Bio 1107 Unit 4 Study Guide
Bio 1107 Unit 4 Study Guide BIOL 1107
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bridget Ochuko on Friday April 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1107 at University of Georgia taught by Armstrong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Behavioral Sciences at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Unit 4 Learning Objectives: DNA, Genes, and Cell Division DNA Structure and Replication Make a diagram of a DNA molecule that accurately depicts the relationship and polarity of each DNA strand in the molecule. Given information about one strand of DNA, predict the sequence and polarity of the other strand. Draw and label a diagram that illustrates a replication bubble and/or replication fork and which depicts the location and function of the following: o Double stranded DNA o Single stranded DNA o The polarity of each DNA strand o Helicase Enzyme o Single stranded binding proteins (SSBs) o Primase enzyme o DNA polymerase enzyme o Ligase enzyme Explain how replication of the “leading” and “lagging” DNA strands differ, why, and how the newly synthesized DNA strands differ for each. Predict how replication would be affected if one of the major enzymes was missing from the cell. DNA, PCR, and Forensics Describe the general process of gel electrophoresis. Explain to someone not familiar with DNA, what it means when one DNA sequence differs from another. Describe the steps and enzymes involved in replicating DNA in a cell. Describe how DNA gel electrophoresis works interpret results produced by this procedure. For the tasks performed by the five enzymes involved in DNA replication, describe how each task is performed during PCR. Explain how the end result (product) of DNA replication in a cell and through PCR differ and why this is the case. Determine the sequence of two DNA primers that can be used to amplify a given fragment of DNA by PCR. Describe what a Short Tandem Repeat (STR) is and how it useful in DNA fingerprinting. Evaluate DNA fingerprint data. Genetic Engineering Explain what is meant by the term “recombinant DNA.” Describe what a restriction enzyme does. Draw a diagram illustrating how DNA from two different sources could be recombined into a single molecule including the tools that would be used and how they function. Determine which restriction enzymes would enable you to successfully clone a specific fragment of DNA into a given plasmid. Describe the advantages and potential risks of genetic engineering and transgenic organisms Genes and the Central Dogma Draw a figure that illustrates the relationship between DNA, genes, chromosomes, and the genome. Describe what is meant by the term “gene.” Compare and contrast DNA and RNA. Describe how translation is different from transcription including where each process takes place and what is produced. Describe what a “codon table” is and what information it provides. Be able to describe to a non-expert the relationship between DNA, genes, chromosomes, and the genome. Describe the steps of transcription and how each of the following are involved. o Promoter o RNA polymerase o Terminator o Intron o Exon o Splicing Explain why genes are often much longer than the RNA made from them. Explain how the product of transcription is similar to and different from the products of DNA Replication and PCR. Explain how splicing of RNA allows a single gene to be used to make more than one type of protein. Describe the steps involved in translation and how each of the following participate. o Ribosome o The A, P, and E sites of a ribosome. o tRNA o mRNA o amino acid o start codon o stop codon o codon o anti-codon o 3’ and 5’ non-coding regions Use a codon table (do not memorize the table!) to predict the sequence of the protein produced from a given mRNA or double- stranded DNA fragment representing a gene. Regulating Gene Expression Explain the concept of genomic equivalence and the general principle of gene regulation. Explain how changes in gene expression enable cells to respond to changes in their environment. Predict whether a gene (such as trp or lac operons) would be actively transcribed if given a description of this gene's regulatory region and a description of conditions experienced by the cell containing that gene. For Genes and Mutations, just know the general idea of mutations and the impact they can have on the translation of a sequence.
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