expression I Parietal tactile kinesthetic and spatial perception I Occipital vision How does the brain get messed up 0 Trauma o Concussions brain is jarred and rattled around in skull o Contusions been moved so bad that a bruise is left on brain 0 Lacerations damage to brain tissue through a cut Class discussion 0 Current issue Sports concussions mTBl 0 Personal experiences from high school or college sports 0 How are neuropsychologists involved 0 Options for reducing occurrence or negative effects 0 Current concerns necessary or an overreaction Brain Impairment o Cerebrovascular accidents 0 Strokes o Occlusions can result in I Aphasia language functioning understand what is spoken to you I Apraxia movement being able to speak physically I Agnosia disturbance in sensory perception o Cerebral hemorrhage o Tumors o Degenerative diseases 0 Huntington39s o Parkinson39s 0 Alzheimer39s Nutritional deficiencies Toxic disorders Chronic alcohol abuse Consequencessymptoms of neurological damage 0 Impaired orientation memory intellect judgment 0 Shallow and labile affect 0 Loss of emotional and mental resilience o Frontal lobe syndrome Methods of Neuropsychological Assessment 0 Major approaches 0 StandardFixed test battery I Advantages I All basic neurophsychogical abilities I Standard database creation over time I Establishes patterns I Disadvantages I Time consuming and expensive I Patient fatigue I lnflexibility o Processflexible test battery I Advantages I Tailored to patient I Alterable for hypothesis I Disadvantages I Clinician39s discretiondecisions I Hampers systematic data collection 0 Neurodiagnostic procedures 0 Neurological exams o Spinal taps o XRays o Electroencephalographs EEGs o CATPET scans o MRIfMRl o Tests 0 Subscales from the WAIS IQ test and others assess I Coognitive functioning I Abstract reasoning I Memory I Visual Perceptual Processing I Language functioning 0 Test batteries 0 HalsteadReitan Battery I Most widely used I Compromised of 12 sections I Advantages I Helps determine location and onset of problem I Disadvantages I Takes about 6 hrs to administer o LuriaNebraska Battery I 269 tasks in 11 subtests I Valid and reliable I Aggreement with HalsteadReitan results I less than half the time to take 0 Variables that affect test performance 0 Handedness left or right handed Premorbid ability state of functionality before disease or illness Chronicity of condition Nonneurological physical conditions Motivational variables OOOO CLASS ACTIVITY Rey Osterrieth picture Intervention 0 Rehabilitation 0 Design rehabilitation programs and coordinate other providerstaff 0 Help with graduated reIearningn of lost skills using intact brain functions 0 Modify environment to maximize adaptationquantity of life if skill can39t be relearned Training 0 Training in Neuropsychology o Requires speciality skills and suggested additional training I PhD from program with specialty track in neuropsychology I Standard coursework PLUS Future Directions 0 Sportsrelated concussions o Forensic assess brain injury in civil or criminal case 0 Military traumatic brain injuries TBls from combat Chapter 19 Forensic Psychology Definition Forensic Psychology 0 Application of psychology to the law What do they do Training Basic clinical experience AND legal knowledge ON TEST Specialty ethics training More programs w psychologylaw emphasis Joint PhDJD programs optional The Expert Witness Helps court understand and evaluate evidence Offers opinion testifying as expert witnesses jury selection working with families commitment to mental hospitals psychological damages testify impacts release from involuntary confinement determines if an elderly person need someone to take over finances predicting dangerousness rights of mental disability in an institution competency to stand trial determination of disability for social security worker39s comp eyewitness testimony advertising claims misleading syndromes to women39s violence eyewitness id sexual harassment police psychology offender treatment programs criminal profiling Judge has final decision in whether a person is qualified to be an quotexpertquot Cannot testify about the ultimate question eg is the person legally quotsanequot who should get custody Strategies during crossexamination by opposing attorney 0 Be prepared OOOOO Be honest Admit weaknesses Talk in meaningful terms Listen carefully to wording of questions Take time to think Criminal Cases 0 Insanity plea Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity o The person did the crime but is not responsible because they were not quotsanequot at the time of the crime Low success rate Burden of proof on the accused Legal term NOT medical or psychological 0 Standards vary by state 0 Guilty But Mentally Ill 0 Person is responsible for the crime but is also mentally ill 0 Need treatment before incarceration or instead of it o Competency to stand trial 0 State of mind during the trial period 0 More common than insanity plea 0 Focus on ability to I Appreciate the charges I Cooperate reasonably with counsel I Appreciate proceedings of the court 000 Civil Cases 0 Commitment to Mental Institutions 0 Involuntary commitmentCourt hearing to commit I 1 day to 3 weeks I Must be dangerous disturbeddisabled require treatment 0 Voluntary commitment I May leave at any time I Not as voluntary as it may appear family pressures 0 Domestic Issues 0 Child abuse or parental fitness 0 Child custody I quotBest interest of the childquot is the guiding principle I Joint custody is now the norm Predicting dangerousness 0 Violence is very difficult to predict and is highly mpredicted 0 Most accurate predictions 0 Specific kinds of violencesituations that clinician has past information about for that person 0 best when they have specific type of prediction and info about past of person Psychological TreatmentPatients39 Rights 0 Right to treatment and appropriate conditions for hospitalized or incarcerated persons 0 Right to refuse medication 0 Restoring competence ethical issue 0 Emotional support for those who are facing incarcerating 0 Treatment of NGRI individuals eg sexual offenders 0 Treatment after release confidentiality Consultation 0 Jury selection 0 Premptory challenges can kick out jurors for whatever reason they have ex we don39t want any soccer moms in this case bc they39ll always go against the client 0 Jury Shadowing 0 Hire analogous jurors similar to actual jurors who were selected 0 Monitor reactions to testimony o Predict jury decisions 0 Public opinion surveys needing to move location for fair trial 0 Gauge reaction to casetrial plan 0 Determine if change in venue needed 0 Witness preparation 0 Help witness present testimony better without modifying facts 0 Preparing for pressures of the stand 0 Attorney preparation Convincing the jury 0 Strategies for lawyers to present case and evidence in most effective way 0 Predicting responses ofjury o Molding opening and closing statements for greatest effect Research and Forensic Psycyhology 0 Jury behavior 0 Role of instructions from judge in helping jurors accurately apply the law I Clear active wording with definitions I Presenting requirementss of proof before evidence 0 Grouping of charges multiple charges presented together or separately I Harsher sentences when charges grouped together 0 Eyewitness Testimony o Often unreliable and inaccurate o Lineups o APA recommendations Person conducting line up does not know who suspect is Witness told suspect may or may not be present Suspect does not stand out in appearance Assessment of confidence in choice before giving feedback


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