Midterm 3 Study Guide
Midterm 3 Study Guide Psych 204
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle Lee on Friday April 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 204 at Northwestern University taught by Wendi Gardner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Northwestern University.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Love ● investment in the wellbeing of the other for his/her own sake ● Passionate (romantic) love: strong feelings of longing, desire, and excitement toward a special person ○ strong emotional feelings, euphoria, high intensity/frequency of sexual desire ○ lower serotonin ~ obsessive thoughts, anxiety ○ higher dopamine ~pleasure, addiction, craving ● Companionate (affectionate) love: mutual understanding and caring to make the relationship succeed ○ essential to successful longterm relationship by remaining good companions ○ oxytocin release ~ bonding, attachment, trust ● romantic love found everywhere, not an invention of western culture ● how they experience it and regard it may depend on culture ● lasting relationships transition from passionate to companionate love ● Sternberg’s Triangle ○ Passion: emotional state characterized by high bodily arousal (romantic attraction, sexual interest) ○ Intimacy: feeling of closeness, mutual understanding and mutual concern for each other’s welfare and happiness (empathy) ○ Commitment: a conscious decision that remains constant ■ ideal love contains substantial measures of all three “ingredients” ● Over time, passion tends to decrease, while intimacy and commitment increase C for Continuance ● love makes us happier ○ great life satisfaction and daily positive mood, with lower risk of depression ● love makes us healthier ○ lower blood pressure, risk of diabetes, and mortality rate ● love changes how we think by creating a self + other overlap ○ selfpartner confusion ~ cannot distinguish whose trait is whose ■ shared experience (automatic/gradual married couples) ■ draw closer to partner (motivated/faster dating couples) ○ use other’s standards to judge own behavior ○ reduction of selfevaluation maintenance ■ no longer threatened if “other” outperforms us ● Cognitive interdependence: “we” vs. “him and I” ○ relationship more central to self and decisions ● love changes how we behave by outsourcing ○ split behavior tasks and cognitive tasks (outsourcing and cognitive outsourcing) ○ outsource selfregulation, when partner help us achieve our goals we spend less effort in pursuing them ■ allows for efficiency within relationships ● Michelangelo effect: partners scaffold and support the other’s ideal self views, and help the other achieve goals, bringing out the best in other ○ in order to occur, partners need to ■ self disclose true ideal selves ■ be focused on other, respecting their ideals and helping them achieve it ○ Pygmalion effect: partner tries to shape other to match their own ideal rather than the other’s D for Deterioration (handling conflict) ● Gottman’s magic ratio: minimum of 5:1 positive to negative behaviors = happy couple ● Rusbult’s transformation of motivation ○ override “nasty” response ○ requires regulatory resources ○ predicts relationship persistence, greater commitment and secure attachment ● anxiously/preoccupied attached have low relationship selfesteem ○ bring partner within reach ~ downgrade partner’s values at times of threat ■ securely attached bolster partner’s value at times of threat ○ focus on utility ~ doing useful things for partner makes them feel better ★ name things in apartment study ● if conflict seems normal & natural, higher relationship satisfaction ★ consider conflict as positive for relationship 3x a year for 7 min, stopped the downward spiral of relationships ● contingent or noncontingent forgiveness ○ better to be contingently forgiving (if the perpetrator makes amends) ○ noncontingent forgivers have lower selfesteem and relationship satisfaction ○ not moderated by extremity of betrayal ● boredom is more dangerous than conflict! (if bored at year 7, higher chance of divorce) ○ solution: stop being boring by engaging in novel and exciting activities ■ increases closeness/desire for closeness ■ increased dopamine E for Ending Relationships ● distressed → depression ○ rejection, abandonment, loneliness ○ self concept becomes smaller and more confused (loss of self partner overlap) ■ predicts depression ○ anxiously attached individuals have heightened effects ● best way to recover from breakups: ○ be social, spend time around those who love you ○ do not ruminate on past relationship, distract yourself ○ remind yourself of who you are by journaling to stabilize sense of self Different Types of Relationships ● Exchange relationships: based on reciprocity and fairness, expecting something in return ○ promote achievement, increase wealth, and drive progress ● Communal relationships: based on mutual love and concern, without expectation of repayment ○ more mature and desirable, feels safe and secure, provides a haven ○ promotes a greater sense of unity and shared identity ★ working on crossword puzzles in same (communal) or different (exchange) colored pen ● attachment in early experiences shapes how children would later carry on adult relationships ● Attachment theory: classifies people into four attachment styles based on anxiety and avoidance ○ anxiety attitudes toward the self; avoidance attitudes toward other person ○ Secure attachment: low anxiety, low avoidance; trust partners, share feelings, provide and receive support/comfort, enjoy relationships ○ Preoccupied (anxious) attachment: high anxiety, low avoidance; seek closeness but worry that their relationship partners will abandon them ■ provide too much care to satisfy their own need to connect ○ Dismissing avoidant attachment: low anxiety, high avoidance; view partners as unreliable, unavailable, and uncaring ■ provide less care/support to loved ones than secure or preoccupied ○ Fearful avoidant attachment: high anxiety, high avoidance; low opinions of themselves and keep others from getting close ■ worry that they will be hurt if they become close to others ■ turn off desire to belong and secretly suffer a great deal during separations ● low selfesteem ~ skeptical or distrustful, act as if they expect partners to dump them ● high selfesteem ~ quicker to end relationship ○ narcissists hog credit when things go well but blame partners when badly ● Selfacceptance: regarding yourself as being a reasonable good person as you are ○ extreme selflove or selfhate is detrimental to intimacy Maintaining Relationships ● longer exposure to temptation = sign that person drifting towards breaking up ● meeting desirable people of the opposite gender ○ women react by increasing commitment to current partner ■ tolerating faults, thinking more positively ○ men react by reducing their commitment ■ become more critical ● good relationships stay the same over long periods of time; avoid downwards spiral ● Investment Model: theory that uses three factors to explain why people stay with their longterm relationship ○ satisfaction ○ quality of available alternatives ○ how much invested (time, effort, money, emotion) ★ abusive relationships; victim reluctant to toss aside all that has been achieved and take a chance on new partner who may be no better ● Relationshipenhancing style of attribution: happy couples who attribute unpleasant behavior to external factors, and pleasant behavior to internal factors ○ exaggerate how wonderful relationship is, problems are isolated incidents ○ devaluing of alternatives was probably a defensive response against danger of becoming interested in someone else ● Distressmaintaining style of attribution: unhappy couples who attribute unpleasant behavior to internal factors, and pleasant behaviors to external factors ○ reinterpret past events as far less positive than seemed at the time ● people fall in love with an idealized version of each other, but people want others to see them as they see themselves ○ happiest relationships: see partner in most positive fashion, downplay bad points, and emphasize good points ○ want to be seen accurately in little things but with a broadly positive view Sexuality ● attachment ←→ sexual desire/intimacy ● Social constructionist theory: theories asserting that attitudes and behaviors, including sexual desire and behavior, are strongly shaped by culture and socialization ○ women desire sex mainly in context of committed, lasting relationships ● Social exchange theory: seeks to understand behavior by analyzing costs and benefits of interacting with each other ○ sex is a resource that women have and men want ● Coolidge effect: the sexually arousing power of a new partner is greater than the appeal of a familiar partner ● stereotype that men separate love from sex more easily than women is wrong ● Erotic plasticity: the degree to which sex drive can be shaped and altered by social, cultural, and situational forces ○ women have higher than men ● male sexuality is closer to nature and less affected by culture; women is less biological and more closely tied to social/cultural meanings ● women are gatekeepers who restrict sex and decide whether and when it will happen; men are not very choosy/cautious about sex ● labeling of nervousness as sexual arousal ● jealousy is product of both the person and situation ○ paranoid (false) jealousy is unusual, although it exists ○ people who suspect their spouses of being unfaithful are usually correct How to Keep Relationship Happy? choose someone you like, a good companion idealize your partner, but recognize their flaws encourage partner to become ideal self, and communicate your ideals (Michelangelo) maintain closeness through communication and shared activities (“we”selves) see pos. behaviors as internal trait, neg. behaviors as external factors talk through conflicts supportively, do not let automatic system retaliate negatively; think of conflict as natural and positive for relationship (transformation of motivation) 5:1 ratio of positive to negative behaviors (try new things) end of relationship, recover sense of self choose ideal enemy make silly team 5:1 end Prejudice and Intergroup Relations ● Prejudice: a negative feeling toward an individual based solely on that individual’s membership in a certain group ● Aversive racism: simultaneously holding egalitarian values and negative feelings toward minorities ● Stereotypes: beliefs that associate groups of people with certain traits ● Subtypes: categories that people use for individuals who do not fit a general stereotype ● ABCs of intergroup relationships: ○ Affective = prejudice ○ Behavioral = discrimination ○ Cognitive = stereotyping ★ racial bias in hiring, same resumes but white hired more than minorities ★ interviewer has different nonverbal styles when interviewing different races (trained interviewers to have behaviors that make them more/less inclined to hire) Why Stereotype? 1. Effect of categorization ● Categorization: natural tendency of humans to sort objects into groups ○ adaptive processes understand world in terms of categories ○ think about most “typical” member of group as portrayed by media ○ stereotype activation is automatic process ○ Social categorization: sorting people into groups on basis of characteristics they have in common ■ easy and efficient way of simplifying world and reducing mental effort ★ more likely to mistakenly shoot at unarmed black suspects than white suspects (videogame) ● Principle of category accentuation: existence of a category label leads us to perceive differences between each group ○ given a label, people will find differences in ingroup members and find outgroup members all similar ● sorter belongs to one of the categories and feels emotionally attached to it ● Outgroup members: people who belong to a different group than us (“them”) ● Ingroup members: people who belong to the same group as us (“us”) ● Outgroup homogeneity bias: the assumption that outgroup members are more similar to one another than ingroup members are to one another ○ we don’t have as much exposure to outgroup members as ingroup ★ frats believed that others were more similar to each other and that their own was diverse and different ● angry outgroup members are easier to identify than ingroup members ○ keeping track of dangerous people 2. Misperceptions of the social world ● Illusory correlation: some categories less frequent & attract less attention; vice versa ○ false relationships then perceived by the two ○ members of a rare group that have a rare trait will be stereotyped to be group’s general trait ● group may be societally constrained to inhabit certain role, we respond as if that role was chosen (Fundamental Attribution Error) 3. Learning from Society ● observational learning ~ by age 5, children have developed stereotypes because they imitate adults (parents, teachers) ● can influence selfperception as well as others’ ★ black children preferred white dolls (prettier and better) ● learned from the media culture, where there are few racial minorities, boys are protagonists, and girls are romantically driven ● sexism in advertising (women as domestic roles or sex objects, males are professionals); distortion in news (crime news overrepresented black people as perpetrators and whites as victims) ○ correlation between news viewing and stereotyping Why Prejudice Exists ● predisposition to categorize by stereotypes may be natural, but the content of stereotypes is learned through socialization ● tendency to align with similar others and square off different others, forming negative stereotypes of them and discriminating against them ● Ingroup favoritism: preferential treatment or more favorable attitudes toward people in own group ● Minimal group effect: people show favoritism toward ingroup members even when group membership is randomly determined (i.e. coin toss) ○ naturally adopt negative stance toward “them” ★ Robber’s Cave study ~ creating hostility between groups easier than reducing it; compete with higher stakes and valuable prizes ★ Superordinate goals: induced cooperation by having boys work together toward shared goals ~ dramatically decreased negative stereotypes of outgroup members ● Realistic conflict theory: competition over scarce resources leads to intergroup hostility and conflict ○ groups have the most negative attitudes toward rivals, and are strongest when resources are scarce and groups must compete for them ● people from different groups readily distrust and develop negative views of each other ● Discontinuity effect: groups are more extreme/hostile than individuals ○ more influenced by competition ○ can reduce by having them think about the longterm effects of their actions ● Contact hypothesis: getting regular interaction between members of different groups reduces prejudice, if it occurs under favorable conditions ○ equal status between groups ○ common goals ○ intergroup cooperations ○ support from authorities, law, or customs ★ Israeli/Palestinian conflict ~ teens from both countries forced to work together during 3 week camp; results were that campers felt more positively toward outgroup nationality at the end, retained reduced prejudice months later ● stereotypes justifies social inequality, by keeping groups in inferior position in society ● stereotypes enable people to process more info, useful tools to understand others more easily ○ learn content of stereotypes mainly from other people in their group (informational influence) ● stereotypes can be used to boost self esteem ○ by regarding members of other groups as inferior, people enhance their self esteem by virtue of belonging to their own group Why Does Prejudice Exist? Explanation Definition Example Competition realistic conflict theory competition for better (competition over scarce housing, schools, and jobs resources leads to intergroup can lead to hostility toward hostility and conflict) outgroup members Ignorance having little contact with other little contact with muslims groups and less info about make people assume that them leads to forming they all support jihad stereotypes to fill in the gap Rationalizations for powerful groups retain status feminists suggest men oppression by justifying and rationalizing invented stereotypes of prejudice women to rationalize oppression of women (education, jobs, etc.) Stereotypes as heuristics simplify world and use mental assume/stereotype all blacks shortcuts/heuristics as good at music and sports Prejudice boosts selfesteem feel better about themselves feel better if your religion is if they consider own group the only true one and all superior and all others inferior others are false Content of Prejudice and Stereotypes ● heuristics often produce correct answer, but can lead to errors ○ help make judgements when information is lacking or uncertain ★ participants correct about different traits between men and women, and accurate at estimating size of differences ● hostile sexism exemplified by viewing women in derogatory manner ● benevolent sexism paints a favorable view of women ○ benevolent worse than hostile sexism for women’s cognitive performance Inner Processes ● automatic mind encourages automatic associations, conscious mind corrects w/ motivation and ability ★ subliminal presentation of black faces → people have faster reactions to negative words; automatically perceived as hostile ● Salience: being obvious or standing out ○ can form stereotypes ★ being the first blonde to arrive on island and if you did something memorable then people will link that memorable thing to blonds ● Scapegoat theory: people blame their problems and misfortunes on outgroups, which contributes to negative attitudes towards outgroups ○ Selfserving bias: take credit for success but refuse blame for failures ★ lynching increased when cotton prices decreased ● racial stereotypes more likely to be used when there is disagreement/conflict ● emotional stress activates stereotypes and leads to distortions ★ induced fearful states and showed faces from different races, found those from other races as angry/threatening but their own race perceived the same ★ stereotypes based on family background emerged only among people who saw Hannah take the test, but did not prejudge her ○ Confirmation bias: tendency to focus on evidence that supports one’s expectations Overcoming Stereotypes, Reducing Prejudice Individual ● conscious correlation: requires motivation and ability to overcome stereotype ★ night owl vs. morning person ● should not suppress stereotypes because they’ll rebound later Relational ● interracial interaction more uncomfortable because it is rare ○ “practicing” interracial interaction reduces prejudice and helps with discomfort ○ immediate effects of interracial friendship: reduced stress and (auto) prejudice ● pluralistic ignorance: people all assume that others are not interested in being friends Collective ● prejudice exists due to ignorance; won’t truly know unless you get to know them ● people now believe that prejudices are unfair/immoral, and try not to let stereotypes cloud judgement ● automatic system sustains prejudices, because stereotypes simplify world and help make snap judgements ● conscious system strives to overcome prejudices/stereotypes to support equality and avoid prejudging individuals ● nonprejudiced people employ conscious processing to override stereotypes and replace prejudice with thoughts more in line with values of tolerance, fairness, equality ○ nature says go; culture says stop ● when people accused of prejudice, often exert themselves to prove the opposite ○ reverse discrimination ★ fancy restaurant treated black couple more favorably in order to avoid the appearance of being biased ● two motives for overcoming prejudice: ○ heartfelt dedication to equality and belief that prejudice is morally wrong ■ Internal Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice ■ have deeply internalized, wellpracticed non prejudiced reactions ○ expressing prejudice could elicit social disapproval ■ External Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice ■ may respond with backlash and express more prejudice after released from pressure to respond in politically correct manner ● contact can reduce prejudice, even by knowing that a good friend who is a member of your group is close to an outgroup member ● Superordinate Goals: cooperating to achieve common goal ○ play cooperative games, aggressive behavior decreases and cooperative behavior increases; play competitive games, aggressive behavior increases and cooperative behavior decreases ○ Jigsaw classroom: cooperative learning technique for reducing prejudice Impact on Targets ● reactions to being stereotyped can be negative and hostile or aggressive ● Selffulfilling prophecy: prediction that ensures it will come true, by behaving in manner that is consistent with expectations ● stereotypes reflect fundamental attribution error, but some respond with incentives to disprove stereotypes ● African Americans have higher selfesteem than white Americans ○ social comparison ~ mainly compare themselves against each other ○ selfworth ~ judge themselves by many criteria ○ attribution theory ~ protect self esteem by attributing problems to other’s prejudices against them ■ use selfserving bias to dismiss failures as irrelevant ● Selfdefeating prophecy: prediction that ensures it will not come true, by behaving in manner that is consistent with with expectation ○ Stereotype threat: when stereotype may apply, people fear that their behavior will confirm it ■ most powerful when it is difficult to contradict ● domain is personally important ● identify strongly with stereotyped group ■ confirming negative stereotypes results in anxiety, which impairs performance ■ by imagining or actually interacting with younger people, older people felt less anxious and performed better ■ being taught by stereotype threat reduces it Groups ● Group: a collection of at least two people who are doing/being something together ○ common identity ○ frequently interact ○ depend on one another ○ work together toward common goal ○ common beliefs, values, practices ○ share emotionally powerful experiences ■ cultural groups preserve info in the group and pass it along to future generations ○ ITSW ~ intimacy, task, social, weak social relations Groups, Roles, and Selves ● roles only work in context of large systems when others also have roles ● Deindividuation: loss of selfawareness and of individual accountability in a group ○ if people blend together into a group and submerge identities into the group, the groups perform less well ★ German Nazis ● belonging to cultural group involves two separate demands: ○ find common values and other sources of similarity ○ find some special/unique role within group ● Common bond: attachment to individual members in group ● Common demand: attachment to overarching goal/values of group ● group socialization 1. gain as much info about the group as possible 2. be passive, dependent, and conforming to group norms 3. seek help of other group members to show you value them 4. exchange support with other newcomers ● psychological benefits to joining groups ○ satisfy social recognition/affection needs; boost selfesteem; buffer rejection ● Terror management theory: group identification buffers against personal fear of death ○ if we die our group and norms will still continue ■ greater favoritism for ingroups, prejudice for outgroups ■ higher endorsement of cultural worldview (religion & patriotism) ■ inflate similarities of group members, higher perceived consensus Group Action ● by retaining individual identities, one feels personally accountable for their actions, and bad effects of groups are prevented/reduced ● Social facilitation theory: presence of others increase the dominant response tendency ○ Dominant response: most common response in a given situation ○ Evaluation apprehension: concern about how others are evaluating your performance ○ Distraction conflict theory: conflict between dividing attention to task at hand and external sources ○ the presence of others is arousing and increases the dominant response ■ perform well for familiar, easy, and welllearned behaviors ■ perform poorly for difficult, unfamiliar tasks ● Social loafing (free rider problem): people reduce effort when working in a group, compared to working alone ○ not aware that they are loafing ○ not being individually accountable; if members are identified, loafing is reduced ● Altruistic punishment: people sacrifice their own gain for the betterment of all ● Commons dilemma: tendency for shared resources to be squandered and not used in optimal/advantageous fashion ○ social conscience vs. selfish impulse ■ communication promotes prosocial behavior ■ observing proself behavior promotes proself in others (bad apple) How Groups Think ● Brainstorming: form of creating thinking in groups, where all members are encouraged to generate as many ideas as possible ○ output of brainstorming substantially lower than that of people working separately ~ reduces creative output ● collective wisdom turns out to be smarter than experts; large groups > smart individual ○ if people are aware of what others are thinking, start to conform ○ become more confident as answers converge with others, but is less accurate ★ Who Wants to Be a Millionaire ● teams satisfy need to belong, enables them to feel confident, effective, and superior ● Transactive memory: members of a group remember different kinds of info ○ “collectively smart” if members’ minds work independently ○ shift responsibility for remember to bestsuited individuals so each person can concentrate on their specialty ● Groupthink: tendency of group members to think alike ○ because of desire to get along, people are reluctant to criticize the group, creating illusion of agreement ○ more likely to happen if group is similar/cohesive at start, has strong, directive leader, and the group is isolated and has high selfesteem ○ pressure toward conformity, appearance of unanimous agreement, illusion of invulnerability, and understimating opponents ■ Selfcensorship: not expressing doubts against a group’s plans ★ disasters in history because of groupthink ● focus on what they have in common rather than different perspectives; stifles exchange of information ● Group polarization effect: shift toward a more extreme position resulting from group discussions ○ Risky shift: groups take greater risks than the same individuals would have taken individually ○ talking about dilemma moves group toward extremer view than normal ○ depends if people in group are fairly similar, and accentuate other’s beliefs and feelings Power and Leadership ● larger groups have a hierarchy of power, with humble and persistent leaders ● good leaders have integrity, decisiveness, competence, and vision ● Power: one person’s control over another person; make make you look down on others and underestimate their worth; has five crucial effects: ○ Emotion: more likely to feel positive, pleasant feelings ○ Rewards vs. Punishments: attend to opportunities ○ Adaptability: think in terms of how they can use circumstances and benefit or work with them ○ Duplex Mind: make people rely more on automatic processing ○ Approach vs. Inhibition: removes inhibition, more likely to engage in socially inappropriate behavior ■ creates a state of mind that favors action ■ doesn’t always corrupt ~ increased tendency to take action for both selfish gain and for the benefit of others ● people with less power will be prone to foster peace and harmony and adapt to the expectations of highpower people ● those who hold power must remain alert for ideas or values that can be used to justify their position of power & influence over others (legitimizing myths) Applying Social Psychology ● persuasion → marketing, health ● social cognition/attribution → education ● relationships → marital counseling ● group processes → consulting, government ● Descriptive norms: what we do based on what we see ● Prescriptive norms: what we should do based on what we see *most powerful*
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