CDFR 2001; Chil Development part 2 Test 1 study guide
CDFR 2001; Chil Development part 2 Test 1 study guide CDFR 2001
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CDFR 3150 Introduction to Early Childhood Intervention
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kara Fields on Friday April 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CDFR 2001 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Carrie Bumgarner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Child Development II: Middle Childhood through Young Adulthood in Child Development at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Developmental Part 2 Study Guide 1 Chapter 1… 1.) Page 6 of book 2.) Physical The physical changes in a person’s body Cognitive The changes in a person’s thinking and intelligence Socioemotional Changes in a person’s emotions, personality, relationships with others, and social contexts 3.) Debate about what most influences development o Nature = biological inheritance (ex., genetics) o Nurture = environmental experiences (ex., parenting, neighborhood, SES, friends, etc.) Development involves either a gradual, cumulative change or distinct changes o Continuity = gradual, cumulative change (ex., acorn becomes an oak tree, weight / height gain, puberty, intelligence, etc.) o Discontinuity = distinct, sudden change (ex., caterpillar becomes a butterfly, “milestones,” developmental stages, etc.) Asks whether early or later experiences are more important for development o Early = Belief that psychological quality can be traced back to its origin (ex., attachment, divorce of parents, injuries, death of a family member, abuse, military member, etc.) o Later = Children and adolescents are malleable over time (ex., inhibited temperament, onset of sexual activity, getting divorced) 4.) John Locke (1632 – 1704) o “Tabula Rasa” – Blank Slate o Shaped entirely by experience o No harshness o Continuous, Nurture 5.) JeanJacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778) o Adolescence is not the same as adulthood o Reasoning begins in adolescence o Maturation genetically determined causes o Discontinuous, Nature 6.) Assumes innate motivations… Assumes psychological tasks have to be accomplished sequentially… Psychosocial crisis = emotional growth or retardation… 7.) Development is influenced by five environmental systems (contexts): o Microsystem child and environment o Mesosystem parent and child’s school o Exosystem parent and their friends/work o Macrosystem community and laws, ethnicity o Chronosystem divorce A biological influence was later added and renamed as the bioecological theory 8.) Bandura Assumes elements of learning theory But also assumes a “thinking” being who processes and makes choices Nurture assumption, but no visible reward Bobo doll experiment. Imitating. 9.) Scientific method… o Identify a research question o Form a hypothesis o Identify a research method and a research design o Collect data to test the hypothesis o Draw conclusions Chapter 11… 1.) Children typically add about 2 to 3 inches in height and ____5____ pounds in weight each year Ages 6 to 8: girls slightly shorter and lighter than boys Trend reverses by age 9 Girls have slightly more body fat; boys have more muscle After age 8, girls accumulate fat at a faster rate 2.) Bones _____lengthen_____ and broaden Between ages 6 and 12, all 20 primary teeth are lost and replaced by permanent teeth o More than 50% of American schoolage children have at least some tooth decay 3.) ___Malocclusion____, a condition in which the upper and lower teeth do not meet properly, occurs in onethird of schoolage children o Serious difficulties in biting and chewing result in about 14% of cases o Malocclusion reasons: Lost baby teeth and still thumb sucking, overcrowded teeth. 4.) Corpus Callosum o Connects the right/left brain hemispheres o ___Thickens____ during middle childhood and adolescence and improves information processing 5.) Amygdala o The seat of ___emotions__ (e.g., anger, fear, excitement, etc.) o Provides a link between emotionproducing stimuli (e.g., dopamine) and later memories of the stimulus (e.g., classical conditioning) o This area starts to mature in middle childhood/early adolescence o As such, decisionmaking is influenced often by emotions, rather than logic 6.) Trends… 7.) Consequences of Obesity… o Obese youngsters rated as _____unlikable_____ o Obese children and adolescents report more emotional, social, and school difficulties. o Persistent obesity from childhood into adolescence predicts serious ____behavior____ problems. 8.) Causes of Obesity: o Overweight parents o Low ___SES (socioeconomic status) ___ o Parents’ feeding practices a. overfeeding b. overly controlling o Low physical activity o Television o Cultural food environment o The most effective interventions for childhood obesity are ____familybased____ and focus on changing behaviors. o One successful technique is to reinforce them for physical activity o Schools can help reduce obesity by serving healthier meals and ensuring regular physical activity 9.) Myopia (____nearsightedness____) most common vision problem o Affected by heredity, early biological trauma, low birth weight, increased eye strain o Worldwide more frequent in Asian Then Caucasian population 10.) Higher rate of illnesses during first __2__ years of school o Exposure o Still developing immune system 11.) __Asthma__ (most common chronic disease; most frequent cause of school absence and childhood hospitalization) o Severe illnesses – 2% o Overweight babies, being exposed by people who smoke most likely to have asthma. 12.) A gap exists between children’s health knowledge and their ____practice_____ o If children feel good, they usually don’t make health a goal o Children do not typically link present behaviors to later health consequences o TV and advertising send _____contradicting____ messages 13.) GrossMotor Skills o During middle childhood, running, jumping, hopping, and ball skills become more refined o Motor skills reflect gains in o ____Flexibility____ o Balance o ____Agility____ o Force o More efficient information processing supports improved motor performance o Gains in reaction times 14.) FineMotor Skills o Finemotor development also improves over the school years o Gains are especially evident in a. children’s ____Writing____ b. drawing 15.) Become more pronounced in middle childhood o ____Girls____: handwriting and drawing; skills that depend on balance and agility o ___Boys____: throwing, kicking, and other skills, largely as a result of the social environment o Parents hold higher expectations for boys’ athletic performance, and children readily absorb these messages o Greater emphasis on skill training for girls is likely to increase their involvement in athletic activities Chapter 12… 1.) Concrete operational stage (ages 7 to 11) Thought is now more logical, flexible, and organized than it was during early childhood o Conservation: The ability to pass conservation tasks provides clear evidence of operations – mental actions that obey logical rules ______Decentration______ – focusing on several aspects of problems and relating them, rather than centering just one Reversibility – the capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse directions, returning to the starting point Tall glass of water vs. Short glass of water. Can know that it is still the same amount of water. o Classification Children pass Piaget’s class inclusion problem between ages 7 and 10 They are more aware of classification hierarchies and can focus on relations between a general category and two specific categories at the same time ___Collections_____ become common in middle childhood o Seriation The ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight _____Transitive_____ inference – the ability to seriate mentally From observing that stick A is longer than stick B, and stick B is longer than stick C, children must infer that stick A is longer than stick C 2.) Spatial Reasoning Cognitive ___Maps___ – their mental representations of familiar largescale spaces, such as their neighborhood or school Preschoolers and young schoolage children include landmarks, but arrangement is not always accurate; they have difficulty if the map is _____Rotated_____ Around 8 to 10, children’s maps become better organized; able to give clear instructions for getting from one place to another Around 10 to 12, children understand the notion of scale, or the proportional relation between a space and its map representation 3.) Reciprocal Teaching Teacher plus 24 students Form ____cooperative____ group Take turns leading dialogues Originally designed to improve reading comprehension; has been extended 4.) Children acquire attentional strategies in a predictable, fourstep sequence: ____Production____ deficiency: Preschoolers fail to produce attentional strategies when they could be helpful. Control deficiency: Young elementary school children may produce strategies but fail to control, or execute, them effectively ____Utilization____ deficiency: Slightly older children execute strategies consistently, but their performance does not improve Effective strategy use: By the midelementary school years, children use strategies consistently, and performance improves. 5.) ____Rehearsal____ – repeating the information to herself • First appears in early grade school years Soon after, you see organization – grouping related items together • This approach improves recall dramatically By the end of middle childhood, children start to use _____elaboration_____ – creating a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more pieces of information that are not members of the same category 6.) During middle childhood, children develop _____metalinguistic_____—the ability to think about language as a system Vocabulary Increases fourfold __20__ new words a day Conversations with more expert speakers and independent reading contribute enormously to vocabulary growth Schoolage children grasp the multiple meanings of some words, which leads them to the understanding of metaphors and to the use of riddles and puns
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