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Exam 3 Study Guide

by: SC_Kara Beemer

Exam 3 Study Guide 1000

SC_Kara Beemer

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General Psychology
Dennis Miller
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by SC_Kara Beemer on Sunday December 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1000 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dennis Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 12/06/15
General Psychology 1000 - Miller Exam 3 Study Guide Chapters 10-15 Chapter 10: Emotion and Motivation  What is the Yerkes-Dodson law? o Physiological principle that dictates that performance on challenging tasks increases with arousal up to a moderate point, and after that, performance is impaired by any additional arousal o Low arousal, low performance o High arousal, low performance o Moderate arousal, high performance  Describe differences between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. o Sympathetic: prepares body for action  Breathe harder  Stronger heartbeat  GI tract slows o Parasympathetic: rest and digest  Breathe easier  Heartbeat relaxes  GI tract digests food  Explain Solomon’s Opponent Process Theory. o Views emotions as pairs of opposites o When one emotion is expressed, the other is suppressed o EX: pleasure-pain  Describe the James-Lange, Schachter-Singer and Cannon-Bard theories of emotion. What is misattribution of arousal? o James-Lange Theory: psychological arousal is interpreted to determine emotions o Schachter-Singer Theory: the event and the environment are interpreted to determine the emotion o Cannon-Bard Theory: emotion and physical reaction occur simultaneously o Misattribution of Arousal: when people misidentify the source of their arousal  Describe the somatic marker and affect-as-information theory of emotions. What is Darwin’s theory of facial expression? o Somatic marker: bodily reactions that arise from the emotional evaluation of an action’s consequences o Affect-as-information: people use current moods to make judgments and appraisals o Darwin’s theory of facial recognition states that people interpret facial expressions of emotion to predict other people’s behavior  Explain an incentive-salience, drive reduction and homeostasis theory of motivation. o Incentive-salience: external stimuli entice us toward certain actions o Drive reduction: We perform behaviors to satisfy a biological need o Homeostasis: regulation of the body to a balance around a single point General Psychology 1000 - Miller Exam 3 Study Guide Chapters 10-15  What is BMI and how is it calculated? What is BSI? What is a BMI for someone who is obese? o Body Mass Index o Height divided by Weight o BMI > 30 is obese  Describe how the cephalic, gastric and substrate phases influence feeding behavior. o Cephalic phase  Head factors  Social factors  Learning and conditioning  Chewing and tasting  Stress o Gastric phase  Vagus nerve recognizes if there is food in the stomach  Cholecystokinin (CCK) gets released when we’re full  Medulla detects CCK, acts as a stop signal o Substrate phase  Energy we get from food  Limpostatic hypothesis  OB gene produces leptin, which tells us to increase/decrease food intake  Why was the ob/ob mouse obese, relative to the wild-type mouse? How would levels of cholecystokinin (CCK) and leptin motivate us to start and stop eating? o It eats excessively o CCK gets released when the duodenum opens  How do dopamine, nitric oxide and oxytocin influence sexual behavior? o Dopamine: pleasure o Nitric oxide: promotes blood flow o Oxytocin: promotes feelings of love and attachment Chapter 11: Health and Well-Being  What is well-being and what is focus of health psychologists? o Well-being: a positive state that is sought by striving for optimal health and life satisfaction o Focus of health psychologists is to promote health and well-being  Describe the biopsychosocial model of health. o It illustrates how health and illness result from a combination of factors, such as psychological factors, social conditions, and biological characteristics  Describe the Holmes and Rahe scale/model of stress. According to Holmes and Rahe, what is responsible for stress? o Scoring by how drastic your life changes have been o Life changes General Psychology 1000 - Miller Exam 3 Study Guide Chapters 10-15  Describe Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome. What happens to our resistance to stress during Phases I, II and III? o General Adaptation Syndrome: a consistent pattern of responses to stress that consists of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion o Phase I: emergency reaction that prepares the body to fight or flee o Phase II: body prepares for longer, sustained defense from the stressor o Phase III: various physiological and immune systems fail  What is the effect of stress on the immune system, the hippocampus and learning/memory? o Stress lessens strength of lymphocytes o Lessens memory and learning  Describe the HPA axis. What is sequence for the release of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol through the HPA axis? o A stressful event will set off a complex chain of responses in the body o Stressful Event  various brain areas interpret  hypothalamus  CRH signal  pituitary  ACTH  adrenal glands  Cortisol  What are the symptoms of bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa and binge- eating disorder? How do these disorders differ? o Bulimia nervosa: alternate between dieting, binge eating, and purging o Anorexia nervosa: excessive fear of becoming fat and severely restrict what you eat o Binge-eating disorder: binge eating that causes significant distress  What are the differences between primary and secondary appraisals, according to Lazarus? o Primary appraisals: decide whether stimuli are stressful, benign, or irrelevant o Secondary appraisals: evaluate response options and choose coping behaviors  What are the differences between emotion and problem-focused coping strategies? o Emotion-focused coping: a person tries to prevent an emotional response to the stressor o Problem-focused coping: involves taking direct steps to solve the problem Chapter 12: Social Psychology  What is attribution? What are the differences between external (situational) and personal (internal) attributions? When are we more/less likely to make external and personal attributions for our own behavior and the behavior of others? o Attribution: peoples explanations for why events or actions occur o External (situational): explanations of people’s behavior that refer to external events, such as the weather, luck, accidents, or other people’s actions General Psychology 1000 - Miller Exam 3 Study Guide Chapters 10-15 o Personal (internal): explanations of people’s behavior that refer to their internal characteristics, such as abilities, traits, moods, or efforts  What is the actor/observer discrepancy? What is the fundamental attribution error? o Actor/Observer discrepancy: more likely to make internal attributions for other people and external attributions for our own o Fundamental attribution error: tendency to overemphasize personality traits and overestimate situational factors  What is a stereotype? Why do we rely on stereotypes and how are they maintained? o Stereotype: cognitive schema that allows for easy, fast processing of information about people based on their membership in certain groups o They allow us to deal with limitations in mental processing  What is the difference between an in-group and an out-group? o In-group: group that you associate with o Out-group: others  What are the differences between implicit and explicit attitudes? o Implicit: attitudes that influence a person’s feelings and behaviors at a conscious level o Explicit: attitudes that a person can report  What is the Implicit Association Test (IAT)? How is it used to evaluate attitudes regarding race/ethnicity/class? o Implicit Association Test: measures how quickly a person associates concepts or objects with positive or negative words o How people from one race/ethnicity/class instinctually feel about people from different ones  According to Zajonc, how does the presence of other people affect performance? o We perform better because we want to impress people  Describe Stanley Milgram's research on obedience. What was the emotional state of most of the participants in Milgram's study on obedience to authority at the end of the experiment? o He demonstrated that average people will obey even hideous orders given by an authority figure o Distraught  What were the results of Philip Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment? What did this experiment demonstrate? o “Prisoners” felt belittled and “guards” felt powerful and entitled o This demonstrated what people are willing to do when put in a situation with defined social roles  What is cognitive dissonance? o Cognitive Dissonance: an uncomfortable mental state resulting from a contradiction between two attitudes or between an attitude and a behavior  What is the outgroup homogeneity effect? Dehumanization? In-group favoritism? Social identity theory? General Psychology 1000 - Miller Exam 3 Study Guide Chapters 10-15 o Out-group Homogeneity Effect: view out-group members as all the same o Dehumanization: psychological process of demonizing the enemy, making them seem less than human and not worthy of humane treatment Chapter 13: Personality  What is personality? What is temperament? o Personality: a person’s characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors o Temperament: biologically based tendencies to feel or act in certain ways  Describe humanistic, cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, trait and type approaches to understand personality.  Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. What is self-actualization? Describe the thoughts and behaviors of someone who is self-actualized.  According to Sheldon’s constitutional psychology, what are the differences among ectomorphs, mesomorphs and endomorphs?  What are the “big five” personality traits? What might we observe in someone high/low on each of the five traits? o Openness to experience  High – imaginative and independent  Low – down-to-earth and conformist o Conscientiousness  High – organized  Low – careless o Extraversion  High – Fun-loving  Low – reserved o Agreeableness  High – trusting  Low – suspicious o Neuroticism  High – worried  Low – secure  Describe the influence of Freud on psychological science and popular culture. o He created a basis for personality and unconscious influence  What is catharsis? o Catharsis: Release of trauma and conflict in the unconscious  What is libido? o Libido: sexual energy focused on different parts of the body  What are the stages of psychosexual development, according to Freud? What is fixation and how might fixation at one stage influence behavior later in life? What is an Oedipus complex? o 1. Oral stage – 0 to 18 months – pleasure from stimulation of the mouth General Psychology 1000 - Miller Exam 3 Study Guide Chapters 10-15  May lead to excessive eating and drinking, smoking o 2. Anal stage – 18 months to 3 years – pleasure from sensations of bowel movements  May lead to being overly orderly or messy o 3. Phallic stage – 3 to 6 years – pleasure from “experimenting” with genitals o 4. Latency period – 6 years to puberty – sex drive is repressed o 5. Genital stage – post puberty – strong sexual interest with others o Fixation: attachments to people or things in general persisting from childhood into adult life o Oedipus Complex: boys desire an exclusive relationship with their mother and consider their father a rival  Describe the structure of personality—id, ego and superego o Id: the component of personality that is completely submerged in the unconscious and operates according to the pleasure principle  Devil on your shoulder  “Don’t worry about what’s right or wrong” o Ego: the component of personality that tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superego  Compromise  “Don’t steal her food, ask for it” o Superego: the internalization of societal and parental standards of conduct  Angel on your shoulder  “Do what’s right”  Describe the different defense mechanisms and give an example of each. o Denial: refusing to acknowledge source of anxiety  EX: sick person doesn’t go to the doctor o Repression: excluding source of anxiety from awareness  EX: person fails to remember a traumatic event o Projection: attributing unacceptable qualities of the self to someone else  EX: competitive person describes others as super competitive o Reaction formation: warding off an uncomfortable thought by overemphasizing its opposite  EX: a closeted gay person makes homophobic remarks o Rationalization: concocting a seemingly logical reason or excuse for behavior that might otherwise be shameful  EX: person cheats on a test because “everyone does it” o Displacement: shifting the attention of emotion from one object to another  EX: person yells at their kids after a bad day at work o Sublimation: channeling socially unacceptable impulses into constructive behavior  EX: sadist becomes a surgeon  What are the differences between idiographic and nomothetic perspectives on personality? General Psychology 1000 - Miller Exam 3 Study Guide Chapters 10-15 o Idiographic: person-centered, focus on individual lives and how various characteristics are integrated into unique persons o Nomothetic: focus on characteristics that are common among all people but that vary from person to person  What is self-concept? Working self-concept? Self-schema? Self-esteem? What does research indicate on the relationship between self-esteem and life outcomes? o Self-concept: everything you know and believe about yourself o Working self-concept: limited to the amount of personal information that can be processed cognitively at any given time o Self-Schema: consists of an integrated set of memories, beliefs, and generalizations about the self o Self-Esteem: the evaluative aspect of the self-concept in which people feel worthy or unworthy  Self-esteem and life outcomes are loosely correlated Chapters 14 & 15: Psychological Disorders  What are dissociative disorders? Describe the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder and dissociative fugue. o Dissociative disorders: disorders that involve disruptions of identity, or memory, or of conscious awareness o Dissociative Identity Disorder: the occurrence of two or more distinct identities in the same individual o Dissociative fugue: involves a loss of identity and travel to another location and sometimes the assumption of a new identity  What are the differences between structured and unstructured assessment interviews? o Structured Assessment Interviews: standardized questions derived from DSM criteria o Unstructured Assessment Interviews: based on a clinician’s subjective beliefs and training rather than on scientific studies  What is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and what might we find on each of the five axes on the DSM? o Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: manual that groups psychological disorders based on similar etiologies and symptoms o AXIS 1 – clinical disorders o AXIS 2 – mental retardation & personality o AXIS 3 – general medical conditions that could relate to mental disorders o AXIS 4 – psychosocial & environmental triggers o AXIS 5 – 1-100 scale  Describe the work performed by clinical psychologists, counseling psychologists, analysts, psychiatrists and social workers. o Clinical Psychologists: typically have a doctoral degree and work in academic or hospital settings General Psychology 1000 - Miller Exam 3 Study Guide Chapters 10-15 o Counseling Psychologists: often have a PhD and work in schools o Psychiatrists: have a medical degree and work in hospitals or have a private practice o Social workers: have a master’s degree and work in psychiatric hospitals or make house calls  What is cognitive therapy? What is rational-emotive therapy? What is behavioral therapy? What is cognitive-behavioral therapy? o Cognitive Therapy: treatment based on the idea that distorted thoughts produce maladaptive behaviors and emotions; treatment strategies attempt to modify these thought patterns o Rational-Emotive Therapy: therapist acts as a teacher, explaining the client’s errors in thinking and demonstrating more adaptive ways to think and behave o Behavioral Therapy: treatment based on the premise that behavior is learned and therefore can be unlearned through the use of classical and operant conditioning o Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: a therapy that incorporated techniques from cognitive therapy and behavior therapy to correct faulty thinking and change maladaptive behaviors  What is the main goal of humanistic or person/client-centered therapy? What is unconditional positive regard? o The main goal of humanistic therapy is to encourage people to fulfill their individual potentials for personal growth through greater self- understanding o Unconditional Positive Regard: people should be accepted and prized no matter their behavior  What is the diathesis-stress view of psychological disorders? What is diathesis? o Diathesis-stress view of psychological disorders: a diagnostic model that proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating event o Diathesis: underlying vulnerability  Describe the symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Specific Phobias and Obsessive-Compulsives disorder. In OCD, what are the differences between obsessions and compulsions? o Generalized Anxiety Disorder: diffuse state of constant anxiety not associated with any specific object or event o Panic Disorder: consists of sudden, overwhelming attacks of terror and worry about having additional panic attacks o Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: a disorder that involves frequent nightmares, intrusive thoughts, and flashbacks related to an earlier trauma o Specific Phobias: an exaggerated and out of proportion fear of a specific object or situation General Psychology 1000 - Miller Exam 3 Study Guide Chapters 10-15 o Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: a disorder characterized by frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive actions  Obsessions: recurrent, intrusive, and unwanted thoughts, ideas, or mental images  Compulsions: particular acts that the OCD patient feels driven to perform over and over  What are the symptoms of major depression? Describe a cognitive view of depression. What is a learned helplessness view of depression? o Depression symptoms (5+)  Depressed mood  Loss of interest  Significant weight change  Insomnia or hypersomnia  Psychomotor agitation or retardation  Fatigue or loss of energy  Feelings of worthlessness of guilt  Diminished ability to concentrate  Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide o Cognitive view of depression – people with depression thing negatively about themselves o Learned helplessness – people come to see themselves as unable to have any effect on events in their lives  What is the monoamine hypothesis of depression? What is a monoamine? According to this hypothesis, how might an antidepressant decrease the symptoms of depression? o Monoamine Hypothesis: depression is due to decreased dopamine, norepinephrine and/or serotonin neurotransmitter levels in the brain o Monoamine: neurotransmitters that regulate emotion and arousal and motivate behavior o Antidepressants increase amounts of monoamines  What are the differences between positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia? o Positive symptoms – delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior o Negative symptoms – apathy, lack of emotion, and slowed speech and movement  What are the symptoms of autism spectrum disorders? What are the biological causes of ASD? o Symptoms – unaware of others, do not make eye contact, deficits in communication, restricted activities and interests, focus on seemingly inconsequential details, become agitated after any changes in daily routine, throw tantrums, repetitive and obsessive o Causes – hereditability, gene mutations, antibody exposure in the womb, abnormal brain growth  What are the symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder? o Restlessness, inattentiveness, and impulsivity General Psychology 1000 - Miller Exam 3 Study Guide Chapters 10-15


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