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Anthro Midterm II

by: Lauran Notetaker

Anthro Midterm II ANTH 3853 001

Lauran Notetaker

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Midterm II
Music, Language, and Culture
Dr. SeanO'Neill
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauran Notetaker on Friday April 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 3853 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. SeanO'Neill in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Music, Language, and Culture in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oklahoma.

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Date Created: 04/01/16
Study Guide Midterm II February 22, 2016 First Midterm February 24, 2016 Theoretical Foundations Music as discourse Ex. Peter and the Wolf, Prokofiev representational music playing instruments and same notes and being able to tell them apart timbre (tombre) or tome
 Choral sound to church and organ
 slides Hawaiian tried to make different sound, now used around the world Discourse
 Interpretation of Symbolic action dialogue
 gesture/facial expression narrative
 visual symbols contextual cues ideological background Gestures with different meanings overseas -  Left hand (dirty!) 
 -  Two fingers (“the bird”) 
 -  Sole of Shoe (unclean) 
 -  finger crossing over (vulgar) 
 Background system of ideas 
 Template for interpretation (often unstated) 
 Ex. War of Worlds
 Orson Welles Hearing, 1938 
 Types of Composition 
 Staging of Roles (Duet...Dual...Poetry reading) 
 jokes, novel, poem conversation sermon shopping list text message Ex. Lord of the Rings meets Metal Guitar prose/poetry song Music ballad instrumental jam session opera
 blues Cultural Ontologies ways of being Web of relationships
 Ex. Repatriating Hopi Songs - Trevor Reed Songs come from sky, corn Ex. “Eat it” - Weird Al parody of 1980s Rock Video “Footing” and “Uptake” Sender’s stance (Joke???) Receiver’s Interpretation (Sarcasm!) stance changing routine in English Sender’s stance (Serious music!) Receiver’s Interpretation (Terrible Parody!) (Full of cliches)
 Ex. “Friday” Rebecca Black Pretextual gap
 (difference in understanding) The “Chronotope” (Bakhtin)
 Construction of (imagery) space and time in the flow of narrative The Road Novel (Space is Time) Ex. “Road Trip” Genre
 Founding Fathers (Cars? Modern guns?) Elvis as an Icon of 1950’s America Jailhouse Rock as Iconic 50s Musical Genre suggests an Era Youth Rebellion Greaser Look Early Rock Voice
 The ability to be heard Function of power and persona February 29, 2016 Watched video “The language you cry in” about slavery stripped of identity, culture, and memory “memory is power” Amelia Dawley
 Africanisms in the Gullah Dialect 1750 - 1800 Bendu “Tenjami” white - symbolizes death March 2, 2016 The Language of Music
 how musical experience is shaped by verbal discourse Ex. Dick Dale, Surf Rock Lebanese background Angel Gabriel to Mohammed BB King - Gospel was where he wanted to be The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (AKA Principle of Linguistic Activity)
 Influence of Language on thought and perception
 “Political language is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable” - George Orwell Argot: Specialized Vocabulary The language of Jazz Jazz Lingo
 bird-brain - Charlie Parker heat - solo spot clam - mistake Charlie Parker - “Anthropology” hip - acceptable cat - person (male) drag - depressing
 bad - good
 beat - exhausted
 cool - acceptable
 funky - sexual and good gone - very good scat singing - vocables burnin - solo
 hipster - follower of bebop schmaltz - yiddish glossolalia - of divine origin, speaking in tongues Lifestyle
 Jam session Bread - money
 Roofer - pot
 horn - any instrument axe - any instrument junk - heroine
 take five - break
 licorice stick - clarinet popsickle stick - sax reed blues harp - harmonica Benny Goodman, Sonny Boy Williams
 slide guitar - bottleneck, “steel guitar” in country Son House, “Death Letter” baby - partner
 house: crib or pad
 blind - railroad car
 crossroads - between heaven and hell Rock slang (derived from jazz)
 chill hip mellow cool “on fire” Ex. “Rock me” Mance Liscomb
 A guitar can “sing or sweep” (personification) George Harrison
 Notes are bent, pushed into position with the finger or tongue Rock Parody: Spinal Tap (“Mockumentary”) Heavy Metal: Figures of Speech “Metal” - Iconic for toughness, not easily broken or changed Iron Maiden Led Zeppelin Country Slang
 Twangy (Dobro/Fiddle) Down - Home Double stop March 7, 2016 Papers - look up books
 based on music first hand experience sounds, what is behind it Notes on syllabus The language of music -lect
 accrolect - high language staccato - from italian, renaissance Country Slang Descriptors “y’all” “you guys” “dipthong” in linguistics “twang” “fixin to” Twangy
 Down - Home
 Double-Stop - 2 notes at the same time Instruments
 Fiddle (NOT violin) Steel Guitar or Dobro(not slide or bottleneck) Ex. Jerry Douglass - Dobro (“Twangy”) slides into chords
 Ex. Byron Berline: Fiddler Extraordinaire (and master of the “double stop”) Down-Home “Country” “My girl” (not baby) Mountain Dew: “moonshine” Life-Style Shindig
 Honky-tonk - dance joint, bar Western Classical Terminology Scales Lettering System (a-g)
 Intervals: First, Second, Third, etc. Terms and Semitones (Microtones) Octave: “Eighth Note” “Quality of Note” Tremolo (volume) Vibrato (pitch) Volume
 Crescendo (rising) Descrescendo (falling) Ex. Bo diddley, Tremolo (and Polyrhythm) Quality of Note - Tremolo (volume) Ex. Buddy Guy “First Time I Met the Blues”
 Blending of Notes (Staccato - detached), (Legato - blurred) Pace
 grave (20-40) adagio (55-65) moderato (86-97) allegro (110-130) presto (168-177) Change of pace ritardando accelerando Ex. “Fire on the Mountain,” Monroe and Tex Logan Pace presto (168-177) Ex. Manitas De Plata, Flamenco Guitar
 change of pace ritardando, accelerando Roma - Gypsy (Egypt) really India Synthesia: Mixing the Senses (Sound ~ Sight = “Loud Tie”) Taste (Gustatory)
 “Sour” Note (unpleasant taste) “Sweet” Composition
 “Bland” Music
 “Salty?” Attitude
 Touch (Tactile)
 Sharp sound (painful tactile sensation) Flat sound
 Soft Tone
 “Hard rock”
 Hot Solo
 Cool Music Visual Field
 “High” and “Low” Notes Flat Note - position
 the blues - color
 light solo - saturation dark tone - saturation smell (olfactory) that music stinks smoking solo (sight) March 9, 2016 Paper Topics
 Structural Parallels Cultural Foundations Evolution come by office with ideas Evolution of Music from Church to different types One Song or One Country Compare and Contrast Roots of Country Music? Discourse Analysis Ideology Technology Media Tourism Politics Globalization Syncretism Ex. Language Matters with Bob Holman
 “learning more than 1 language helps teach respect for others” March 14 - 18, 2016 Spring Break March 21, 2016 The Musical Pole of Speech
 Poetics, Ethno-poetics, and songwriting Figure out paper topic
 lyric - poem you put to music poems were epic while instruments were simple (12000 - 14000 lines) West African - Griots (turned into banjo) Celtic Bards - Ireland storytelling music King David, writer of psalms Lyrical Origins
 Lyre - like a harp melodic poems
 The psalms (“praises”) King David Ancient Israel C. 1000 B.C. writes 73 (Roughly 1/2) Hymns Laments The “Singer of Tales” as pan-human archetype - Celtic Bards - West African Griots
 - Tribal Leaders the world over - Contemporary Songwriter The “Unquiet Grave”:Love-Death in couplets couplet-pairing of two ideas Beowulf (old English) 8-11th Century “I might could do it” Scandish English
 The Griot tradition of West Africa Kora
 The Singer of Tales Lord 1960
 Bowed Instruments: Gusle
 Rebab - like a banjo Serbo - Croatian Bards The Nature of Poetic Language Parallelisms - R Jakobson (Linguist) Sounds and Images - juxtaposed Parallelism
 Psalm 27:1 A1) The LORD is my light and my salvation; B2) whom shall I fear? A2) The LORD is the stronghold of my life; B2) of whom shall I be afraid? Rhyme (Parallel Sound Sequences) Alliteration (Initial Sound) When I do count on the clock Ex. Mrs. Robinson, “Simon and Garfinkel” Assonance (Vowels Alone) Free as a breeze High as a kite Mad as a hatter Ex. “Light my Fire”
 End - Rhyme (Final Consonant) The curfew tolls the knell of parting day Verses (paired images delivered in meter) Couplets (A-B) - Precise pairing “American Verse” (A-A-B) Lyrical Analysis Ex. “Cold, Cold Heart” - Hank Williams (A-A-B): Blues, Gospel, Country, Rock call and response Rhythmic Structure
 Time Signatures in Music (4/4, 5/4, 3/4, 6/8, etc.) Meter in Verse (Rhyming Schemes) Ex. Take Five (Brubeck) 5/4 signature
 Boom, boom, boom - John Lee Hooker   March 23, 2016 Moved Exam 1 to Monday Crwth - welsh, sounds like a bagpipe
 Symphonium - one instrument pounds like whole symphony Mythic Ground Homeric Epic Gods and Goddesses of the Ancient Greeks Ex. California - Coyote O Brother Where Art Thou - Oddesey in Modern Terms Utopia in Music
 Nirvana Principle - to get away from suffering Ex. “True Love” in American Music;
 (Norah Jones “Cold, Cold Heart” Hank Williams) Liminality
 Norah Jones - World Music Nationalism throughout the World Stress Patterns
 Iamb - Unstressed Syllable and Stressed so long/ as men/
 can breath/ or eyes/ can see Trochee: Stressed syllable and Unstressed Tiger, Tiger, burning bright in the forests of the night
 Ex. Who Will Call You Sweetheart - The Stanley Brothers “I don’t believe you met my baby” - Alison Krauss 1. Sad and Lonely 2. Longing
 3. Meeting and Jealously 4. Intrigue
 5. Anxiety
 7. Resolution into Marriage Louvin Brothers before Alison Krauss
 The Wind That Shakes The Barley (Robert Dwyer Joyce 1836-1883) True Love I sat within a valley green I sat me with my true love My sad heart strove to choose between The old love and the new love That’s Alright Mama - Elvis Personification - “Mr. Blues” chases, walks, hunts, Nationalism The old for her, the new that made Me think on Ireland dearly While soft the wind blew down the glade And shoo the golden barley murders, torments, listens to pleas   March 28, 2016 Ideology: Guiding System of Ideas
 Hebrew or Navajo as Sacred Tongues
 Country Music as “White” - American ethnic music Acrolet - prestige language, (English) superior Iconization
 Associating Imagery with no sound.. Social groups with features of language or music Invoking a “Way of Life” Ex. Clicks become iconic in South Africa Kholsan people Ex. “Surfer Worldview”
 Surfer talk and inflections Ex. “Valley Girl” (Moonunit Zappa) noncool suburb; San Fernando Valley “False Consciousness” (Karl Marx) Ideology exists in contrast to reality...
 Distorting the perception of the true nature of things Dupe them will false conscious Carrot on a stick for horse or donkey pulling wool over your eyes
 Ex. Working Class Hero - John Lennon Power by Consent (=Hegemony) Gramsci Top-down spread of ideologies Standard languages (media, schools) Corporate Music Acceptance of place in hierarchy False Consciousness (Masked Oppression)
 Ranking of languages musical genres
 Association with race, class, or gender hierarchies Claims of inferiority or superiority Ex. American English (Inferior?) Ex. acrolet basilect Noodling: Stigmatized Accents hollywood actors bottom of things surfer 14 yo boys     Counter-Hegemonic Movements Confronting of false ideologies Challenging false hierarchy Ex. Sinéad O’Connor, ripping up Pope picture Heteroglossia: Clashing Ideologies Internal diversity within all... Speech communities and musical traditions Reflection in all “texts” Multiple voices Clashing Ideology
 Ex. “The Farmer and Cowman” (Oklahoma) erasure of indians and African Americans naturalized - seen as real, incontestable Language Ideologies Purism “Heteroglossophobia” March 30, 2016 Language Ideologies
 Purism - boundary around language and nothing can come through it “Xenoglossophobia” Syncretism Spanglish “Navlish” Yiddish Sacred Languages
 God - the name that cannot be spoken, try to preserve the name “Not to say the lords name in vain” Secular Languages Music Ideologies
 Nationalistic overtones Gender
 Apache rule among siblings, no profanities among brother and sister Prince
 Willie Nelson - Cherokee heritage
 Lady Gaga - You and I Exoticism
 Beetles with harkav, (Indian music) Nativism Ethnicity Identity
 1=1 algebra 2=2 algebra
 sense of same ness that can be socially constructed
 kind of imaginary, just cause you check male of female doesn’t mean you know a lot about the person Essential vs. Constructivism Inherited Differences Primordial past. Generic or racial difference Holocaust Jews Disabled Gay Uniform within community? versus Creative Differences
 Basis in culture, experience, choice Social difference Diversity within cultures “Here” “Now” Feeling to evoke - hey! sit - How are you? Einstein and Beethoven building on this Speaking was Creative Traditions what we’re all a part of Jakobson’s Functions of communication (during interaction) Context Environment -     Sender   Message Receiver  down! Contact Code Focus on relationship Talk about talk  Message - Focus on form (parallelisms) The Identity Function
 A sense of sameness (even imaginary) = Identity Ex. “The Navajo” A sense of difference (also imaginary) =Alterity Indexicality
 Contextual ‘Pointing’ Rooted in social imagination Ex. Smoke to Fire Physical or Casual Relationship Ex. Footprints to Presence
 Ex. Dialect to Social Background Language
 Speaker’s accent references social past. Southern Accent Valley Girl Surfer Talk Homology? Music
 Style references performer’s identity. Gospel
 Griot/Bard (~Royal)


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