PSY 205 Exam 3 STUDY GUIDE
PSY 205 Exam 3 STUDY GUIDE PSY 205 - M001
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alicia Notetaker on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 205 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by T. Palfai in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 794 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Human Behavior in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
Thursday, December 31, y PSY 205 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 12: Personality Sheldon’s Personality Theory Observed his students’ bodies to develop his personality theory • He was criticized for this because he observed both body type and personality himself Not very scientific! Endomorph : Viscerotonic • Relaxed, tolerant Shape: Plump Mesomorph : Somatonic; • Active, vigorous Shape: Muscular Ectomorph : Cerebrotoni; • Quiet, fragile, sensitive Shape: Lean, poor muscles Methods for studying personality: 1. MMPI 2. TAT 3. DrawAPerson 1 Thursday, December 31, y 4. Rorschach MMPI The Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory One of the most frequently used personality tests in mental health Self report instrument Can identify personality structure and psychopathology Measures 10 different things: • Hypochondriasis • Hysteria • Psychopathic Deviate • Depression • Masculinity/Femininity • Paranoia • Psychasthenia • Schizophrenia • Hypomania • Social Inversion Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory 3 structures of personality: 1. Id instinctive component 2 Thursday, December 31, y • Operates according to the pleasure princpal • Demands immediate gratification of its urges • motivated behavior • “sexual energy” 2. Ego decision making component • Operates according to the reality principle • Seeks to delay gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found • mediates between the id and the superego 3. Superego moral component • Incorporates social standard about what represents right and wrong 3 levels of awareness 1. Conscious: whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time 2. Preconscious: material just beneath the surface of awareness 3. Unconscious: what are aren't thinking about Defense Mechanisms • Conflicts cause anxiety, so the ego constructs defense mechanisms • Defense mechanisms: largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety Rationalization • Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior 3 Thursday, December 31, y Repression • Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious Projection • Attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another Displacement • Diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target Reaction Formation • Behaving in a way that’s exactly the opposite of one’s true feelings Regression • A reversion to immature patterns of behavior Identification • Bolstering selfesteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group Sublimation • Occurs when unconscious and unacceptable impulses are channeled to socially acceptable, perhaps even admirable, behavior Freuds Psychosexual Stages Sexual= Physical pleasure Psychosexual stages • Developmental period with a characteristic sexual focus that leaves their mark 4 Thursday, December 31, y Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital (named after where the child’s erotic energy is forced) • Fixation Failure to more forward from one stage to another as expected Excessive frustration during certain stage leading to an overemphasis on psychosexual needs during the fixated stage Chapter 14: Emotion, Stress, and Health Effects of Stress Impaired task performance Burnout: physical and emotional exhaustion, cynicism and decreased selfefficacy Psychological problems: insomnia, sexual difficulties, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, depression, PTSD, schizophrenia, and anxiety Health problems : atherosclerosis and heart disease, decreased immune functioning Positive effects (?!): personal growth, self improvement 5 Thursday, December 31, y Types of Stress Conflict: two or more incompatible motivations or impulses compete for expression • Approachavoidance • avoidanceavoidance • approachapproach: 2 good options competing with each other • double approach avoidance Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Anxiety Disorders GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) • Marked by chronic, high level of anxiety which is not based on any specific threat • Often called “freefloating anxiety” OCD • Obsessions persistent, uncontrollable, unwanted thoughts • Compulsions urges to engage in senseless rituals that temporarily relieve anxiety Etiology of Anxiety Disorders Biological factors • Moderate genetic predisposition • Temperament is a risk factor for anxiety • Disturbances in the GABA circuits of brain Conditioning and learning 6 Thursday, December 31, y • Acquired through classical conditioning or observational learning • Parents who model anxiety ma promise the developments of the disorders Cognitive factors • Certain styles of thinking make people particularly vulnerable to anxiety disorder • Judgements of perceived threat Personality • Neuroticism Stress • High stress often leads to anxiety disorders Somatoform Disorders Conversion Disorder • Significant loss in function in organ system Hypochondriasis • Excessive preoccupation and worry over health Dissociative Disorders Dissociative amnesia: A sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting • Often following a traumatic event but without any clear brain injury Dissociative fugue • People lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense or personal identity 7 Thursday, December 31, y • Often includes unplanned traveling/wandering in which individuals often crete a new identity • These people forget their name, family, where they live, and where they work, but can remember things like how to drive Dissociative identity disorder • little is know about cause • Hypothesis: sever emotional trauma during childhood • Rejection from parents Physical and sexual abuse Controversy: media creation? Parens and therapists creating? Mood Disorders Emotional disturbances that may disrupt physical, social, and thought processes Major depressive dosorder • Persistent feelings of despair, lose interest in sources of pleasure • Anhedonia: diminished ability to experience pleasure More common in woman Dysthymic disorder chronic but less sever depression Bipolar disorder • One or more manic episodes or euphoric mood separated by sever depression • Cyclothymic disorder chronic but mild bipolar symptoms • Dysphoria —> Mania Etiology of mood disorders 8 Thursday, December 31, y Tied to genetics Neurochemical factors • Mood disorders are accompanied by changed in neurochemical activity in the brain, particularly at norepinephrine and serotonin synapses Cognitive factors • Negative thinking contributes to depression • Learned helplessness Interpersonal roots • Poor social skills may lead to frequent rejection Learned Helplessness When a human (or animal) has learned to behave helplessly Failing to respond even though there are opportunities for it to help itself by avoiding unpleasant circumstances or by gaining positive rewards Popular view that clinical depression and related mental illnesses may result from a perceived absence of contr ol over the outcome of a situation Schizophrenia General symptoms • Delusions false beliefs, clearly out of touch with reality • Hallucinations sensory perceptions in absence of external cause (hearing voices, seeing people that aren't there) • Disturbed emotions 9 Thursday, December 31, y Flat affect failure to show emotional response Inappropriate responding (laughing at funeral) 4 Different classes 1. Paranoid delusions of grandeur and fear or persecution 2. Catatonic marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity 3. Disorganized social withdrawal, inability to function 4. Undifferentiated not fitting a specific substance Model for classification: • Positive: something added to behavior • Negative: taken away Positive symptoms: hallucinations, delusions, peculiar behavior Negative symptoms: flattened emotions, social withdrawal, no speaking Etiology of Schizophrenia Very genetic Neurochemical Dopamine hypothesis Structural abnormalities of the brain • Enlarged brain ventricles • Reductions in gray and white matter Reflects losses of synapses density and myelination Personality Disorders 10 Thursday, December 31, y Extreme, inflexible personality traits causing distress or impaired social and occupational functioning Anxiousfearful cluster • Concerned with controlling anxiety and fear of social rejection Oddeccentric cluster • Feel distrustful, unable to connect with others • ex: paranoid Dramaticimpulsive cluster • Tend to overdramatize events and behave impulsively • ex: antisocial Antisocial Personality Disorder • Impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, irresponsible behavior that reflects a failure to accept social norms Etiology of Personality Disorders Genetic predispositions • Biological • Heredity Inadequate socialization in dysfunctional families Know the prognosis of the disorders • Anxiety disorders: good • Somatoform disorders 11 Thursday, December 31, y Hypochondriasis: bad Conversion disorder: fair Mania • Prions: proteins that replicate themselves; cause manic symptoms of Mad Cow disease Chapter 16: Treatment and Disorders Types of treatment: 3 major types of psychotherapy: 1. Insight therapies “Talk therapy” clients discuss problems with therapist Includes family and marital counseling Sigmund Freud and followers • Goal: explore unconscious motives Techniques: • Free association Spontaneously expre ss thoughts with little censorship as they occur The analyst looks for clues about whats going on in the unconscious • Dream analysis Therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the clients dreams Freud called dreams the “royal road to the unconscious” Interpretation 12 Thursday, December 31, y • Attempt to explain significance of clients thoughts and behaviors Resistance : largely unconscious defense maneuvers that hinder therapy Transference: client relates to therapist as if mimicking a real relationship in life Client centered therapy: insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients • Clients play a huge role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy Carl Rogers : the big problem in most peoples life is that there is an incongruence in peoples self concept and reality • Goal of therapy: restructure one’s selfconcept to correspond better to reality • Carl Rogers 3 attitudes therapists need to be successful: Genuineness • Must be honest with client Unconditional positive regard • Nonjudgmental acceptance Empathy • Therapist must understand world from clients viewpoint Cognitive therapy : emphasizes recognizing and changing negative thoughts and beliefs • Aaron Beck Cognitive therapy originally focused on depression Albert Ellis • Rationalemotive therapy • Negative emotional reactions are not the result of negative events, but how people think of negative events 13 Thursday, December 31, y Goal: to change the way clients think Recognize negative thoughts how do you interpret situations? Reality testing are your negative thoughts realistic? Strong kinship with behavior therapy in cognitive therapy “homework assignments” Behavior therapies • Changing overt behavior Therapist uses classical and operant conditioning techniques Application of learning theories to change maladaptive behaviors B.F. Skinner and colleagues • Techniques: Systematic desensitization Joseph Wolpe • Reduce phobic reactions through counterconditioning • Anxiety hierarchy gradually approved fearful situations Rate level of anxiety, then start from lowest and moving up to fix them Aversion therapy • Aversive stimulus is paired with undesired behavior • Alcoholism, sexual deviance, smoking, gambling, etc. Social skills training • Improving interpersonal skills through training Modeling learning from watching others Behavioral rehearsal practice techniques by roleplaying Biomedical therapies 14 Thursday, December 31, y • Biological functioning interventions Includes drug treatment and shock therapy Physiological interventions intended to reduce symptoms of psychological dis orders Psychoparmacotherapy use of medication Drugs used to treat disorders fall into 3 categories (know the examples that follow): • Antianxiety Valium, Xanax, Buspar reduce tension, apprehension, and nervousness • Antipsychotic Thorazine, Mellaril, Haldol reduce hyperactivity, hallucinations, and delusions appear to decrease activity in dopamine synapses • Antidepressant (3 major classes) Gradually elevate mood and help bring people out of depressions • Tricyclics • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) 15 Thursday, December 31, y Most frequently prescribed Mood stabilizers • Lithium (bipolar disorder) Chemical used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar mood disorders It is very successful at preventing future episodes, but can be toxic and requires careful monitoring Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) • Electric shock used to produce a cortical seizure and collisions • Single most effective treatment for depression 16 Thursday, December 31, y What drugs are used to treat what disorders and how to they work? Schizophrenia • Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) & Haloperidol (Hadol) Works by blocking dopamine receptors Believed to affect both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia Depression • Fluoxetine (Prozac) Blocks reuptake of serotonin Anxiety • Diazepam (Valium) & Alprazolam (Xanax) Works by affecting GABA receptors Mania • Lithium Carbonate Works by enhancing norepinephrine reuptake 17
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