New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

CDFR 2001; Chil Development part 2 Test 1 study guide

by: Kara Fields

CDFR 2001; Chil Development part 2 Test 1 study guide CDFR 2001

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Child Development > CDFR 2001 > CDFR 2001 Chil Development part 2 Test 1 study guide
Kara Fields

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Powerpoints 1-6
Child Development II: Middle Childhood through Young Adulthood
Dr. Carrie Bumgarner
Study Guide
Human DEvelopment and Family Sciences
50 ?




Popular in Child Development II: Middle Childhood through Young Adulthood

Popular in Child Development

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kara Fields on Friday April 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CDFR 2001 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Carrie Bumgarner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Child Development II: Middle Childhood through Young Adulthood in Child Development at East Carolina University.


Reviews for CDFR 2001; Chil Development part 2 Test 1 study guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/01/16
Developmental Part 2  Study Guide 1 Chapter 1… 1.) Page 6 of book 2.) Physical  ­ The physical changes in a person’s body Cognitive ­ The changes in a person’s thinking and intelligence Socioemotional ­ Changes in a person’s emotions, personality, relationships with others, and social  contexts 3.) Debate about what most influences development o Nature = biological inheritance (ex., genetics) o Nurture = environmental experiences (ex., parenting, neighborhood, SES, friends,  etc.) Development involves either a gradual, cumulative change or distinct changes o Continuity = gradual, cumulative change (ex., acorn becomes an oak tree, weight /  height gain, puberty, intelligence, etc.) o Discontinuity = distinct, sudden change (ex., caterpillar becomes a butterfly,  “milestones,” developmental stages, etc.) Asks whether early or later experiences are more important for development o Early = Belief that psychological quality can be traced back to its origin (ex.,  attachment, divorce of parents, injuries, death of a family member, abuse, military  member, etc.) o Later = Children and adolescents are malleable over time (ex., inhibited temperament, onset of sexual activity, getting divorced) 4.) John Locke (1632 – 1704)  o “Tabula Rasa” – Blank Slate o Shaped entirely by experience o No harshness o Continuous, Nurture 5.) Jean­Jacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778) o Adolescence is not the same as adulthood o Reasoning begins in adolescence o Maturation­ genetically determined causes o Discontinuous, Nature 6.) Assumes innate motivations… Assumes psychological tasks have to be accomplished sequentially… Psychosocial crisis = emotional growth or retardation… 7.) Development is influenced by five environmental systems (contexts): o Microsystem­ child and environment o Mesosystem­ parent and child’s school o Exosystem­ parent and their friends/work o Macrosystem­ community and laws, ethnicity o Chronosystem­ divorce A biological influence was later added and renamed as the bioecological theory 8.) Bandura Assumes elements of learning theory  But also assumes a “thinking” being who processes and makes choices  Nurture assumption, but no visible reward Bobo doll experiment. Imitating.  9.) Scientific method… o Identify a research question o Form a hypothesis o Identify a research method and a research design o Collect data to test the hypothesis  o Draw conclusions Chapter 11… 1.) Children typically add about 2 to 3 inches in height and ____5____ pounds in weight  each year Ages 6 to 8: girls slightly shorter and lighter than boys Trend reverses by age 9 Girls have slightly more body fat; boys have more muscle After age 8, girls accumulate fat at a faster rate 2.) Bones _____lengthen_____ and broaden Between ages 6 and 12, all 20 primary teeth are lost and replaced by permanent teeth o More than 50% of American school­age children have at least some tooth decay 3.) ___Malocclusion____, a condition in which the upper and lower teeth do not meet  properly, occurs in one­third of school­age children o Serious difficulties in biting and chewing result in about 14% of cases o Malocclusion reasons: Lost baby teeth and still thumb sucking, overcrowded teeth.  4.) Corpus Callosum  o Connects the right/left brain hemispheres o ___Thickens____ during middle childhood and adolescence and improves  information processing 5.) Amygdala o The seat of ___emotions__ (e.g., anger, fear, excitement, etc.) o Provides a link between emotion­producing stimuli (e.g., dopamine) and later  memories of the stimulus (e.g., classical conditioning) o This area starts to mature in middle childhood/early adolescence  o As such, decision­making is influenced often by emotions, rather than logic 6.) Trends… 7.) Consequences of Obesity… o Obese youngsters rated as _____unlikable_____ o Obese children and adolescents report more emotional, social, and school difficulties. o Persistent obesity from childhood into adolescence predicts serious  ____behavior____ problems.  8.) Causes of Obesity: o Overweight parents o Low ___SES (socio­economic status) ___ o Parents’ feeding practices a. overfeeding b. overly controlling o Low physical activity o Television o Cultural food environment o The most effective interventions for childhood obesity are ____family­based____  and focus on changing behaviors. o One successful technique is to reinforce them for physical activity o Schools can help reduce obesity by serving healthier meals and ensuring regular  physical activity  9.) Myopia (____nearsightedness____) most common vision problem o Affected by heredity, early biological trauma, low birth weight, increased eye strain o Worldwide more frequent in Asian Then Caucasian population 10.) Higher rate of illnesses during first __2__ years of school o Exposure o Still developing immune system 11.) __Asthma__ (most common chronic disease; most frequent cause of school absence and childhood hospitalization) o Severe illnesses – 2% o Overweight babies, being exposed by people who smoke­ most likely to have asthma. 12.) A gap exists between children’s health knowledge and their ____practice_____ o If children feel good, they usually don’t make health a goal  o Children do not typically link present behaviors to later health consequences o TV and advertising send _____contradicting____ messages  13.) Gross­Motor Skills  o During middle childhood, running, jumping, hopping, and ball skills become more  refined o Motor skills reflect gains in  o ____Flexibility____ o Balance o ____Agility____ o Force  o More efficient information processing supports improved motor performance o Gains in reaction times  14.) Fine­Motor Skills o Fine­motor development also improves over the school years o Gains are especially evident in  a. children’s ____Writing____  b. drawing 15.) Become more pronounced in middle childhood o ____Girls____: handwriting and drawing; skills that depend on balance and agility o ___Boys____: throwing, kicking, and other skills, largely as a result of the social  environment o Parents hold higher expectations for boys’ athletic performance, and children readily  absorb these messages o Greater emphasis on skill training for girls is likely to increase their involvement in  athletic activities Chapter 12… 1.) Concrete operational stage (ages 7 to 11) ­ Thought is now more logical, flexible, and organized than it was during early  childhood o Conservation:  ­ The ability to pass conservation tasks provides clear evidence of operations – mental  actions that obey logical rules ­ ______Decentration______ – focusing on several aspects of problems and relating  them, rather than centering just one ­ Reversibility – the capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally  reverse directions, returning to the starting point ­ Tall glass of water vs. Short glass of water. Can know that it is still the same amount  of water.  o Classification  ­ Children pass Piaget’s class inclusion problem between ages 7 and 10 ­  They are more aware of classification hierarchies and can focus on relations between  a general category and two specific categories at the same time ­  ___Collections_____ become common in middle childhood  o Seriation  ­ The ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight  ­  _____Transitive_____ inference – the ability to seriate mentally  From observing that stick A is longer than stick B, and stick B is longer than  stick C, children must infer that stick A is longer than stick C 2.) Spatial Reasoning ­ Cognitive ___Maps___ – their mental representations of familiar large­scale spaces,  such as their neighborhood or school ­  Preschoolers and young school­age children include landmarks, but arrangement is  not always accurate; they have difficulty if the map is _____Rotated_____  ­  Around 8 to 10, children’s maps become better organized; able to give clear  instructions for getting from one place to another  ­  Around 10 to 12, children understand the notion of scale, or the proportional relation  between a space and its map representation  3.) Reciprocal Teaching  ­ Teacher plus 2­4 students  Form ____cooperative____ group  Take turns leading dialogues Originally designed to improve reading comprehension; has been extended  4.) Children acquire attentional strategies in a predictable, four­step sequence: ­ ____Production____ deficiency: Preschoolers fail to produce attentional strategies when they could be helpful. ­   Control deficiency: Young elementary school children may produce  strategies but  fail to control, or execute, them effectively ­ ____Utilization____ deficiency: Slightly older children execute strategies consistently,  but their performance does not improve ­ Effective strategy use: By the mid­elementary school years, children use strategies  consistently, and performance improves. 5.) ____Rehearsal____ – repeating the information to herself  • First appears in early grade school years Soon after, you see organization – grouping related items together  • This approach improves recall dramatically By the end of middle childhood, children start to use _____elaboration_____ – creating  a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more pieces of information that are not members of the same category  6.) During middle childhood, children develop _____metalinguistic_____—the ability to  think about language as a system ­ Vocabulary  ­ Increases fourfold ­ __20__ new words a day ­ Conversations with more expert speakers and independent reading contribute  enormously to vocabulary growth ­  School­age children grasp the multiple meanings of some words, which leads them to the understanding of metaphors and to the use of riddles and puns


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.