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OU / Sociology / ANTH 3853 / What is the theoretical foundation's music as discourse?

What is the theoretical foundation's music as discourse?

What is the theoretical foundation's music as discourse?


Study Guide Midterm II

What is the theoretical foundation's music as discourse?

February 22, 2016  

First Midterm  

February 24, 2016  

Theoretical Foundations Music as discourse  

Ex. Peter and the Wolf, Prokofiev representational music  

playing instruments and same notes and being able to tell them apart timbre (tombre) or tome Choral sound to church and organ

slides Hawaiian tried to make different sound, now used around the world  


Interpretation of Symbolic action  


gesture/facial expression narrative

visual symbols contextual cues ideological background  

Gestures with different meanings overseas  

- Left hand (dirty!)  

- Two fingers (“the bird”)  

What is peter and the wolf, prokofiev representational music?

If you want to learn more check out What does it mean to say that atoms are not created or destroyed in a chemical reaction?

- Sole of Shoe (unclean)  

- finger crossing over (vulgar)  


Background system of ideas  

Template for interpretation (often unstated)  

Ex. War of Worlds

Orson Welles Hearing, 1938  


Types of Composition  

Style If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of malingering in psychology?



Staging of Roles (Duet...Dual...Poetry reading)  


jokes, novel, poem

conversation sermon shopping list text message  

Ex. Lord of the Rings meets Metal Guitar  


song Music  

ballad instrumental jam session opera

What are the gestures with different meanings overseas?

blues  Don't forget about the age old question of What activity did norman triplett ask children to perform in his first laboratory study of social facilitation?

Cultural Ontologies ways of being  

Web of relationships

Ex. Repatriating Hopi Songs - Trevor Reed  

Songs come from sky, corn Ex. “Eat it” - Weird Al  

parody of 1980s Rock Video “Footing” and “Uptake”  

Sender’s stance (Joke???)  

Receiver’s Interpretation (Sarcasm!)  

stance changing routine in English Sender’s stance  Don't forget about the age old question of What provides new genetic combinations?
If you want to learn more check out Where does fermentation produce?

(Serious music!) Receiver’s Interpretation (Terrible Parody!)  

(Full of cliches)

Ex. “Friday” Rebecca Black  

Pretextual gap

(difference in understanding)  

The “Chronotope” (Bakhtin)

Construction of (imagery) space and time in the flow of narrative The Road Novel (Space is  Time)  If you want to learn more check out What is cs and ucs in psychology?

Ex. “Road Trip” Genre

Founding Fathers (Cars? Modern guns?)  

Elvis as an Icon of 1950’s America Jailhouse Rock as Iconic 50s  

Musical Genre suggests an Era Youth Rebellion  

Greaser Look Early Rock  


The ability to be heard  

Function of power and persona

February 29, 2016  

Watched video “The language you cry in” about slavery  

stripped of identity, culture, and memory “memory is power”  

Amelia Dawley

Africanisms in the Gullah Dialect  

1750 - 1800 Bendu  


white - symbolizes death  

March 2, 2016  

The Language of Music

how musical experience is shaped by verbal discourse Ex. Dick Dale, Surf Rock  Lebanese background Angel Gabriel to Mohammed  

BB King - Gospel was where he wanted to be The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis  

(AKA Principle of Linguistic Activity)

Influence of Language on thought and perception

“Political language is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable”  - George Orwell  

Argot: Specialized Vocabulary The language of Jazz  

Jazz Lingo

bird-brain - Charlie Parker  

heat - solo spot clam - mistake  

Charlie Parker - “Anthropology” hip - acceptable  

cat - person (male) drag - depressing

bad - good

beat - exhausted

cool - acceptable

funky - sexual and good gone - very good  

scat singing - vocables burnin - solo

hipster - follower of bebop schmaltz - yiddish  

glossolalia - of divine origin, speaking in tongues


Jam session  

Bread - money

Roofer - pot

horn - any instrument axe - any instrument junk - heroine

take five - break

licorice stick - clarinet popsickle stick - sax reed blues harp - harmonica  

Benny Goodman, Sonny Boy Williams

slide guitar - bottleneck, “steel guitar” in country Son House, “Death Letter”  

baby - partner

house: crib or pad

blind - railroad car

crossroads - between heaven and hell  

Rock slang (derived from jazz)

chill hip mellow cool “on fire”  

Ex. “Rock me” Mance Liscomb

A guitar can “sing or sweep” (personification)  

George Harrison

Notes are bent, pushed into position with the finger or tongue  

Rock Parody: Spinal Tap (“Mockumentary”) Heavy Metal: Figures of Speech  “Metal” - Iconic for toughness, not easily broken or changed Iron Maiden  Led Zeppelin  

Country Slang

Twangy (Dobro/Fiddle)  

Down - Home Double stop  

March 7, 2016  

Papers - look up books

based on music first hand  

experience sounds, what is behind it Notes on syllabus  

The language of music -lect

accrolect - high language

staccato - from italian, renaissance  

Country Slang Descriptors  

“y’all” “you guys” “dipthong” in linguistics  

“twang” “fixin to”  



Down - Home

Double-Stop - 2 notes at the same time  


Fiddle (NOT violin)  

Steel Guitar or Dobro(not slide or bottleneck) Ex. Jerry Douglass - Dobro (“Twangy”)  

slides into chords

Ex. Byron Berline: Fiddler Extraordinaire  

(and master of the “double stop”)  

Down-Home “Country”  

“My girl” (not baby) Mountain Dew: “moonshine” Life-Style  



Honky-tonk - dance joint, bar  

Western Classical Terminology Scales  

Lettering System (a-g)

Intervals: First, Second, Third, etc. Terms and Semitones (Microtones) Octave: “Eighth Note”  “Quality of Note” Tremolo (volume)  

Vibrato (pitch)  


Crescendo (rising)  

Descrescendo (falling)  

Ex. Bo diddley, Tremolo (and Polyrhythm) Quality of Note - Tremolo (volume)  

Ex. Buddy Guy “First Time I Met the Blues”

Blending of Notes (Staccato - detached), (Legato - blurred)


grave (20-40) adagio (55-65) moderato (86-97) allegro (110-130) presto (168-177)  Change of pace ritardando accelerando  

Ex. “Fire on the Mountain,” Monroe and Tex Logan Pace presto (168-177)  

Ex. Manitas De Plata, Flamenco Guitar

change of pace ritardando, accelerando  

Roma - Gypsy (Egypt) really India  

Synthesia: Mixing the Senses (Sound ~ Sight = “Loud Tie”)  

Taste (Gustatory)

“Sour” Note (unpleasant taste) “Sweet” Composition

“Bland” Music

“Salty?” Attitude

Touch (Tactile)

Sharp sound (painful tactile sensation) Flat sound

Soft Tone

“Hard rock”

Hot Solo

Cool Music  

Visual Field

“High” and “Low” Notes Flat Note - position

the blues - color

light solo - saturation dark tone - saturation smell (olfactory)  

that music stinks smoking solo (sight)  

March 9, 2016  

Paper Topics

Structural Parallels  

Cultural Foundations Evolution  

come by office with ideas  

Evolution of Music from Church to different types One Song or One Country  Compare and Contrast Roots of Country Music?  

Discourse Analysis Ideology  

Technology Media Tourism Politics Globalization Syncretism  

Ex. Language Matters with Bob Holman

“learning more than 1 language helps teach respect for others”

March 14 - 18, 2016

Spring Break

March 21, 2016  

The Musical Pole of Speech

Poetics, Ethno-poetics, and songwriting  

Figure out paper topic

lyric - poem you put to music  

poems were epic while instruments were simple (12000 - 14000 lines)  

West African - Griots (turned into banjo) Celtic Bards - Ireland storytelling music King David,  writer of psalms  

Lyrical Origins

Lyre - like a harp  

melodic poems

The psalms (“praises”)  

King David Ancient Israel C. 1000 B.C. writes 73 (Roughly 1/2) Hymns Laments  The “Singer of Tales” as pan-human archetype - Celtic Bards  

- West African Griots

- Tribal Leaders the world over - Contemporary Songwriter  

The “Unquiet Grave”:Love-Death in couplets couplet-pairing of two ideas  Beowulf (old English) 8-11th Century  

“I might could do it”  

Scandish English

The Griot tradition of West Africa  


The Singer of Tales  

Lord 1960

Bowed Instruments:




Rebab - like a banjo Serbo - Croatian Bards  

The Nature of Poetic Language  

Parallelisms - R Jakobson (Linguist) Sounds and Images - juxtaposed  


Psalm 27:1  

A1) The LORD is my light and my salvation; B2) whom shall I fear?  A2) The LORD is the stronghold of my life; B2) of whom shall I be afraid?  Rhyme (Parallel Sound Sequences) Alliteration (Initial Sound)  When I do count on the clock  

Ex. Mrs. Robinson, “Simon and Garfinkel” Assonance (Vowels Alone)  Free as a breeze High as a kite Mad as a hatter  

Ex. “Light my Fire”

End - Rhyme (Final Consonant)  

The curfew tolls the knell of parting day Verses (paired images delivered in meter)  Couplets (A-B) - Precise pairing “American Verse” (A-A-B)  

Lyrical Analysis  

Ex. “Cold, Cold Heart” - Hank Williams (A-A-B): Blues, Gospel, Country, Rock  call and response  

Rhythmic Structure

Time Signatures in Music  

(4/4, 5/4, 3/4, 6/8, etc.) Meter in Verse (Rhyming Schemes)  

Ex. Take Five (Brubeck) 5/4 signature

Boom, boom, boom - John Lee Hooker  

March 23, 2016  

Moved Exam 1 to Monday

Crwth - welsh, sounds like a bagpipe

Symphonium - one instrument pounds like whole symphony  Mythic Ground Homeric Epic  

Gods and Goddesses of the Ancient Greeks Ex. California - Coyote  O Brother Where Art Thou - Oddesey in Modern Terms  

Utopia in Music

Nirvana Principle - to get away from suffering  

Ex. “True Love” in American Music;

(Norah Jones “Cold, Cold Heart” Hank Williams)  


Norah Jones - World Music  

Nationalism throughout the World  

Stress Patterns

Iamb - Unstressed Syllable and Stressed so long/ as men/ can breath/ or eyes/ can see  

Trochee: Stressed syllable and Unstressed Tiger, Tiger, burning bright  

in the forests of the night

Ex. Who Will Call You Sweetheart - The Stanley Brothers  “I don’t believe you met my baby” - Alison Krauss 1. Sad and Lonely  

2. Longing

3. Meeting and Jealously 4. Intrigue

5. Anxiety


7. Resolution into Marriage  

Louvin Brothers before Alison Krauss

The Wind That Shakes The Barley (Robert Dwyer Joyce 1836-1883)  True Love  

I sat within a valley green  

I sat me with my true love  

My sad heart strove to choose between  

The old love and the new love  

That’s Alright Mama - Elvis Personification - “Mr. Blues”

chases, walks, hunts,  


The old for her, the new that made  

Me think on Ireland dearly  

While soft the wind blew down the glade  

And shoo the golden barley  

murders, torments, listens to pleas  

March 28, 2016  

Ideology: Guiding System of Ideas

Hebrew or Navajo as Sacred Tongues

Country Music as “White” - American ethnic music  

Acrolet - prestige language, (English) superior  


Associating Imagery with no sound.. Social groups with features of  language or music Invoking a “Way of Life”  

Ex. Clicks become iconic in South Africa Kholsan people  

Ex. “Surfer Worldview”

Surfer talk and inflections  

Ex. “Valley Girl” (Moonunit Zappa)  

noncool suburb; San Fernando Valley “False Consciousness” (Karl Marx)  

Ideology exists in contrast to reality...

Distorting the perception of the true nature of things Dupe them will false conscious  Carrot on a stick for horse or donkey  

pulling wool over your eyes

Ex. Working Class Hero - John Lennon  

Power by Consent (=Hegemony) Gramsci Top-down spread of ideologies

Standard languages (media, schools)  

Corporate Music Acceptance of place in hierarchy  

False Consciousness (Masked Oppression)

Ranking of languages musical genres

Association with race, class, or gender hierarchies Claims of inferiority or superiority  Ex. American English (Inferior?)  

Ex. acrolet  


Noodling: Stigmatized Accents hollywood actors  

bottom of things surfer 14 yo boys  

Counter-Hegemonic Movements Confronting of false ideologies Challenging false hierarchy  Ex. Sinéad O’Connor, ripping up Pope picture  

Heteroglossia: Clashing Ideologies Internal diversity within all...  

Speech communities and musical traditions Reflection in all “texts”  

Multiple voices  

Clashing Ideology

Ex. “The Farmer and Cowman” (Oklahoma)  

erasure of indians and African Americans naturalized - seen as real, incontestable  Language Ideologies Purism  


March 30, 2016  

Language Ideologies

Purism - boundary around language and nothing can come through it “Xenoglossophobia”  Syncretism Spanglish  

“Navlish” Yiddish  

Sacred Languages

God - the name that cannot be spoken, try to preserve the name

“Not to say the lords name in vain” Secular Languages  

Music Ideologies

Nationalistic overtones  


Apache rule among siblings, no profanities among brother and sister Prince Willie Nelson - Cherokee heritage

Lady Gaga - You and I  


Beetles with harkav, (Indian music)  

Nativism Ethnicity  


1=1 algebra  

2=2 algebra

sense of same ness that can be socially constructed

kind of imaginary, just cause you check male of female doesn’t mean you know a lot  about the person Essential vs. Constructivism  

Inherited Differences Primordial past.  

Generic or racial difference Holocaust  

Jews Disabled Gay  

Uniform within community?  


Creative Differences

Basis in culture, experience,  


Social difference Diversity within cultures  

“Here” “Now”  

Feeling to evoke - hey! sit  

- How are you?  

Einstein and Beethoven building on this Speaking was  

Creative Traditions what we’re all a part of Jakobson’s Functions of communication (during  interaction)


Environment -  







Focus on relationship  

Talk about talk  

Message - Focus on form (parallelisms)  

The Identity Function

A sense of sameness  

(even imaginary)  

= Identity Ex. “The Navajo”  

A sense of difference (also imaginary)  



Contextual ‘Pointing’  

Rooted in social imagination  

Ex. Smoke to Fire Physical or Casual Relationship

Ex. Footprints to Presence

Ex. Dialect to Social Background  


Speaker’s accent references social past.  Southern Accent Valley Girl Surfer Talk  Homology?  


Style references performer’s identity.  





Griot/Bard (~Royal)

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