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Final Exam Study Guide

by: Rani Vance

Final Exam Study Guide BSC 116

Rani Vance
GPA 3.94
Principles Biology II
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Principles Biology II
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Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rani Vance on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 116 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Principles Biology II in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 12/06/15
B 116 FINAL STUDY JIDE The nal covers from lecture 34 neurons to lecture 43 conservation and restoration ecology Per usual a lot of information was covered for each lecture How I usually study is to compare the notes I take in class to the lectures to see if I missed or misunderstood key points and then write my notes out A LOT Usually some of the questions from the homework are on the tests Also this test will be on paper rather than online so that could be bene cial to some I know I like to write stuff down and cross things out Good luck You39ll kill it Lecture 34 Sensory and Motor Mechanisms Animals takin in info process it and respond sensory input gets integrated into the central nervous system response D PNS neurons specialized cells that conduct and store info in nervous system in by afferent out by efferent 4 Stages to brain stimulus 1 Receptions sensory cell detects stimulus 2 Transduction conversion of stimulus to receptor potential change in magnitude of action potential graded magnitude varies threshold 55 mmols 3 transmission if receptor potential initiates action potential receptor cell axon or neurotransmitter strength of stimuli modulates frequency of action potential integrationprocessing might begin before transmission 4 Perception CNS processing of input from sensory neurons modi ed in two ways a Ampli cation strengthening the stimulus adding energy b Adaption become unresponsive to constant stimulation Types of Sensory Receptors chemoreceptors bind molecules initiates change in membrane potential mechanoreceptors deformed or moved to sense pressure stress motion often ion channels linking to cilia eectormagnetic detect light electricity magnetism eyes detect magnitude in many ways thermoreceptors detect heat and cold membrane proteins change shape under temp nocireceptors detect pain extreme receptors Taste and smell rely on chemoreceptors chemoreceptors detect smell and taste for various aspects of an animal39s gustation taste detection of tastants in solution receptiors concentrated in tastebuds insects have on bottom of the feet and mouth Olfaction smell detection of odorants in air mammas receptors in nasal cavity Hearing and balance based on mechanoreceptors in many animals the organs for hearingequilibrium are closely related pressure waves in the air deform receptor cells leads to memories starts with conversion of waves in air to uid outer ear tympanic membrane vibrations middle ear 3 tiny bones transmit vibrations inner ear cochlea receives vibrations FLUID waves flow down vesticular cancal cause vibrations that stimulate hair cells sounds stimulus has both volume and pitch voume and magnitude of the vibrations Hearing is just a reception of pressure waves fish live in water no need to convert air pressure waves to uid pressure waves no outer ear vibrations pass thru body atera line system mechanoreceptors for detecting lowfrequency vibrations perceive the direct and velocity of water ie predators insects have quothairquot on their bodies that vibrate turned to hear speci c sounds Balance requires sensing orientation relative to gravity many animals have statocysis to sense gravity chambers surrounded by ciliated cells statoiths move around as body moves mammas balance associated with ears inner ear as utricle horizontal and saccule vertical chambersnew hair cells and little stores titing head causes tubes to move our semicircular canals detect angular momentum Detect light photoreguators cells that detect light oceli simple cups of photreceptors panaria cup creates shadow to determine light direction singelense eyes ike camera compound eye composed of many detectors omnatidia Lecture 35 Sensory and Motor mechanisms Skeletal muscle contracts to move skeletal elements vertebrate skeletal muscle attached to bone responsible for movement and locomotion musce bundle of bers running parallel to bone ber single cell multiple nuclei with bundle of myo brils myo bris composed of thin actin and thick myosin bers Sarcomere basic contractile unit of myo bil actin bers lined up at ends 2 lines middle of myosine bers lined up m lines musce contract by actin lament slid past sarcomere basic contractile unit of myo bril MampZ How does the sliding lament work myosin molecule long tail and round in thick ber tails of myosin stick together in thick ber 1head binds ATP low energy con guration 2 head hydrolyzes ATP to ADP uses energy to change shape head moves forward 3 head binds to adjacent thin actin lament 4 head releases ADP but holds on to actin changes shape to pull thick lament against thin 5 binding new ATP cause head to release Ca 2 and regulatory proteins 2 sets of regulatory proteins are bound to thin laments tropomyosin coils around actin troponin complex arranged along tropomyosin proteins block myosin binding site inhibits actinmyosin interaction Action potentialD myo bril contraction 1 Action potential motor neuron releases acetylcholine neurotransmitter binds to receptor Triggers potential transverse tubules extensions of plasma membrane carry ATP deep into muscle Action potential causes sarcoplasmic reticulum of release Ca 2 Troponin complex and tropomyosin move out of the way Sarcomere contract When motor neuron stops ring Ca 2 pumped back into sarcomere Iquot P P PPquot 7 Troponin complex and tropomyosin move back in the way ber relaxes like action potential Muscle contraction is the sum of many twitches bers all of nothing muscle is graded motor unit all bers controlled by one neuron strength of contraction depends on of neurons recruited rapid action potentials lead to rapid twitches tensions may be lost tetanus quottwitchesquot smoothed out by elastic tendons connecting bones Skeletal is just one kind of vertebrate muscle composed of multiple ber types oxidativeoxygen binding myogobin of glycolytic slow and fast twitch muscle bers scattered in cytoplasm right atrium pacemaker SA node rhythmic gapjunc ons Whether muscle around bone skeleton endo skeleton or muscle enclosed win skeleton exoskeleton only contraction cause movement musces work in antagonistic pairs many animals lack mineralized skeletons rely on hydrostatic skeletons body cavity lled with noncompressible uid contracting longitudinal muscles parallel to body contracting circular muscles causes body to lengthen Lecture 37 Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with one another individual popuation group of individuals of same species communitiesgroups of population ecosystemsgroups of communities andscapesgroups of ecosystems goba the earth biosphere Ecology amp Evolutionary Biology evoutionary time populations to adapt to environments ecoogica time response of organism populations to their environments Why are species distributed the way they are no species occurs everywhere even people ie red kangaroo only found in some places many factors determine this dispersa behavior biotic living things predators prey pathogens competitors abiotic physical factors temp light water Species distributions based on other organisms other organism biotic factors species absent because other species is missing ie food host pollinator species absent because other species is present ie predator parasite competitor Species distributions limited by physiological tolerances incudes physical and chemical propertiesabiotic factors temp too hot or too cold species adapted to one extreme cannot exist in another water too wet too dry salinity osmotic issues sunight important for photosynthetic organisms geoogy inorganic parts of the habitat minerals pH physical structure of land earth is not homogenous for abiotic factors leads to variation in biotic factors many abiotic factors climate long term prevailing weather conditions Variations in climate proximity to water effects temp and humidity coastal areas are moister than inland of same latitude air changes temperature faster than water mountain effects shadow to sunlight atitude temp quotrain shadowquot warm air passing mountains cools and drops moisture occurs in deserts tilt of earth results in predictable seasonality leads to variation in day length sunlight and temp Biotic and abiotic factors combine to form biomes biomes major habitat types determined by both biotic and abiotic factors atitudina variation in temp moisture leads to latitudinal variation in animals and plants ecotones areas of transition between biomes disturbance leads to community variation patchiness ie res hurricanes etc Aquatic biomes are characterized by salinity and depth Lecture 38 Population Ecology Population conspeci c individuals occurring in a particular area ive in same environment use same resources interactbreed with each other Populations are dynamic always changing gain individuals from births gain individuals from immigration arriving ose individuals from deaths ost individuals from emigrations leaving 3 characters to describe populations density number of individuals per unit area volume boundaries dif cult to nd dispersion pattern of spacing among individuals cumped aggregated in patches attracted to resources uniform evenly spaced random independent of other individuals demographics age and sex structure of the population Survivorship curves survivorship curve number aive plotted vs each yaxis plotted on a log scale species have characteristic survivorship curves depending on life history pattern of reproductive and survival ie humans low constant death rate until late in life type I put energy into raising their children ie oysters high death rates early on low for survivors type III energy into producing many offspring without parental care survivorship is a factor that determines population size BE ABLE TO APPLY A POPULATION TO A SENSORSHIP CURVE Reproductive rates are as important as death rates reproductive tabe fertility schedule pay more attention to the females in pop cacuate average number female offspring HUGE VARITATION in life histories as a result of tradeoffs costsbene ts or reproduction cost reproduction energy spent on offspring not spent on parent iteroparity repeated reproduction multiple reproductive periods ie squirrels this is favored in a predictable environment semeparity quotbigbang reproductionquot all reproduction concentrated in a single effort ie agave produces once a century favored in unpredictable environments low probability of adult survival tradeoffs can39t maximize all reproductive patterns at the same time meaning more offspring means smaller offspring with less care UNDERSTAND THE MODEL OF EXPONENTIAL GROWTH Population growth regulated by feedback carrying capacity number of individuals that a habitat can sustain imiting factors energy shelter nutrients territories water varies over time ogistic population growth model incorporates carrying capacity dNdt rNK NK where K carrying capacity eg when N is small K NK is large characteristic Sshaped curve quotkselectionquot for traits that are helpful at high densities few relatively large offspring type I quotrseectionquot for traits that are helpful at low densities many relatively small offspring type II Population size is dynamic popuations uctuate over time result of biotic interactions there can be longterm cycles of associated populations Populations vary in space as well as time popuations connected by dispersal in a metapopulation sources positive populations growth rgt0 lots of emigration to sink sinks negative population growth rlt0 lots of immigration from sources required to maintain pop habitat fragmentation can yield a metapopulation from what originally was a large continuous population some species occur naturally in a metapopulation structure Lecture 41 Biodiversity Higher extinction rates now than ever before mainly caused by human activity There are multiple threats to biodiversity 1 Habitat loss and destruction biggest threat to biodiversity caused 73 of known extinctions fragmentation of habitats fragments populations picture in slideshow demonstrates this habitat split up patchwork landscape high levels of biodiversity in Alabama but also subject to the most threats IntroducedExotic Species increase in global travel led to increase in introduced species nonnative species alter ecosystems some introduced by accident stowaways brown tree snake Guam 12 birds 6 lizards extinct some introduced on purpose ie kudzu introduced to stabilize sediments taken over the south ie various insects introduced as biological controls predators etc ie San Francisco Bay establishes a new invasive sp ever 14 weeks arrive via shipping Overexploitation esp sheries and large mammals harvested at rates faster than they can reproduce ie hunting of elephants rhinos and whales Global change Change in climate and atmospheric chemistry Cimate change Acid rain Human activity cause habitat destruction Agriculture primary cause of ecosystem change slash and burn agriculture Natural Resource Extraction mining logging shing Urbanization and infrastructure developmenthabitat fragmentation War and violent con ict Polution Pollution toxins accumulate in top predators humans add lots of synthetic chemicals to ecosystems ie pesticides industrial chemicals like PCBs polychlorinated biphenyls not broken down by detritivores decomposers taken up by primary consumers move up the food web biological magni cation becomes more concentrated in higher trophic levels ie DDT insecticide used in USA from 19505 to 19705 now band in USA accumulated in birds of prey like bald eagles leads to weak egg shells birds would sit on and break eggs no longer viable still use DDT in Africa where malaria spread by mosquitoes a serious human health issue tradeoffs also release naturallyoccurring chemicals at unnatural levels ie mercury from plastic manufacture coal burning taken up by phytoplanktonD moves up the food chain accumulates in predators especially shes mitigated by regulating wastes but may take decades to degrade Invasive species Invasive species An introduced species that establishes expands its range and has a substantial impact on native organisms amp ecosystems re ants have become devastatingly invasive introduced to USA in Alabama from a ship in Mobile from South Amercia Invasive species can interact with native species as competitors prey predators brown tree snakesD outages in Guam due to snakes on powerlines Overexploitation hunting chose largest animal to make the most money shing sheries by catch not much incentive for shermen to catch in a sustainable manner this has an effect on nonharvested species as well can be caught by accident this is called quotbicatchquot coecting for trade can lead to a decrease in species abundance and ultimately extinction of the speCIes Burning fossil fuels leads to acid rain burning fossil fuels oil coal releases S and N combines with water to make sulfuric and nitric acids leads to acid rain pH lt 52 lowers pH of water bodies in areas with weakly buffered water less bicarbonate to neutralize it lower pH kills acidsensitive shes ie lake trout keystone predators drastically alters ecosystems source of pollution distant from the effects eg 19605 factories Midwest killed lakes in eastern Canada can be has been mitigated thru tougher regulations on emissions still takes a long time to recover Chemicals we release can also affect abiotic factors CFCs chloro uorocarbons used in refrigeration air conditioners escape to atmosphere Cl reacts with ozone 03 1725 km up ozone breaks down to 02 the layer of ozone in the atmosphere absorbs UV radiation less ozone means less UV protection increase in DNA mutation rate in organismscancer results in a large quotholequot in the ozone esp over Antarctica and Australia New Zealand South America less of an effect at middle latitudes increased UV radiation leads to DNA damage in plants and animals predicted to result in increased skin cancers lower crop amp natural productivity Excess C02 in atmosphere from burning fossil fuels associated with increasing global temps before the Industrial Revolution C02 274 ppm now it is over 380 ppm this is highly correlated with increased global temperatures C02 CH4 H20 etc naturally warm the Earth thru Greenhouse Effect greenhouse gases have the same effect solar heat retained the global warming trend on Earth has had greatest effect at high latitudes INCREASE GREEN HOUSE GAS LEADS TO INCREASE IN TEMP less polar ice means more absorption of heat exacerbates warming increase in the incidence of res exacerbates CO2 increase predicted to lead to changes in precipitation patterns aridi cation in some place more water in others increase in sea level from melting polar ice extinctions as organisms can t adapt to rapid change Lecture 42 Global Human Population Size positive growth but no longer exponential logistic and exponential population growth must know for test levels off to carrying capacity Annual percent increase in global human population size no longer exponential Human population growth and age structure varies by country depending on whether they are industrialized or developing Population growth and age structure varies by country depending on whether they are industrialized or developing demographic transition switch from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates in a given country tends to accompany industrialization and improved living conditions these graphs are based on the type of development each country has gone though ie high death rate with equally high birth rates are seen in developing country ie in developed countries there is a relatively even slow population growth that tapers WE DON T KNOW WHAT THE CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE EARTH IS static Or changing Ecological footprint measures human impact calculates how much land and water resources we consume to grow food support lifestyles and assimilate waste can also be measured as energy consumption can be used to show changes in impact through time and space Goal for conservation biology is to conserve biodiversity biodiversity biological diversity anthropogenic human caused ecosystem modi cation D higher extinction rates always some extinction but more species going recently Why worry about conserving biodiversity we have an innate tie to nature biophiia we have an obligation to future generations we are still discovering useful things we can get from species provide us with useful services ecosystem services eg clean detoxify waste pollinate crops provide services that would cost those species that we rely on are in communities with other species Concerned with biodiversity lost on multiple levels most often hear about extinction of species in US extinction of freshwater animals 5x greater than terrestrial preservation of species needed for genetic diversity within amp among pop variation necessary for future adaption to changing environment Loss of genetic diversity reduces adaptive potential of the species community and ecosystem diversity fates of species interconnected protect habitats protect species Multiple threats to biodiversity 1 Habitat destruction greatest threat 2 Introducedexotic species 3 Overexploitation 4 Global change Lecture 43 Conservation and Restoration Ecology Efforts to protect species revolve around keeping their numbers from getting too low a species becomes endangered when its population gets too small extinction vortex small populations lead to smaller populations which leads to extinction small population varies among taxa want them to be large enough to sustain themselves minimum viable population MVP size number of individuals at which a species is able to sustain its numbers and not enter the extinction vortex MVP depends on the species uses effective population size number in pop that breed demographic modeling to predict how long a pop can last eg grizzly bears in Yellowstone 125500 breeding 95 chance pop will last 200 yrs Focus on landscapes and habitats instead of species by protecting land we are able to help multiple species set aside large tracts of land to protect against fragmentation edges boundaries between communities or ecosystems edge effects increase due to habitat fragmentation corridors strips of habitat that connect otherwise isolated habitat fragments facilitates movement and dispersal can focus on biodiversity hot spots smaller areas with lots of diversity 15 of land on Earth has gt30 off all plant amp animal diversity but what39s a hot spot for one taxon might not be for another used to set aside land to keep it pristine based on old stability quotbalanceof naturequot thinking Yellowstone old policy of putting out res disturbing marine ecosystems just as if not more important than terrestrial ecosystem negative stimulus spreads more easily in water etc Restoration ecology occurs when ecosystems are too far degraded extremely damaged ecosystems may need repair before they can be restored ie turning openpit mine to salt marsh takes bulldozers bioremediation using plants fungi prokaryotes etc to detoxify an area in contaminated areas plant that can take up the contaminants then harvest the plants or with bacteria to remove the contaminants biological augmentation use organisms to add compounds to ecosystem ie legumes increase N in soils until native plants can th ve


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