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FSU / Mass Media Communication / MMC 2000 / Who invented a coin­operated version of spacewar?

Who invented a coin­operated version of spacewar?

Who invented a coin­operated version of spacewar?


School: Florida State University
Department: Mass Media Communication
Course: Introduction to the Mass Media
Term: Fall 2015
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam study guide
Description: An extensive/detailed study guide to Exam 3 with Dr.Clayton.
Uploaded: 12/07/2015
6 Pages 126 Views 1 Unlocks

Chapter 9: Video Games 

Who invented a coin­operated version of spacewar?

∙ David Gottlieb

o Invented Baffle Ball AKA Pinball

o 1931

∙ Harry Willams

o Invented Contact, first electric pinball game

∙ Pinball = gambling because of cash payouts given

∙ Humpty Dumpty = first game to give out replays instead of cash payouts ∙ Most advanced computers were at


o University of Utah

o Stanford

∙ Steve Russell

o Invented SpaceWar = first interactive computer game

o No profit because there wasn’t a way to distribute it

∙ Ralph Baer

o Invented the first video­game console

What are the three major manufacturers of video games?

o Sold it to Magnavox

 They up­charged it, and no one ended up buying it

∙ Nolan Bushnell

o Invented a coin­operated version of Spacewar

∙ Pong sparked the gaming revolution

o Created by Bushnell

∙ Microvision = first handheld gaming system

∙ Legend of Zelda = first open structure game

∙ Videogame: when a player has direct involvement in the on­screen action to produce a desired outcome

∙ Demographics:

o 135 million Americans play videogames (doubled since 2008) o Women play more than boys 18 and younger

o 45% of families play together

What is the first electronic computer?

∙ 3 Major manufacturers

o Microsoft, Nintendo, & Sony

∙ Convergence: movies/apps/Netflix on Xbox & games on iphones ∙ Candy Crush = #1 app of the year Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between supply and demand?

∙ Games = similar to magazines

∙ Sticky: website’s ability to hold the attention of a user ∙ Advocacy games: promote ideas 

∙ Advergames: promote products 

Chapter 10: Internet We also discuss several other topics like Who is miss eufrasia morales?

∙ Began in 1957

o Originated from military (used during Cold War)

∙ Internet: network of networks If you want to learn more check out What is a bmi for someone who is obese?

∙ 3 concepts developed:

o Military, Commercial, & Scientific

∙ Charles Babbage

o Originator of the computer  didn’t invent it, but originated the  designs

∙ Colossus = first digital computer

o Processed through binary code (01010)

∙ ENIAC = first electronic computer

o Made by Mauchly & Eckert

o 18 feet tall, 60k pounds, could fill an auditorium

∙ UNIVAC = first commercial computer

o Made by Mauchly & Eckert

o IBM <3’d this

∙ 1992 = WWW released

o WWW: tool that allows you to access files on computers via the  internet

o WWW = the tool

o Internet = the medium

∙ Packet Switching: digital networking communication that groups data  into blocks (packets) to avoid congestion on the line

∙ Hosts: computers linking individual personal computers to the internet o AKA servers If you want to learn more check out In the simple production function q=f(k,l)= k^½ * l^½ k and l stand for?

∙ Microsoft introduced the first tablet

∙ .com = top level domain (TRUE)

∙ Digital Natives: people who have never known a world without the  internet

∙ 1986 Electronic Communication Privacy Act  guarantees the privacy of  our emails

∙ 3 new advancements that pose privacy problems

o RFID: microchip that transmits a radio signal We also discuss several other topics like He/she is an architect and a painter, the one who painted mona lisa and last supper, who is he/she?

o Augmented Reality: point phones @ real things and they’ll be  linked to websites with info about those things superimposed on the screen

o Cloud Computing: storage of computer data on distant computers ∙ Technology Gap: disparity between the communication technology  haves and have­nots

∙ Digital Divide: lack of technology access among those of color, disabled, poor, in rural communities, etc.

∙ Information Gap: disparity in amounts/types of info available to  information haves/have­nots

∙ Knowledge Gap: differences in knowledge, civic activity, & literacy  between informed and less informed Americans

∙ Virtual Democracy = freedom on the internet

Chapter 13: Media Theory & Effects 

∙ 3 dichotomies about media’s influence

o Micro vs Macro

o Administrative vs Critical Research

o Transmissional vs Ritual Perspective

∙ Micro Vs Macro

o Micro: media’s effect on individuals 

 Most media is micro

 Little impact If you want to learn more check out In speech motivated by commercial purpose, what is essential in a self government-place?

o Macro: media’s effect on wide­scale social/cultural

 Great impact

∙ Administrative vs Critical Research

o Administrative = studies of the immediate/practical influence of  mass comm

 Direct cause and effect

o Critical = medias effects on larger issues 

 Larger, cultural questions

∙ Paul Lazarsfield

o Father of social science research

∙ Transmissional vs Ritual Perspective

o Transmissional: dissemination of information is the primary goal  Why are people watching this ad?

o Ritual: communication as a process that enables societal info  What’s culturally happening in this ad?

∙ Theory: allows us to predict & explain

∙ Mass Communication theory: explains personal, psychological, &  cultural aspects of our social systems

o There is not 1 mass communication theory

o Theories are borrowed from other fields of science

o Theories are human constructions

o Theories are dynamic

∙ Hypodermic Needle Theory: predicts that the audience believes  whatever the media is saying is 100% true  passive

∙ Reinforcement Theory: predicts that people seek out/remember info that reinforces their existing beliefs  not passive

∙ Wilbur Schram = the father of communication

∙ Middle Range Theories: ideas that explain/predict limited aspects of the  mass comm process

∙ Limited Effects Theories: individual and social characteristics cause  audience members to be influenced

∙ 2 Step Flow

1. Opinion Leaders: consume media content & interpret in light of  their own values/beliefs

2. Opinion Followers: people who receive ^’s interpretations of media content

∙ Ex: Twitter (CNN tweets  we retweet it)

∙ Agenda Setting Theory: media doesn’t tell us what to think, rather it  tells us what to think about

o Framing: tells us how to think

∙ Social Cognitive Theory: people learn through imitation & identification (not copying, but making a response)

o 3 processes

1. Observational Learning: learn new behaviors by seeing  those behaviors be performed

2. Inhibitory effects: seeing someone be punished for a 

behavior, you wont do that behavior

3. Disinhibitory: seeing someone be rewarded for a behavior, you will do that behavior

∙ Orson Welles

o Produced radio’s War of the Worlds  people believed the story  and freaked out 

Chapter 12: Advertising 

∙ Murketing: making advertising so slick that consumers can’t even tell of  it’s presence

∙ 15th century = people handed out business cards (shop­bills) ∙ First newsbook with ads was printed in England

∙ The local newspaper was the major advertising medium before the Civil  War

o BC the US was agricultural (no big cities)

∙ Industrial Revolution & Civil War changed advertising ∙ Volney Palmer

o Wanted ads in more than just local papers

 Owned multiple papers & people advertised in them

o Invented the first advertising agency

∙ Proctor & Gamble are associated with the advertising business (TRUE) ∙ Radio = important to advertising because:

o It keept radio free

o Ad business became show business

o Money helped the radio to survive the depression

∙ Unique Selling Proposition: something that sets apart a product from  everything else

o Ex: CFA having a cow saying “eat more chicken”

∙ Complaints about advertising:

o Intrusive (it’s everywhere)

o Deceptive  “if… then”

 Ex: Spraying AXE and having girls flock to you

o Exploits children  more books you read = more coupons you get o Corrupts culture (consumer culture: you are what you own) ∙ FTC: Federal agency that regulates advertising

o Corrective Advertising: new sets of ads produced by the offender  who produced the original misleading info

∙ FCC: regulates commercial practices

∙ Individual: States cab police deceptive advertising

∙ Puffery: a little lie/exaggeration (allowed a certain extent) ∙ Copy Testing: measures the effectiveness of ads by showing the ads ∙ Consumer Juries: target audience = the people watching during ^ o Testing a soccer ad with soccer moms

∙ Just because you can recall an ad does not mean it’s effective ∙ Neuro Marketing can not measure what the viewer is interested in o Measures breath, etc.

∙ Intentional imprecision

o Unfinished sentences  “Magnavox gives you more” (more what?) o Qualifiers  limit claims  “limited time only”

o Connotatively loaded  “best selling” 

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