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MLIT Exam 3 Review

by: Brinkley Castro

MLIT Exam 3 Review MLIT1003 005

Brinkley Castro

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Hey guys! Here is a study guide for Exam 3! I hope it is helpful!
Basic Course in the Arts: Music Lecture 
Nikola Radan
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brinkley Castro on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MLIT1003 005 at University of Arkansas taught by Nikola Radan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 206 views. For similar materials see Basic Course in the Arts: Music Lecture  in Music at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 12/06/15
MLIT EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE AUDIO QUESTIONS:  George Gershwin -Rhapsody in Blue  For piano and orchestra  Note: Jazz influence, especially notable in the clarinet introduction -Summertime  From musical theatre production, Porgy and Bess  Aaron Copland -Appalachian Spring  Composed for ballet, performed as a suite  Pioneer celebration in spring in Pennsylvania  Quotes Shaker melody, Simple Gifts  Theme & variation form  Musical -West Side Story  America ensemble: Two young women of the Sharks gained, Rosalia and Anita – Bernardo’s girlfriend – express opposing feelings about their homeland, Puerto Rico, and they’re adopted country, America  Tonight Ensemble: -Bernstein projects several different emotions at the same time: 1. Riff, Bernardo and their gangs excitedly planning for the upcoming fight 2. Anita looking forward to the “kicks” she’s “gonna get” 3. Tony and Maria anticipating the joy of being together -Hair  Let the Sun Shine In- Ensemble  Blues -Delta Blues  Robert Johnson  Sound of country blues combined with formal structure of blues  “The Crossroads Blues” -Urban Blues  Muddy Waters  Highly energetic blues style  Jazz Scatting -vocalization of a melodic line with nonsense syllables  Bebop -Charlie Parker -Koko (1945) -Listen for:  Based on 12-bar blues format  Fast tempo  Lots of notes  Extended improvisation  Swing -Benny Goodman Orchestra (Sing, Sing, Sing-1938) -COUNT BASIE Swingin' the Blues, 1941 HOT big band swing jazz -Django Reinhardt – Hot Jazz Guitar  Cool Jazz -Miles Davis  Kind of Blue (1959) -Dave Brubeck Quartet  Take Five (1959)  Jazz Rock -Herbie Hancock  Chameleon (1973)  Free Jazz -John Coltrane  Alabama (1963)  Dixieland -Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five -Hotter Than That (1927) -Listen for:  Interplay of front line instruments  Call and response  Scat singing  Simultaneous improvisation  Scott Joplin -King of Ragtime -improvisation -Maple Leaf Rag (1899)  Form: AA BB A CC DD  Stravinsky -Rite of Spring  The first half of the ballet consists of a series of scenes that describe various mating rituals and sun worship  The second half is about human sacrifice, during which the chosen virgin dances herself to death  Underlying much of the passage is an ostinato (a repeated motive)  Repeated polychord to create a pedal  Sub Saharan Instruments -Idiophones—instrument’s body is sound generator  Xylophones, a favorite, come in many sizes  The Kalimba is a melodic instrument capable of producing elaborate melodies  The Slit drum with slit in side can produce two to four tones. Used for signaling and as musical instrument -Membranophones—stretched skin  Talking drum  Ghana drummers -Chordophones—stretched string  Musical bow (no resonator)  Musical bow (with resonator)  Kora -Aerophones—performer’s breath  Lekgodilo  Indian Music Instruments -Tambura -Sitar -Tabla  Sufi Singing in Pakistan -Lahor  The ritual of the Baba Shah Jamal shrine  Drummers with their huge drums put their spectators and devotees into a passion -Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan  A style of music Nusrat performed is called Qawwali  An distinctive fusion of devotional poetry and Hindustani music  Harmonium  With Peter Gabriel – “Signal to Noise” -Hazrat Amir Khusro  Song From 13 Century -Shah Abdul Latif  Song From 17 Century 20 CENTURTY AMERICAN MUSIC LECTURE 20:  Charles Ives -American, 1874-1954 -Won Pulitzer Prize in 1947 for 3rd Symphony -Music based upon American folk songs -Polyrhythm, polytonality, & tone clusters  Claimed was like 2 bands marching past each other on a street -Putnam’s Camp, Redding, Connecticut from Three Places in New England (1908?-14)  Piece is based upon a child’s impression of a Fourth of July picnic, two bands playing  Note: Polyrhythm Polytonality Harsh dissonances  William Grant Still -1st African-American composer to have work performed by a major American orchestra -Born Woodville, MS - grew up Little Rock, AR -1st African-American to conduct a major symphony orchestra (1936) -Also 1st to have an opera performed by a major opera company (1949)  Troubled Island about Haitian slave rebellion -The Harlem Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned the 1920s -Studied composition with Edgar Varèse -Most important musical voice of Harlem Renaissance -Afro-American symphony (1930) -150 compositions span most genres -Note: Blues and spiritual influence Scherzo-like, as in a 3rd movement from the Classical Period Ternary form  George Gershwin - George Gershwin (1898–1937) mastered the fusion of jazz and classical styles -Accomplished pianist and songwriter  Tin Pan Alley song plugger  Swanee, sung by Al Jolson -Composer of concert music  Rhapsody in Blue (1924) -Musical theater productions:  Girl Crazy, Porgy and Bess -Formed a union of popular and classical styles  Aaron Copland -American composer -Jazz idioms -Neo-Classicism and twelve-tone composition -Piano pieces, orchestral works, ballets, film scores -Wrote music in modern style more accessible to audience than many other composers -Other contributions to American music:  Directed composers’ groups  Organized concerts  Lectured, taught, & conducted  Wrote books and articles Musical Styles Since 1945  The Twelve-Tone System -The system was used to organize rhythm, dynamics, and tone color -Tone row ordered relationships of pitches -Serialism ordered other musical elements  Chance Music -1950s -Opposite of serialism -Chance or Aleatory music  From Latin alea; game of chance -Composers choose pitches, tone colors, and rhythms by random methods  John Cage: 4’33”, Imaginary Landscape  Karlheinz Stockhausen: Piano Piece No. 11  Minimalist Music -Mid-1960s -Characteristics:  Steady pulse, clear tonality, repetition of short melodic fragments  Dynamics, texture, and harmony constant over time  Emphasis on simple forms, clarity, understatement -Einstein on the Beach  It is an opera in four acts (framed and connected by five intermezzos), composed by Philip Glass and directed by theatrical producer Robert Wilson THE AMERICAN MUSICAL  Musical fuses script, acting, speech, music, singing, dancing, costumes, scenery, and spectacle  A musical is in two acts, of which the second is shorter and brings back some of the melodies heard earlier  The songs consisted of an introductory section (called the verse) and a main section (called the chorus)  Similar to opera, but musical has spoken dialog, simpler harmonies, melodies and forms  Leonard Bernstein -Conductor, pianist, author, lecturer, and composer -Dance was an important part of his musicals  West Side Story (1957) -Re-telling of Romeo and Juliet set in the slums of New York -Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is transformed into warfare between two teenage street gangs: the Jets, native-born Americans led by Riff; and the Sharks, Puerto Ricans led by Bernardo -The plot revolves around a fight between two gangs and the doomed love of Tony, a former member of the Jets; and Maria, Bernardo’s sister -Tony kills Bernardo after a vain attempt to break up a fight between the leader of the Sharks and Riff -Later he is shot by one of the Sharks and dies in Maria’s arms  Hair (1967) -A young farm boy from Oklahoma named Claude Hooper Bukowski heads to New York City to enter the Army and serve in the Vietnam -He meets a troupe of free-spirited hippies led by George Berger, who introduces him to debutante Sheila Franklin when they crash a dinner party at her home -Claude is sent off to recruit training in Nevada, but Berger and his band follow him -Sheila steals off duty sergeant’s uniform, which she gives to Berger. He uses it to extract Claude from the base for a last meeting with Sheila, taking his place, but while Claude is away, the unit flies out to Vietnam, taking Berger with them -The musical ends with the main cast singing at Berger's grave, followed by scenes of a large anti-war protest outside the White House in Washington, DC INTRODUCTION TO JAZZ, BLUES, AND RAGTIME  Jazz -Developed in the United States -Main Characteristics:  Improvisation  Syncopated rhythm  Steady beat  Call and response -Originally performance music—not notated -Tremendous impact on pop and art music -Originally music for dancing -Roots of Jazz  Blend of Elements of Several Cultures -West African emphasis on improvisation, percussion and call and response techniques -Ragtime and Blues were immediate sources -Elements of Jazz  Tone Color  Improvisation  Rhythm, Melody, and Harmony  Ragtime -Dance hall and saloon music -Piano Music  Usually in duple meter at moderate march tempo  Right hand part highly syncopated  Left hand “oom-pah” part keeps steady beat -Scott Joplin (“King of Ragtime”)  Blues -Blues grew out of African American folk music, such as work songs, spirituals, and the field hollers of slaves -During the 1920’s blues became a national craze among African Americans -In the 1930’s the singer-guitarist Robert Johnson (1873-1958), combined the sound of country blues with the formal structure of blues--Delta Blues -The 1940’s saw the emergence in Chicago of a new, highly energetic blues style – called Urban Blues. One of the best known performers of urban blues was Muddy Waters (1950-1983) -Characteristics:  Blues singers have a specific style of performance involving “bent” notes, and vocal scoops and slides  The melodies contain many “blue” notes, which is the note that is flattened in a blues scale  Blues rhythm is very flexible. Performers often sing or play “around” the beat, accenting notes either just before or after it.  Jazz instrumentalists imitate the performing style of blues singers and use the harmonic pattern of 12-bar blues as a basis for improvisation -Vocal blues is intensely personal, often containing sexual references and dealing with pain of betrayal, desertion, and unreturned love JAZZ STYLES  New Orleans Style (Dixieland) -Songs frequently based on march or church melody, ragtime piece, pop song, or blues -Characteristics:  Improvised arrangements  Multiple instruments improvising simultaneously  Scat Singing- vocalization of a melodic line with nonsense syllables  Theme and variation form predominates -Dixieland was typically played by small group of five to eight performers -Melodic instruments or front line, included: cornet, clarinet and trombone -The front-line players would improvise several contrasting melodic lines at once (polyphonic texture) -Rhythm section; drums, chordal instruments (banjo, guitar, piano), and a single-line low instrument (plucked bass or tuba)  Swing -Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Glenn Miller, Tommy Dorsey and Benny Goodman (the “king of swing”) -Primarily for dancing -The music of WWII -Large bands (usually 15-20 players)  Saxophones, trumpets, trombones, and rhythm section -Melody usually performed by groups of instruments rather than by soloists -Theme and variations form common  Bebop -Meant for listening—not dancing -Saxophonist Charlie Parker, trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie and pianist Thelonious Monk -Chords built with 6 or 7 notes -Theme and variations form still dominant  Melodies derived from pop songs or 12-bar blues  Initial melody by soloist or 2 soloists in unison -Charlie Parker (1920-1955)  Cool Jazz -More calm, relaxed than Bebop -Relied more upon arrangements -Leading Performers  Lester Young  Stan Getz  Lennie Tristano  Miles Davis  Free Jazz -Similar to Chance Music  Not based upon regular forms or chord patterns -Solos sections of indeterminate length -Improvisation by multiple players at once  Alto saxophonist Ornette Coleman and tenor saxophonist John Coltrane  Jazz Rock (Fusion) -Style combined improvisation with rock rhythms -Combined acoustic and electric instruments -Miles Davis also influential in this style, pianists Herbie Hancock, Chick Corea  Jazz Female Vocals -Billie Holiday (“Lady Day”)  Leading female singer in jazz history -Strange Fruit  Poem written by Abel Meeropol  Performed by Billie Holiday -Ella Fitzgerald  Queen of Jazz NONWESTERN MUSIC (SUB SAHARA)  Instruments: -Membranophones—stretched skin  Primarily drums  Used in many ceremonial and work-pace applications  Variety of shapes, sizes, and forms  EX: Talking drum, Ghana drummers -Chordophones—stretched string  Harp type  plucked or struck, gourd resonators  EX: Musical bow (no resonator), Musical bow (with resonator), Kora -Aerophones—performer’s breath  Flutes, trumpets, etc.  EX: Lekgodilo -Idiophones—instrument’s body is sound generator  Bells, gongs, scrapers, rattles, etc.  Most common African instruments  EX: Xylophone, Kalimba, Slit Drum -Style and application within culture causes particular types of instruments to dominate  Strings allow great flexibility of pitch  Idiophones/membranophones: rhythmic emphasis INDIA  Vocal music most important in India  Many instruments associated with specific gods  Instruments: -Tambura  Melodies almost always accompanied by a drone instrument called tambura. A long – necked lute with four metal strings that are plucked continually in succession -Sitar  Most popular chordophone instrument  Long necked, lute (guitar) like instrument  7 plucked strings  Melodic Structure: Raga -Melody exists within a framework called a raga—a defined pattern of notes  Each raga has an ascending and descending form -Raga means “color” or “atmosphere” -Each raga associated with a particular mood – tranquility, love, or heroism  Also linked with gods, seasons, festivals, and times of day or night  Rhythmic Structure: Tala -Rhythm is organized into blocks or cycles, each called a tala -Consist of a repeated cycle of beats -Range from 3-100 beats in length -Ten-beat tala jhaptal divided 2—3—2—3 -Ten-beat tala shultal divided 4—2—4 SUFI MUSIC  Sufism is the popular, mystical form of Islam -Peace loving, tolerant and pluralistic -Covers the area of North Africa and Asia -Like the troubadours of the medieval west they have spread their word through music and although always opposed by the orthodox and by puritans they are still hugely popular across the Islamic world -Love rather than fear of god lies at the heart of Sufism -Way of joining closer to God and so reaching a spiritual state of ecstasy  Started in Syria in the Middle East  In Konya a small town in Turkey is the shrine of the Sufi mystic who represent the ideals of Sufism worldwide  The city of Lahor is the cultural and artistic capital of Pakistan -Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan  A style of music Nusrat performed is called Qawwali  An distinctive fusion of devotional poetry and Hindustani music -Hazrat Amir Khusro was an Indian musician, scholar and poet from 13th century  He is regarded as the "father of qawwali" -Shah Abdul Latif MUSIC IN FILM  Function of music in film: -Provide momentum and continuity -Suggest mood and atmosphere -Support dramatic action  Wagner’s leitmotif -Leitmotif: A musical theme or motive associated with a particular person, thing, or idea in the drama -James Bond 007 (Monty Norman) -Jaws (John Williams) -The Bad, the Good and the Ugly (Ennio Morricone) -Star Wars (John Williams)


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