GEO 135 - Final Exam Study Guide
GEO 135 - Final Exam Study Guide GEO 135
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shannon Surell on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEO 135 at Illinois State University taught by David Johnson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 400 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Education and Teacher Studies at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 12/06/15
David Johnson – Geography 135 Final Exam Study Guide Vocab (I removed stem questions that had to do with vocabulary! Make sure to study these words in depth) Word Class Notes Conformal Shape on map looks like shape of real thing Realm Almost like continents but not always Region Smaller area than realm Map Depicts physical features Chart Map people have added data to Absolute location Uses a coordinate system to describe and define where something is Relative location Where something is based on its relation to something else Longitude lines Run North/South (think LONG like up and down); these are meridians Latitude lines Run East/West; these are parallels Cartogram Pictorial description of a numerical quantity (i.e. population) Formal region Made up of homogeneity, culture and physical (homogeneous) features Nautical mile 1 minute latitude Core The “bullseye” of an area; where most of the education is, where the action occurs, where politics occur, etc. Periphery Edge of the core area Vernacular region A region that is determined by how we perceive or (perceptual) look at it; informal usage, phrases Functional region Spatial systems, defined by activity (nodal) Knot Nautical mile per hour Tropic of Cancer 23.5 degrees North latitude Tropic of Capricorn 23.5 degrees South latitude Arctic Circle 66.5 degrees North or South True direction Direction in relation to North Pole Magnetic Direction In relation to Greenland (where most compasses point) st Meteorological first The 1 day of the month day Astronomical first Someday closer to the end of the month day Containerization Putting things into crates and being able to move it via train to ship Mercator Projection Tangent at equator (cylindrical) Transverse Tangent to the Earth at just the place where Mercator someone wants to go Conic Projection Projection onto a cone of paper and creates a “standard parallel” latitude of tangency Polyconic Multiple “standard parallels” projection Azimuthal Tangent at a point projection Affinity Being drawn towards something Stateless nations Places where the people want to be a state but no one recognizes them as one State When a place has a functioning government and others recognize you as a state Nation A place with a functioning common government; historically it meant a place of common birth 1 world countries Western democracies 2nd world countries Communist countries (Soviet Union, China, etc.) rd st nd 3thorld countries Neither 1 or 2 world 4 world countries Not very prosperous 5 world countries Economic basket cases Neocolonialism You are free but tied economically to who you used to be economically tied to Jubile To forget all debts and start over Migration Movement of people Emigration Leaving one’s country Immigration Entering/coming to another country Push factors Why one would leave their country (political, economic and religious freedom) Pull factors Why one would go to another country Rustication To send people to live out in the farm country (also to make rustic) Russification Taking Russians and moving them out to other places; when the government tells people to go to certain places Brain drain People get educated and then travel to a place where the can use their brain/education for a better use and to become more successful Weather Daily conditions Climate Aggregate of weather over time Desertification Expansion of deserts Glaciation Spreading of glaciers A climate Humid Equatorial B climate Arid C climate Humid Temperate D climate Humid Cold E climate Polar Cold H climate Highland Culture Sum of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors (also traditions, customs and language) Ethnicity Culture + racial heritage Chokepoints Places where with little effort could shut off oil to the industrial world Hegira Year on Muslim calendar; pilgrimage to Medina Mecca Center of Islam Ilah God Allah Literally, the God Shahadah Creed of Islam, what defines people as Muslim; “There is no god (illah) but The God (Al’lah) and Muhammed is his Prophet” Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca; every Muslim is expected to make one of these Ummah Community of believers Imam Leader of congregation (sunni) Imam Intermediary; first one was Ali (shi’a) Fatwa Religious decree Abu “father of” Caliphate Successors to the prophet Contagious When you talk to someone, then they tell someone diffusion else and it spreads like a cold Hierarchical People in a social/political ladder diffusion Khalif (Caliph) Single monarch Khalifat All of the monarchs and their successors Incidence # of new cases of a particular disease over a given period of time Prevalence # of cases of a particular disease Vectors Things that spread the disease Reservoirs Where the disease lives Host Anything that has the disease Endemic Just going around and a lot of people have the disease Epidemic Number of cases increases significantly (outbreak) Pandemic When a disease has spread extensively and has serious consequences worldwide Social slavery When you become a slave because of something you did or did not do Commercial slavery You are a slave because of a commercial deal; it wasn’t due to something you did Hegemon Person/country with the biggest economy, the most militarily powerful country, this is who runs the show Land hemisphere Northern hemisphere Water Hemisphere Southern hemisphere Oceanic conveyer Moves all around the world and is the main way to belt transfer heat within the globe (through the water) Specific heat How much heat you have to put into something to raise its temperature by 1 degree Celsius Centrifugal force Pulls people apart Centripetal force Drives you towards the center Little Ice Age (1350 When the temperature dropped a few degrees in – 1850) Europe Renaissance Rediscovery of knowledge Mercantilism Theory on how to get rich Disapora Scattering of people just like you would scatter grass seed Polarity An individual nation or society that decided what is going to go on in the world Multipolarity No dominant nation of the time and things would get done by using a conference Iron Curtain Border between East and West Europe BRIC Powers Brazil, Russia, India and China Fiscal policy How you spend your money Monetary policy How much money you have Devolutionary Centrifugal or centripetal forces pressures Environmental Believing that the environment governs our actions determinism Sahel The desert transition region on the South side of the Sahara Islamic Front The southern border of the African Transition Zone that marks the beginning of the religious frontier of Muslim faith towards the north part of Africa (very few Muslims below this line) Magnetic these are the separate sets of lines on a map that declination tell you how much you need to add or subtract from the number a compass gives you Kilometer .62 miles or 5/8 of a mile Hectare 2.471 acres Borscht Belt A very popular vacation spot for Jewish people; borscht is a type of soup that poor people would typically eat and was typically served at this vacation spot Stem Questions (That have no vocabulary associated with them!) Unit 1 3. The European State Model became generally accepted with the: the Treaty of Westphalia 8. In general, how many degrees separate the International Date Line from the Prime Meridian? 180 degrees 9. How many “great circles” can be drawn that pass through San Francisco and London? 1 circle 10. What organization is associated with the “incomes method” of describing development? World Bank 14. The term “Corn Belt” This is a vernacular region, or one that we perceive rather than something actually seen on a map; This region is in the Midwest and shows roughly where we believe corn is grown 16. The “political-affiliation (Cold War) method” of defining development is (roughly) credited to: Vladimir Lenon Unit 2 1. Of the four listed countries, Baluchis are found primarily in: Either Iran or Pakistan 2. The Iraqi “no-fly” zones established pursuant to UNSCR 688 (5 April 1991) were bounded on the north by latitude 36 N and on the south by latitude 33 N. How many miles wide was the remaining strip of land? 180 NM (nautical miles) 3. Kurdistan, if it were a country, would be composed of parts of (plus others): Iran, Iraq, Turkey 4. Turkey was formerly (ca.1900) part of: The Ottoman Empire 5. Alawites are politically significant in: Syria 10. One “stateless nation” would be: Palestine, Tibet, Kurdistan 12 The climate of the Mid-East is mostly denoted in the Köppen- Geiger system by the letter: B (arid) 13. A famous Wahhabi Muslim is/was: Osama Bin Laden 14. The only country on, or adjacent to, the Arabian Peninsula with a Shi’a majority is: Bahrain 15. Oil reserves in Iraq are primarily found: In Shi’a dominated southern Iraq (Basra and Baghdad) 16. The modern nation of Israel was created in: 1948 17. Muhammad’s first wife was: Kadijah 18. The core of Islam (which make one a Muslim) is: belief in Allah and the Five Pillars 19. Muslims trace their roots to: Abram (Abraham), Genesis 16 (1800 B.C.) 20. A Sunni Muslim would say the first legitimate Caliph was: Abu Bakar 22. The commemoration death of the would-be Caliph Husayn (Hussein) is: in the year 680 A.D. in the Battle of Karbala, martyrdom (Ashura) commemorated on 10 Muharram 24. Sunni Muslims comprise roughly what percentage of all Muslims in Iraq? (Pick closest.) 20% 25. The Arab population of Iraq is about what percentage of the total? 80% of the total population Unit 3 1 The climate of Chad is mostly denoted in the Köppen-Geiger system by the letter B (specifically BW = arid) 2. Oh, no! A dreaded conversion problem…again! XX C = _______ F o [Temp obscured to foil “calculation by Google.”] Formula: (F – 32) x 5/9 into Fahrenheit; (C x 9/5) + 32 into Celsius 3. The Berlin Conference of 1884-85 was called by: Called for by Portugal, and run by German chancellor Otto von Bismark, he called for the Western powers of the world to get together and divide up the territories in Africa 4. The physical geography of Africa describes a continent that is primarily: Steppe and Savannah 5. A major topographical depression in southern Africa is the: Kalahari and Saharan 6. Savanna and steppe regions are well-suited for: Herding of animals 7. Historical (ancient) East African kingdoms included: Ghana, Mali (Timbuktu), Songhi, Kush, Nubia, Axum, Kongo 8. In exchange for slaves, African kingdoms and local rulers primarily sought: Guns 9. In addition to the Atlantic slave trade, via ships, a large slave trade occurred: Across the Sahara to the Mediterranean Littoral 10. Colonial powers in Subsaharan Africa in 1930 did NOT include; U.S., Germany, China 11. African decolonization contributed to: The problem of borders – the European countries ended up splitting up tribes that were used to being together, problems with creating a government in the places with new borders – the person who was elected president would end up wanting to be ruler for life (they were used to that); collapsing infrastructure 12. One legacy of the post-colonial era in Subsaharan Africa was: Land tenure customs were disturbed (the way land was viewed by the Africans was changed), human activity was regulated (tribes didn’t need anything regulated because they had people of their kind around them. After the colonial era things needed to be regulated because they were in places with people who were not like them or had different ways of living. There was a lot of overgrazing, induced drought and desertification) 13. The Atlantic slave trade removed roughly how many Africans to the Western Hemisphere? 10 million 15. Decolonization (end of colonialism) in Africa (in the 1950s and 1960s) came about largely because of: Idealism Economics Cold War 16. A growing source of social friction in partially Muslim countries: Sharia Law 17. The East African slave trade was primarily conducted through: East Africa and the Americas (North, Middle and South) - Brazil was the largest destination of slaves 18. A major influence for change on African colonization was: The Berlin Conference (where the colonial powers divided up Africa) 19. The Sahara is partly located in: Chad, Niger, Sudan, Egypt, Libya, Eritrea, Algeria 20. An influence on decolonization was: World War II, and the Cold War, also Idealism and Economics 21. In which country, when a colony, did the mother-country parliament seize control from the king? Belgium/Congo Unit 4 A. Europe was affected by the Little Ice Age: There was increased famine, hypothermia, colder winters, etc. B. Europe’s heritage from the Romans included: Their infrastructure (roads, bridges, political organization, established culture, education system, etc.) - Roads: their roads kept the empire together and they used aqueducts to move water through their city - Education: they thought it was important that all of their people get educated in Latin (which was their general language of the nation) - Religion: their common religion was Christianity - Commerce: they made a lot of things with metal and decided that their people should make things that they are good at making, meaning the things they made were of high quality C. The “Inner Six”: Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and Netherlands (Founding members of the European Communities (EC)) D. The Berlin Wall: Located on the western sections of Berlin and was built in 1961; it began to get knocked down in 1989; it was established to keep East Germans and others to the West E. The European country (of those listed) with the greatest affinity for Russia is: Belarus F. Which of the following is NOT an Indo-European language? Turkish (Indo-European languages include: Baltic, Slavic, Albanian, Armenian and Indo-Iranian) G. Which country caused the Iron Curtain to (in effect) move? Yugoslavia H. John Locke is remembered for: The idea of natural rights; he explained how we know things I. By the Molotov – Ribbentrop Pact, the USSR and Germany: There was a pact called the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact that was made to say that both Germany and Russia (Soviet Union) would attack Poland. This was the beginning of WWII. This made Germany and Russia on the same side, but then the Nazis from Germany decided to attack Russia, which ended their alliance. Other Important Information How many points make a Great Circle? 3 points (1 in the center and two other points at the starting and finishing point) How does the Islamic bloodline start? Ibraham to Ishmael What happened in year 622? This is year one of Islam, this was the year of the flight to Medina (Hegira); Muslim calendar is lunar (based on moon) and is 354 days What is Schistosomiasis? Someone gets this by walking barefoot through standing water and then it settles in the kidney and liver Vector: Snails Host: people Reservoir: standing water typically created by blocking streams to irrigate crops How do the Sunni and Shi’a choose their kaliph? Sunni: on principles Shi’a: on bloodline What was the period of the Medieval Warm Period? 900-1300 What country was the first to decolonize? Ghana What country never colonized? Ethiopia What country was the last to decolonize? Ertitria When did most countries decolonize? 1960 Where did the Atlantic Slave Trade occur? From West Africa to the Americas What was not a legacy of colonialism? Stability What was not an issue of having the Euro created? Poor trade What were the three revolutions that made up Europe? Renaissance, Enlightenment and Protestant Reformation What centripetal force came first? NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) What are the five pillars of Islam? 1) Shahadah 2) Prayer 3) Month of fasting 4) Alms 5) Pilgrimage (Hajj) What are the three types of religious (spiritual diffusion)? Contagious, hierarchical and relocation diffusion What included the “inner six”? EEC (European Economic Community) What was the “outer seven”? EFTA (European Free Trade Association) Know information about 99 Beautiful names of Al’lah!
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