Study Guide for Ch. 1-2, 6
Study Guide for Ch. 1-2, 6 Psych 1000
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marisol Getchell on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1000 at Tulane University taught by Rollins, Bethany in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
CH 1: Into to the Science of Psychology What is psychology? • Study of behavior and mental processes What is hindsight bias? (see text) • Inclination to see events that have occurred as being more predictable than they were before they took place • Tendency to expect that you could’ve foreseen the outcome of particular events after they happen What is arm-chair psychology and why is it unscientific? What is wrong with basing conclusions on casual observation and speculation? • Conclusions based on casual observation and speculation • Can be misleading, personal observations can be biased and heavily influenced by beliefs (our beliefs influence how we evaluate information), obvious answer is not always the correct one What did Wilhelm Wundt do? • Created the first psychology lab in Germany in 1879 How has psychology shifted between the study of cognition and the study of behavior (i.e., behaviorism backlash, etc.)? • Before 1920: psychology was more focused on the study of cognition/cognitive processes • 1920-1960: “behaviorism backlash,” shifted to study of behavior because cognition was considered unscientific as it could not be objectively measured • 1960: cognitive revolution, technological advances allowed for objective measuring abilities • modern psychology is uses both behavioral studies and cognitive studies, psychologists may do research and/or work with patients What is the difference between clinical psychologists and psychiatrists? • Clinical psychologists have PhDs or PsyDs • Psychiatrists go to med school, have MDs and can prescribe medication • Both can diagnose and treat mental disorders What do cognitive psychologists study? Biological psychologists? Developmental psychologists? Personality psychologists? Social psychologists? Industrial/organizational psychologists? (see powerpoint) • Cognitive: mental processes/events (thinking, memory, learning) • Biological: influence of biology on psychological processes • Developmental: influence of age, how people change over the lifespan • Personality: individual differences • Social: interpersonal influences • Industrial/organizational: psychological principles in a work setting What is the biopsychosocial approach? • Belief that behavioral and mental phenomena arise from a combination/interaction between biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors • All psychological phenomena are complex • Biology: genetics, hormone imbalances, diet, exercise • Psychological: attributes, attitudes, personality, how you react to events, insecurity, anxiety, neuroticism • Sociocultural: environment, trauma, stress, substance abuse, failure What is the nature or nurture debate? What is meant by nature and nurture? What is wrong with this debate? How does environment influence genes? What do genes do? • Which one has more influence on who you are/whether or not you develop a psychological disorder • Nature and nurture are always intertwined • Nature: what you were born with, genetics, biology, etc. • Nurture: environmental influences, how you’re brought up, what you experience • Genes are not always deterministic, they can be activated or inactivated by experiences and environment What are the aspects of critical thinking we covered? • It is important to question yourself and others • Studies can be misleading, one study is not definitive • Good science vs. bad science • It is important to examine how terms are defined (test subjects—often western, source of study) • Consider biases and hidden agendas • Consider alternative interpretations • Personal examples vs. hard facts • There will always be exceptions (studies based on average) What is ethnocentrism? • Belief that one’s own ethnic or cultural group is standard or correct Why should you be cautious when it comes to scientific reports in the media? • How they attract readers • Their goal is to attract as many readers as possible no matter the validity of the study or importance/relevance • Good vs. bad science • Overgeneralization/oversimplification: attributing a complex phenomenon to only one thing • animal research is suggestive not definitive In terms of the scientific method, what is a theory? What is a hypothesis? • Theory: in-depth explanation, simplifies and summarizes • Hypothesis: specific, testable statement or prediction/research question Know the different methods of testing hypotheses/gathering data that we covered, what kind of information they provide, and the problems associated with particular methods. For instance… What are case studies? In what circumstances are they performed? What is a major shortcoming of case study research? • Study of one person (or a small group of people) in a rare circumstance • Can suggest avenues for further study but cannot be seen as proof • Due to the small amount of test subjects, it is difficult to identify patterns and cannot be used to generalize to a wider population What is naturalistic observation? • Observing behavior as it occurs in its natural setting without interfering • Good for observing behaviors in animals or people that may not occur in a lab setting • Can’t choose participants so may not be representative • May not be able to determine the extemporaneous variables and can’t control other variables that may influence behavior, your presence may influence their behavior • Experimental bias: you may find what you’re looking for and ignore/miss what you’re not looking for What are surveys? • Giving questionnaires or interviewing large numbers of people (asking about attitudes or opinions) • Self-report may be false or inflated • Personal interpretations of questions may be different than the intended interpretation What is sampling? • Process of selecting participants • Selecting a subset of a particular population that you want to find out about What is a representative sample and why is it important? What kinds of samples are more likely to be representative? What is volunteer bias? • Subset of a specific population that is thought to be representative of the whole • Size of the population will influence level of representativeness (the closer to the number of the actual population the more likely it is to be representative of the whole) • Random sampling: when every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected to participate, it is more likely to be representative of the whole • Volunteer bias: can’t force people to be a part of the study, those who volunteer or respond may not be representative (those who agree may have different opinions than those who disagree), they may only represent the extreme opinions What influence does wording of the questions have on survey research? • May influence interpretation or may be suggestive of the desired answer • How you word (or word order) has an impact on the answer What kind of information does correlational analysis provide? What are positive correlations and negative correlations? – be able to identify these in examples. • Statistical procedure that provides a mathematical estimate of the extent to which two variables are linearly related to each other • How well you can predict one based on the other • Positive: direct relationship, when one increases so does the other and vice versa • Negative: inverse relationship, when one increases the other decreases How does a correlation coefficient (r) indicate the strength and direction of a relationship between variables? • Falls between -1 and 1 • The sign (+/-) will tell you whether it is positive or negative correlation • Strength is determined by looking at the absolute value of the number • The closer it is to 1, the stronger the correlation • .7-.9 is strong, .4-.7 is medium, below .3 is weak What does “correlation does not imply causation” mean? • Just because two variables have a strong correlation does not mean they cause each other What are intervening/third variables? • Unmeasured variables that may be responsible for a correlation • Always speaks to correlation What method allows one to assess cause-and-effect relationships between variables? • Experimental method What is the experimental method? • While holding all variables constant, one variable is manipulated and the effect of the manipulation is measured • The only method that allows for any assessment of cause and effect • Manipulation is the key ingredient What are independent and dependent variables? – be able to identify these in examples. • Independent: the variable that is changed, manipulated, or altered by the researcher • Dependent: the variable that is measured by the researcher (outcome variable) • The expectation is that the manipulation of the IV will have some impact on the DV What is a control group and why is it necessary? What is an experimental group? – be able to identify these in examples. • Control: Serves at the baseline (comparison group), not exposed to the factor of interested but treated the same as the experimental group in all other ways • Experimental: exposed to the factor of interest What are operational definitions and why are they important? • Definition of all aspects of the experiment, what you’re going to measure, how you’re going to measure • Results of the experiment may differ depending on the definitions of the aspects of the operations What are confounding variables? Why is no single study perfect? • Uncontrolled factors that may influence the dependent variable • Can confuse interpretation of the results • No study is perfect because you are rarely able to control all confounding variables • Always speaks to experiment What is random assignment? • When subjects are randomly assigned to groups • Probabilistic equivalence between groups (the groups of people will be roughly similar most of the time/typically/on average) What is the placebo effect? • When a treatment has an effect because the person receiving the treatment expects that effect to occur • Expectations can produce effects • People can reproduce side-effects of a drug even without taking it (if they just believe they have taken it) What is a double-blind design? • Neither the subject nor the researchers interacting with them are aware of the assignment (who’s given the placebo vs. active treatment) • Helps prevent placebo effect • Helps prevent the research from inadvertently influencing the research What information does a test of statistical significance provide? What is the typical cut-off point at which results are deemed statistically significant in psychology? • Mathematical estimation of how likely experimental results are due to chance/random factors rather than your manipulation of a factor • How likely it would be to see these patterns of results • Results are considered statistically significant if p ≤ 0.5 (there is only a 5% or less likelihood your results were due to chance random factors) Why aren’t statistically significant results necessarily practically significant? • May not be practically significant in the world • Just means it is unlikely experimental results are due to chance What publication bias exists among scientific journals and why is it a problem? • Studies are more likely to be published if they find a statistical significance • Problematic if the majority of studies on a particular subject don’t find a large statistical difference, will misinform readers CH 2: Biology and Behavior What is biological psychology? • The study of how our biology and genetics plays into psychology What are the major functions of the nervous system? • Input • Processing • Output What two general types of cells make up the nervous system? What are the general functions of these cells? • Glia: support neurons, guide growth, provide nutrition, clean up and fix • Neurons: receive, process, store and transmit information using electrical and chemical processes Know the structures of a neuron and their typical functions and characteristics as covered in class. Know how information typically flows through a neuron and between neurons. • Dendrites: “tree branches” receive information from other neurons and transmit that info to the cell body • Cell body/soma: main processing center • Axon: usually one longer fiber per neuron, comes off cell body, carries info away from cell body to end of the neuron through action potentials, Myelin sheath is the insulator • Terminal Buttons: at the end of the axon, little bubbles/vesicles that contain neurotransmitters • Synapse: tiny gap across which signaling takes place, terminal button of one neuron to dendrite of another, communication point What characterizes action potentials? • Electrical signal that travels down the axon • Neuron always fires at the same speed (constant) • “All-or-None”: either fires at full strength or not at all (like a gun) What are postsynaptic potentials? How do they relate to action potentials? • Electrical changes that occur when neurotransmitter binds to receptors on the neuron • Function is to inhibit or initiate action potentials • Excitatory (EPSP) makes it more likely an action potential will be fired • Inhibitory (IPSP) decreases likelihood an action potential will be fired What is reuptake? • A neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by the sending neuron What do neurotransmitters do? Know the major functions of the neurotransmitters covered in the notes/powerpoint. • Chemical messengers that carry information between neurons • Acetylcholine (Ach): learning, memory, muscle action (Alzheimer’s) • Norepinephrine (NE): alertness, arousal, attention, mood/stress response, depression • Serotonin (5-HT): mood, sensory perception, hunger, sleep, arousal, depression • Dopamine (DA): movement, learning, attention, emotion, pleasure/reward, addiction, Parkinson’s, Schitzophrenia • GABA: major inhibitory transmitter, creates IPSPs, anxiety, epilepsy • Glutamate (Glu): major excitatory transmitter, creates EPSPs, memory, cell death in strokes What are hormones (see text)? • Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissues Know various divisions, subdivisions, and structures of the nervous system and their functions. For instance… What constitutes the central nervous system? Peripheral nervous system? What are the divisions and subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system? What are the functions of these divisions/subdivisions? • CNS: neurons and glia inside brain and spinal chord • PNS: neurons and glia outside CNS, carries messages between CNS and body o Somatic: carries messages from senses to CNS, messages from CNS to skeletal muscles, mediates voluntary movements and conscious sensations o Autonomic: carries messages between CNS and internal organs and glands, mediates functions that don’t require conscious awareness (automatic) § Sympathetic: generates fight or flight, activates body, prepares it for action § Parasympathetic: rest and digest system, calms body, directs body to conserve energy What is the spinal cord? • Column of neurons and glia running through vertebrae down the center of your back • Information highway bringing info to and from the brain What are the three divisions of the brain? What is the brainstem? Know the hindbrain/brainstem structures and their functions as covered in class. Know the basic features of the forebrain and the general functions of the forebrain structures that we covered (cerebral hemispheres, corpus callosum, thalamus, limbic system, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex). • Hindbrain: relatively small, evolutionarily the oldest part • Hindbrain + Midbrain: vital for life and consicousness o Brainstem: § Medulla: brain tissue (looks like swelling at the top of spinal chord), controls breathing and heart rate § Reticular Formation: goes through hind and midbrain, controls level of consciousness (how alert/awake), keeps the rest of the brain awake and able to respond to stimuli, sleep-wake cycle o Cerebellum: looks like tiny brain, balance, fine/precise motor movements, learning and memory, posture, language • Forebrain: largest, evolutionarily the newest, divided into two (typically identical) hemispheres by a fissure o Corpus Callosum: couple hundred million nerve fibers (axons) that connect the two hemispheres o Thalamus: one in each hemisphere, sensory relay station for all except smell, they stop here and are sorted then sent elsewhere o Limbic System: structures related to memory § Hypothalamus: controls autonomic NS and pituitary (endocrine system), controls motivated behaviors and maintenance functions in the body (eating, sleeping, temp regulation, sexual activity) § Hippocampus: memory § Amygdala: assess emotional significance of stimuli based on memory o Basal Ganglia: motor functions o Cerebral Cortex: outer surface area of brain, wrinkly allowing for more space to fit info, more cortex means more adaptability (bumps=gyri, grooves=fissures/sulci) What are ventricles? • Connected, fluid-filled cavities What is cerebrospinal fluid? • Clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spine What are some ways that the brains of more cognitively complex species such as humans tend to differ from the brains of less complex species? • Larger cortex What is the relationship between the size of a species’ cortex and genetic control of behavior? (p. 74) • More cortex = more adaptability = less controlled by biology Know lobes of the brain and the primary motor and sensory areas we covered within each. • Parietal Lobe: middle (sensory) o Primary Somatosensory Cortex: receives info from skin regarding touch, temp, pain, pressure, parts that are more sensitive have more space devoted to them, contralateral • Frontal Lobe: front (motor/movement) o Primary Motor Cortex: involved in generating/controlling voluntary movements of body, contralateral o Prefrontal Cortex • Temporal Lobes: under/near temples (auditory) o Primary Auditory Cortex: processes info about sound coming in from ears • Occipital Lobe: back (visual) o Primary Visual Cortex: processes info about vision coming from eyes What is meant by contralateral control/input? • Stuff in the left hemisphere controls the movements in the right part of the body and vice versa What is association cortex? • More complex, controls higher order processes, brings senses together • Stores long-term memories What does the prefrontal cortex do? Who was Phineas Gage? • Very front of frontal lobes • Association area involved in personality, judgment, decision making, planning for future, controlling emotions, inhibiting inappropriate behavior o Phineas Gage: tamping iron went through his skull, he lived but his personality completely changed because it affected his prefrontal cortex What is aphasia? Where are the language association areas that we covered? What are the characteristics of Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasias? • Aphasia: difficulties understanding and/or producing language • Broca’s Area: left frontal, involved in language production o Broca’s Aphasia: difficulty producing language fluently, slow and halting speech pattern, won’t have trouble understanding language, can sign or abc’s/123’s or cursing without hesitation • Wernicke’s Area: left temporal, involved in language comprehension o Wernicke’s Aphasia: difficulty understanding language, no problems producing but can’t understand what they hear or read, can understand facial expressions and tone but not words, less aware there is a deficit • Language is strongly lateralized typically to the left hemisphere What is meant by lateralization? • One hemisphere is more involved in a particular function than the other • They still both control it but one is more involved What has happened to split-brain patients? What are the effects of the operation? What are they able to do and not do during the special testing procedures we covered in class? • Corpus callosum has been cut (usually to prevent epilepsy) • Personality stays the same, most things stay the same • When information is presented to one hemisphere at a time, hemispheres can’t communicate with each other, information stays in hemisphere • Specialized testing designed to present info to only one hemisphere at a time o When looking at He|art, split brain person will say they saw art but point to He • Information flashed on one side will go to that one side (when looking in the middle) o Right visual field goes to left hemisphere which controls right side of body and language o Left visual field goes to right hemisphere which controls left side of the body What is meant by plasticity? How do environment and experience affect the brain? How does the brain compensate/recover when injured? • The brains ability to change with experience and sometimes reorganize itself after damage • New synaptic connections can be formed to develop new skills or new pathways • Recovery function occurs as a result of other parts of the brain trying to take on and make up for functions of those that have died What is a hemispherectomy and in what circumstances would it be performed? What major factor affects the outcome of such an operation? • Removal of one half of the brain/one hemisphere • Happens mostly in children (their brains are more plastic and can therefore recover from such trauma almost completely and lead a relatively normal life) • Can help with rare epileptic disorders CH 6: Sensation and Perception What is sensation? perception? • Sensation: process by which stimulation of sensory receptors leads to messages to the brain, message coming from the censes, stimulation of sensory receptors results in action potentials • Perception: brain’s interpretation of sensory information What are the general functions of our sensory systems? What is transduction? Where does it take place? • Detect: environmental energy/sensory info • Encode: info about the quality and intensity of environmental energy o Transduction: process of converting info about sensory stimuli into patterns of action potentials o Translation: info about sensory stimuli is translated into action potentials (a language the brain understands) • Relay: send sensory info to the brain through sensory nerves What are sensory receptors? What do they do? What is sensory adaptation and why is it useful (see text)? • Specialized cells that detect certain forms of energy What are sensory nerves? • Bundle of axons traveling together • Carry sensory info to CNS, travels to thalamus then primary processing centers in cortex What are wavelength, frequency, and amplitude? How do they affect our perception of light and sound (color, brightness, pitch, loudness)? • Wavelength: distance between peaks (one complete cycle) o Light: related to color perception, short are blues and purples, long are reds • Frequency: number of complete waves per unit time (sec) o Sound: pitch, measured in hertz, low pitch is slow traveling waves, high pitch is fast traveling waves o (Hz – number of waves that pass a point in space per sec) • Amplitude: height of wave/peak (tall or short) o Light: brightness, higher amplitudes (tall) are brighter, lower amplitudes (short) are duller o Sound: perception of loudness, measured in decibels (dB) Are all forms of electromagnetic radiation visible to humans? • Mostly undetected by the eye, stimulus for vision What are photoreceptors and where are they located? • Sensory receptors for light, excited by light • Located in retina (back of eye) What are rods and cones and what do they do? How are they distributed in the retina? • Cones: wavelength, visual acuity allow us to perceive color and detail, work best in good lighting, don’t respond well to low lighting, mostly concentrated in the center of the retina • Rods: light sensitivity, periphery of retina very light sensitive, allow us to see in dim conditions, don’t encode color or detail, allow us to see in the dark, mainly found at the edges of the retina How does information flow through the cellular layers of the retina? • Rods and cones are excited by light and send messages into the bipolar cells • Bipolar cells send messages into the ganglion cells • Ganglion cells take info into the brain • Info moves from optic nerve to thalamus to visual cortex to association areas What is the optic nerve? What is the blind spot? • nerve carries info from eye to brain • blind spot where there are no photoreceptors What is trichromatic theory? How do photoreceptors encode color? • Explanation of how color is encoded • Three types of cones that correspond to three types of light (that are mixed to produce the millions of colors we see) o Blue (short wavelength) o Green (medium wavelength) o Red/yellow-range (long wavelength) • Based on the response of different cones, color info is encoded What is opponent-process theory? What are afterimages? • How color info is processed • Three pairings of color-sensitive visual elements o Red/green o Blue/yellow o Black/white • Only one member of the pair is allowed to send info, they inhibit/oppose each other, relatively more active member of the pair gets to use the pathway • Afterimages: When one is active the other is inhibited (when an image goes away the other takes over) What is sound? • Repetitive vibration in air pressure • Molecules bumping into each other and bouncing back into place • Sound is funneled into the ear canal by pinna. Sound causes the tympanic membrane to vibrate which causes the hammer to bump into the anvil and the anvil to bump into the stirrup which is attached to the oval window. Movement of stirrup causes the movement/vibration of oval window which vibrates the cochlea which sloshes the fluid and vibrates the basilar membrane, bending hair cells triggering action potentials in the auditory nerve. What do the bones of the middle ear do? • Tympanic Membrane: (eardrum) at the end of the ear canal, sound vibrates the membrane • Ossicles: membrane vibrates and makes the bones bump into each other (hammer, anvil, stirrup) What structures make up the inner ear and what are their functions? • Cochlea: fluid filled tube, coiled, has basilar membrane, hair cells, and auditory nerve o Hair cells: sensory receptors for sound, make connections with auditory nerve as they bend triggering action potentials, louder the sound the more cells are activated How do place theory and frequency-matching theory explain how we perceive pitch? • Place Theory: sounds with different frequencies cause vibration at different points along the basilar membrane, the brain knows what frequency the sound is based on which part of the membrane is sending the strongest signals • Frequency-Matching Theory: auditory nerve will fire action potentials at the same rate as the frequency of sound What are the two basic types of deafness/hearing loss and how do they differ in cause and treatment? (see outline on Blackboard) • Conduction: damage to structures of the middle ear, hearing aids help as they amplify sound on behalf of the middle ear • Nerve/Sensorineural: damage to the inner ear, hearing aids not as helpful, problem is with transduction of sound, cochlear implants help as they artificially stimulate the auditory nerve What are the somatic senses provided by receptors in the skin? Why is pain important? How do psychological factors influence our perception of pain? • Touch, temperature, pressure, pain • Pain: necessary warning of potential damage to the body, signals a need for a change of behavior/protection o stress, depression, anxiety can intensify the intensity of pain (make it worse) o relaxation, distraction, optimism decrease pain Does perception depend solely upon sensory information? What is a perceptual set? • Readiness to perceive a stimulus in a certain way, mental predisposition that guides or biases our perception, based on previous knowledge, expectations, experience, context How do our perceptual mechanisms deal with vague information? • Perceptual mechanisms impose meaning to make sense out of nonsense • When presented with ambiguous info, the brain tries to make sense by making connections to familiar things • Brain will fill in missing info What is the absolute threshold? The difference threshold? (see text) • Absolute: minimum stimulus energy needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time • Difference: the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time
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