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Exam 3 Notes and Practice Questions

by: Kate Steiner

Exam 3 Notes and Practice Questions 211

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Kate Steiner
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All notes for Exam 3 from 3/22-3/31, and practice questions
Intro to Advertising
Dr. Joseph Phelps
Study Guide
APR, 221, Phelps
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kate Steiner on Friday April 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 211 at a university taught by Dr. Joseph Phelps in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 209 views.


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Date Created: 04/01/16
3/22/16 Budget  What is a personal/household budget?  In general, what does it include?  What is an advertising budget? What does it include?  Revenue(where does it  come from)?  Advertising Budgets  Follow the money…Budgets show priorities  Should include specific items to be funded and amount of funding  Should include a schedule of spending  Should include a rationale/explanation for spending decisions. (Whose money is it again that you want to spend?) Budgeting Methods  BAD Methods o Arbitrary—basically no method at all o All­You­Can Afford—Phelps says “if you’re spending too little, you’re  spending too much” because there will rarely ever be a low budget ad, so  you’re just throwing money away o Competitive Spending  Highly used methods (but still aren’t the best according to Dr. Phelps) o Percent of Sales—deciding how much to spend based on the percentage of sales o Unit of Sales—same as percent of sales, the one distinction is that for  every unit you sell, a certain amount of money gets set aside   Good Methods (According to Dr. Phelps) o Objective and Task Method  Set advertising objectives  Develop Strategy to accomplish objectives  Identify Tasks and Tactics *You estimate the costs in this stage*  Estimate the costs o Empirical Methods (For example, the Field Market Experiment)  Field Market Experiment o The basic idea behind an experiment is to see if changing or manipulating  one variable will lead to a change in another variable o Independent variable(s) this is the variable that you will manipulate. For  example, you might increase or decrease how much you spend on  advertising o Dependent variable(s): This is the variable that you hope to impact by  your manipulation of the independent variable. o For example, if you increase ad spending (independent variable) will that  lead to an increase in brand sales (dependent variable)  Increase ad spending in Huntsville by 50%  Increase ad spending in Birmingham by 100%  Decrease ad spending in Mobile by 50% 3/24/16 Campaign Planning Framework: Environmental Consideration: Social, Cultural, Economic, Regulatory General Marketing Considerations: Marketing Mix Strategic Research Inputs Objective Setting: Target Market, Buyer Behavior Determining the Advertising Budget  Strategy, then tactics  Message Strategy—determining WHAT you want to communicate. What is the  big idea you will communicate  Message tactics—carry out that strategy so tactics include the details of how you  will communicate the idea. (How will you say it and show it in your ads to  communicate the idea?)  The development of message strategy is about determining:  o What is it about the brand? o Whose mind? o What response do we want? o What competitive frame?  Sources of Competitive Information: o Kantar Media o TNS Global o Brainjuicer o Anderson Analytics  Differential Copy Advantage—A characteristic or set of characteristics, either real or perceived that will allow advertising to differentiate the product from the  competition.  Differential Copy Advantage o Physical Difference—The actual composition of the product or service,  such as ingredients, styles or features o Functional Difference—Tangible benefits the consumer receives from the  consumption use of the product o Characterization Differences—The psychological consequences/benefits  of using the product, such as how it makes the consumer feel.  Example of a Creative Work Plan o Client: Joe’s Pharmaceuticals—Planning Period: Spring 2016 o Product/Service: Joe’s Cold and Flue Remedy—Date: 3/24/16 1. Key Fact (The one most important fact upon which the creative will be based.)  Research indicates a strong consumer interest in over­the­ counter remedies that relieve cold and flu symptoms fast.  Everything  relates back to this. 2. Consumer Problem the Product Solves (the problem the consumer is  having that the product or service can solve and advertising can  address). Joe’s Cold and Flu medicine relieves cold and flu symptoms  fast and cold symptoms fast and consumers can buy it anywhere  without a prescription. 3. Communication Objectives (what the advertising needs to  do/communicate and the response desired from the consumer.  Introduce Joe’s Cold and Flu Remedy  Convince consumers that Joe’s reduces fever and relieves Flu  symptoms just as fast as prescription medications. 4. Creative Strategy Development a. Target Group Definition  Demographics: Adults age 18­75, HH income $20K+  Psychographics: Active lifestyle, desire immediate  gratification b. Principle Competition  Tylenol Cold & Flu  Nyquil Cold & Flu  Advil Cold & Flu c. Consumer Benefit (What the product promises to do for the  consumer.)  Joe’s will relieve your fever and other symptoms  faster than any other over­the­counter medication d. Reason Why (The facts that support/justify the above promises  allowing advertising to make the product’s claim)  Scientifically tested formula proven to reduce fever  fast  Tests also show product relieves other cold and flu  symptoms e. Tone of Advertising (the personality of the advertising  message)  Calm, yet energetic, intelligent and straightforward 5. Requirements (Whatever the advertiser or the Law requires to be  included in the ad.) *Questions to answer for setting the appropriate tone:   Rational  Transformational  Informational  Emotional  Competition  Soft Sell  Hard Sell 3/29/16 Transformational Advertising   Advertising that connects the emotions felt while watching the ad with the brand  so that the consumer experiences the same emotions when the product is used. An Ad must: 1. Gain attention 2. Create interest 3. Establish credibility 4. Create and/or Increase Desire 5. Call for action Key elements in Print Advertising  Visuals  Headline  Subhead  Body Copy Types of Headlines  Benefit headlines  Provocative headlines  News/information headlines  Question headline  Command headline Major Functions of Headlines  Attract Attention  Select the reader  Lead the reader into Body copy  Can present the Selling idea Key elements in Print Advertising  Visuals— Function of Visual o Capture the readers attention o Help communicate the big idea o Pull the reader into the headline and text o Help to make the ad believable   Headline—Types of headlines o Benefit Headline: telling consumers what they are promising you o Provocative headline: provoke thoughts o News/Information headline: asks question to pull you in o Command headline: grabs attention with a command o Major Function of headlines:   attract attention   select the reader  lead the reader into body copy  can present the selling idea  Subhead o Secondary headline that typically serves at least one of the following  purposes:  Communicate a key sales point  Reinforce the headline Basic elements in the construction of Body copy 1. Lead­in paragraph: serves as a bridge or transition 2. Interior Paragraphs: providing the info; building desire 3. Trial Close: call to Action the 1  time) 4. Close Common Pitfalls in Writing Copy 1. Obfuscation (to make confusing), make sure to write appropriately for particular  audience 2. Filibustering, make sure to communicate the point and then stop 3. Cliché/Triteness, make sure to give a cliché twist or be original 4. ME­ME­ME, make sure to not talk about the person creating the ad Typography: the art of selecting and setting type  When selecting type, you must consider: o Readability o Appropriateness o Harmony/Appearance o Emphasis  5 major font groups  o Roman, Sans Serif, Square Serif, Script, Ornamental  Measuring Type o Points: measure the height of the type o Picas: measure the width of the type o Leading: the space between the lines of type Functions of the visuals  Capture the reader’s attention  Help to communicate the big idea  Pull reader into the headline and text  Help make the ad believable ________________________________________________________________________ ______________ 3/31/16 Pulling it all together  Developing a layout that works Layouts serve 2 functions  Mechanical function  Symbolic function Qualities of a Unified layout  Balance­ Formal vs. Informal Balance o Formal: Stable to the eye; symmetrical o Informal: asymmetrical; still balanced  Eye movement o Balance o Gaze Motion o Pointing Devices o Size o Gutters of White Space  Proportion  Contrast  White Space  Clarity and Simplicity Video Tactics Ways that Visuals Can Communicate the message  Narration  Demonstration  Symbolism Effective TV Commercials 1. TV is a visual medium. Let the pictures tell the story 2. Look for that one frame­the KEY VISUAL­that sums up the intended message 3. Grab the viewer’s attention in the first few seconds. Attention to TV commercials  does not build 4. Never make the viewer do a lot of mental work. The message must be  uncomplicated and single­minded 5. Have a “moment of affirmation”­show that the product has a payoff 6. Every word must work. Be specific and avoid talky scripts. Production— Process   Preproduction o Selecting of a director o Choosing a production company o Bidding o Cost estimation and timing  Set construction  Location  Agency and client approvals  Casting  Preproduction meeting  Production  Location versus set shoots  Night/weekend shoots  Postproduction  Editing  Processing  Audio/Video mixing  Client approval  Release/shipping  Rough cut: the ad has been edited so that the scenes flow smoothly but the sound  effects, narration, etc. is not included yet, all the visuals; no sound  Answer Print: the final commercial that will be shown to the advertiser for her/his approval Exam 3 Review  Worth 100 points  Material covered includes, budgeting, message strategy, message tactics, and a  little tiny bit of production  ***Creative Work Plan*** Practice Questions 1. Name the three BAD budgeting methods: 2. What are the 4 steps in the “Objective Method?” (Best method according to Dr.  Phelps) 3. Describe the main components of the “Field Market Experiment:” 4. Describe the difference between an independent and a dependent variable, give an example: 5. Give a few examples of sources of competitive information: 6. What is “Transformational Advertising?” 7. What is “obfuscation?” 8. What is “filibustering?”  9. Describe the “ME­ME­ME” Pitfall in copy 10. What are the five major font groups used in topography? 11. What happens in the “postproduction” portion of the production process? 12. What is a “rough cut?” 13. What is an “answer print?” Answer Key 1.  o  Arbitrary—basically no method at all o All­You­Can Afford—Phelps says “if you’re spending too little, you’re  spending too much” because there will rarely ever be a low budget ad, so  you’re just throwing money away o Competitive Spending 2.  Set advertising objectives  Develop Strategy to accomplish objectives  Identify Tasks and Tactics *You estimate the costs in this stage*  Estimate the costs 3. o The basic idea behind an experiment is to see if changing or manipulating  one variable will lead to a change in another variable.  Includes an  independent variable and a dependent variable. For example, if you  increase ad spending (independent variable), will that lead to an increase  in brand sales (dependent variable)?  4. o Independent variable(s): this is the variable that you will manipulate. For  example, you might increase or decrease how much you spend on  advertising o Dependent variable(s): This is the variable that you hope to impact by  your manipulation of the independent variable. 5. o Kantar Media o TNS Global o Brainjuicer o Anderson Analytics 6. Advertising that connects the emotions felt while watching the ad with the brand so  that the consumer experiences the same emotions when the product is used. 7. Obfuscation—to make confusing 8. Filibustering—to over explain for too long 9. ME­ME­ME, make sure to not talk about the person creating the ad 10. 5 Major fonts: Roman, Sans Serif, Square Serif, Script, Ornamental 11. Postproduction:  Editing  Processing  Audio/Video mixing  Client approval  Release/shipping 12. Rough cut: the ad has been edited so that the scenes flow smoothly but the sound  effects, narration, etc. is not included yet, all the visuals; no sound 13. Answer Print: the final commercial that will be shown to the advertiser for her/his  approval


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