Comm Final Exam Study Guide
Comm Final Exam Study Guide COMM 1025
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Date Created: 12/07/15
FINAL EXAM REVIEW SHEET COMM 1025: Introduction to Communication Studies Fall 2015 EXAM: Wednesday, December 16 from 10:20 to 12:20 in Duques 151 (regular classroom) Please be prompt and bring a #2 pencil with you. The exam will consist of 50 multiple choice questions (some of these will be true/false). Approximately 30 questions will be derived from material covered since the last exam. Approximately 10 questions will be derived from material covered for each of the preceding exams. If it is not mentioned on this sheet, it is NOT on the exam, but detail underlying the topics discussed here IS relevant! From material covered prior to exam 1: Ch. 1: • Plato (the Gorgias and the Phaedrus) o Plato introduced ethical concerns to rhetorical theory o The Gorgias ▯ Claims Rhetoric is a false art directed at the soul ▯ Art can be remedial or prescriptive o The Phaedrus ▯ Rhetoric is true, ethical art ▯ It has method and theory and knows its object • Aristotle (canons, forms of proof) o Rhetoric is designed as a “power” that uses different appeals; the best persuader he who can see the most numerous numbers of angles o Asked what does rhetoric do to explain so he came up with 5 Canons ▯ Invention – act of discovery and discovering thing you cannot say about ▯ Arrangement – organizing ideas and outlining ▯ Style – how you present your rhetoric, selecting language to use ▯ Memory – memorizing the speech ▯ Delivery – be loud and clear enough that people can hear and understand you o Two forms of proof: inartistic (laws, witnesses, contracts, etc.); artistic (ethos, pathos, logos) • Four approaches to theory in the modern period (p. 9-11) o Classical ▯ Recover the insights of the great classical and adapt them to modern times o Psychological ▯ Investigation of relationship between communication and thought; try to understand in a scientific way how people can influence one another through speech ▯ 4 faculties: understanding, fancy (imagination), passion, will o Belletristic ▯ Artistic approach; focused on writing and speaking as forms of art; developed critical standards for judging drama, poetry, oratory o Elocutionary ▯ Focused on presentation and delivery, designed to elaborate systems of instruction to improves speakers’ verbal and non verbal presentation • Contemporary Period o Two approaches (empirical/scientific and rhetorical/humanistic) ▯ Rhetorical Studies • Humanistic approach; looks at historical and critical methods; there’s an interest in how symbolic activity shapes public response ▯ Communication science • Use scientific method; interest in how different variables affect communication Ch. 2: • Issues in defining communication (breadth, intentionality, etc.) – there is no single definition o Breadth – how broad or narrow you want your communication to be o Intentionality – must have conscious intent to do something o Symbols count as communication • Models representing different perspectives toward communication: know all aspects; understand thoroughly o Psychological Model- MACHINE (telephone) ▯ There’s a sender and a receiver; they have to encode and decode • There’s feedback and noise ▯ Research methods: survey, experimentation, laws approach (cause and effect) o Social Constructionist – WORD BUILDING ▯ People are representatives of culture and society, they are the components; They also have language (symbolic code) and shared meaning (belief, values, roles, traditions); culture plays a role in how we communicate and perceive things ▯ Prescription medicine is a good quick fix ▯ creates a public belief in power and goodness of medicine ▯ Research Methods: Textual analysis • Purpose of research: to understand, explain subtle influence processes, understanding choices people make under social constraints o Pragmatic - GAME ▯ System of interlocking, interdependent moves that become a pattern; there are partners, moves, responses, patterns, relationships • Eg: one person poses a suggestion, another objects, third gives alternative • Personality and culture are irrelevant ▯ Eg; Lin understands English but has a hard time getting people to do things because he is overly polite – he has a pragmatic problem ▯ Research methods: survey, observation in natural setting, conversation analysis Ch. 3 & 4: • Constructivism/Personal Construct Theory – (Created by George Kelly in 1955, people have personal constructs as to how the world works (based on experiences) and these help them form impressions) • Social Judgment Theory – how you judge things based on your preferences o Perceived messages are compared to the anchor position • There are 3 attitude zones: acceptance, persuasion, no commitment • These effects are heightened when one is ego-involved on the issue • Contrast effect – rejection region; info dissimilar to original anchor, or worse • Assimilation effect – acceptance region; info similar or more agreeable to anchor o A person falls into the persuasion / latitude of acceptance, but different from their original anchor position = gradual process of attitude change • Message Design Strategies/Information Processing (know strategies for each below; see pp. 59-62 and slides on Bboard—not covered in class) (p. 52) o Attention • To increase involuntary attention, one must create vivid and compelling message elements that cannot be ignored; humans prefer visual o Comprehension • Can be increased by relating new to old; effective senders adapt to the learning level of their listeners, using familiar, concrete, and clear language; use clear cut organizational patterns; comprehension can be increased if sender provides opportunities for feedback o Acceptance • Show receivers that new information agrees with other elements in their belief system; acceptable messages offer receivers an incentive o Retaining and Retrieving • Senders can encourage message retention by using repetition within the message; ask questions because information related to self perception is stored and retrieved more easily; senders can increase message by tying message to important trigger Ch. 5: • Characteristics/definition of language (signs and symbols; arbitrary and conventional; generate meaning) o Language – a rule-governed symbol system that allows its users to generate meaning and in the process define reality; it is arbitrary and we generate meaning through words; it’s mental rather than physical o Sign – vehicle for communication (idea = signified; way its expressed = signifier); connects content and form; smoke indicates fire (natural sign) o Symbol – differs from other signs because it is arbitrary and conventional; there is no natural connection between the idea of dog and the signifier “dog”; cultures can affect symbols and their meanings • Speech Act Theory (not in book) o Definition of speech act – a basic unit of language used to express meaning; utterance that expresses intention; congratulating, thanking, warning o 5 categories of speech acts • Assertives – convey the belief that a proposition is true (The global climate is changing) • Directives – attempt to get the listener to do something (Go away) • Commissives – commit the speaker to a future course of action (I’ll be there.) • Expressives – convey the speaker’s psychological state (Welcome to the party!) • Declarations – bring about a new state (I sentence you to 1 year in prison) • Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM) – provides a framework for understanding how individuals use context to assign pragmatic meaning; believe that to communicate successfully, we must take into account 4 levels of context (episode (situation), relationship (our obligations towards one another), life script (our professional or personal identity), cultural patterns (cultural norms we share with others)) o Levels of context (content < speech act < episodes < relationships < life scripts < cultural patterns) o Constitutive Rules • What counts as what; if you say you promise but you cant, then it is not a promise • A speech act counts as promise if the conditions of doing it can be met o Regulative Rules • Guidelines for behavior, what is appropriate in this situation? • Cooperative principle and Grice’s maxims [see slides and handout on Bb] o We assume that people are cooperative in conversation and we make sense of their statements accordingly o 4 Maxims of Convesration • Quantity – provide enough information but not more than needed • Quality – be honest, don’t commit to unsupportable positions • Relation – be relevant and on topic • Manner – don’t be obscure, be clear and straightforward Ch. 6: • Nonverbal cues - Nonverbal language has multiple codes (a language that means something like facial expressions and gesturing); there is a continuous flow of nonverbal cues; they are more natural and spontaneous; we usually do not think about them as we do them; they aren't arbitrary like words are; they are culturally specific rules about space or body language. Some examples of nonverbal cues are human actions (intentional or unintentional) that affect interpretations within an interaction • Type of information conveyed nonverbally - How much you like the person, your status, how responsive you are, your emotional expression o All based on facial expression, eye contact, proximity, touching, volume of speech, gesturing • 6 Ways nonverbal cues relate to/modify verbal messages o Repeat - reinforce the message (holding up 3 fingers if you are giving the person 3 minutes to do something) o Complement – complements the message (someone is moping and they are speaking softly) o Contradict – undermine the verbal cues (child says they aren’t scared but they are hiding behind their mom) o Substitute – replaces verbal cues (someone is grieving so you give them a hug rather than tell them you’re sorry) o Accent / Emphasize – makes your verbal message even stronger (vocally emphasizes certain words in an exciting story) o Regulate – regulating the verbal conversation (looking at your watch while talking to someone indicates you need to go) • Kinesics – the study of body movement; the basic code of body and movement; how do we use our bodies to send messages; how do the use of our bodies affect the way we send messages o Emblems – gestures that have symbolic meaning (thumbs up means you did a good job) o Illustrators – shows what you’re talking about (I caught a fish THIS big *holds up hands to demonstrate size*) o Affect displays – has to do with demeanor or emotion; your feelings; gestures that display emotions (posture) o Regulators – gestures that try to regulate interaction (packing up at the end of class) o Adaptors – a way to release energy / adapt to the situation (tapping during test taking; putting your hand to your ear if you can’t here someone talking) o Facial expressions – partially innate and partially learned; smiling and frowning is biological; we regulate or emotions based on culture (smiling when you receive a gift even when you don’t like it) o Paralinguistic – characteristics that define how something is said rather than what is said; the study of sounds that accompany words; includes voice pitch, filler words (uh / uhm / like), when we use silence in speaking o Cronemics and time orientations – the study of time and how it affects human behavior; we have: ▯ Biological time orientation (eg built in biological clocks) ▯ Cultural time orientation (words / time concepts differ across cultures and languages) ▯ Psychological time orientation (how we ourselves experience time; are we always late, are we planning for the future) o Proxemics and territoriality – the study of how we use space and what space means to us ▯ Territoriality – the need to create boundaries • Public territory – territory we share with others • Home territory – areas owned and controlled by individuals • Body territories – our own personal space and we ourselves decide who gets close ▯ Spatial arrangement – the ways we arrange home and public territories (how we set up our furniture; how kids are seated in a classroom; where you sit at a conference table); these arrangements define our roles and influence our comfort Ch. 7: Interpersonal • Dialectic approaches - Collection of contradictory forces; we have an individual identity and a relationship identity and we have internal conflict as to how much of each we should maintain o Primary relational dialects: o Autonomy / togetherness – friends and couples decide how independent they want to be o Expressive / protective – finding a balance between sharing personal information and keeping it a secret o Novelty / predictability – people in relationships fall into habits that can be predictable; here they must choose how predictable they want to be and how autonomous they want to be; keeping it same-old or making it new o We resolve dialectic tensions through: ▯ Balance between the two ▯ Dialectal emphasis – going with one extreme ▯ Cycle – shift over time ▯ Segmentation – divide aspects of life • Interpersonal attraction filtering theory aka Duck’s filtering theory – everyone we encounter is a potential friend but we filter people out; we use a series of filters to judge how close to others we want to become; at each filter, some potential partners are eliminated o First test: sociological or incidental cues: proximity (how close they are to you / in your social circle?); frequency of interaction (do you see them enough?) o Second test: Pre-interaction Cues: are they good-lookin? How is their nonverbal behavior? o Third test: interaction cues: social rewards, conversational management (do you like the way they interact with you? Is it smooth and effortless or awkward?) o Fourth test: cognitive cues: is their attitude similar to yours? Are you compatible and share the same values? • Self-disclosure – when we revel information to others that they are unlikely to discover on their own; when we voluntarily open up to them; you are unlikely to find out through other means; it should be current (it is most explosive when the past event reveals something in current time); it deals with more than facts and involves risk o Rules • Self disclosure is not appropriate in all relationships so it must match the nature of your relationship • Choose the right time and place for your disclosures • Disclosures should be gradual and not sidden • There’s a norm of reciprocity - both sides should be comfortable to disclose • Consider the effect of the disclosure on the other person o Benefits • Establishing deeper, trusting relationships; managing stress; perception checking; increased self understanding o Responding to disclosures • Advising/evaluating – not the best response, not everyone wants advice, most people want listening • Analyzing/interpreting – analyze the cause of the dilemma; offer insight but it might be met with defensiveness • Reassuring/supporting – offering sympathy but may cut the discussion short and not help • Questioning/probing – asking questions to find out more • Paraphrasing/understanding) – one of the best; reflects what they say so they know you understand them Ch. 8: Small Group • Groups – develop over time; collection of individuals who, as a result over interacting with one another over time, become interdependent, developing shared patterns of behavior and a collective identity; a collection of people develops into a group through interactions; in a true group, any action by one affects all; members develop and share stable and predictable norms, values and role structures; members experience a sense of identity and psychological closeness • Systems Theory – a set of interrelated elements that respond in a predictable manner and maintain a consistent nature of interactions over time o Interdependence – ripple effect; behavior of one effects all o Synergy – the idea that groups are more effective than the best individuals within them • Negative synergy –if one part is failing, the rest can step up or the group can fail o Non summativity – the whole of the group is greater than the sum of the parts; a group is not just parts added but rather a whole new “better” being; (eg in basketball, you can have the 5 most athletic people but they might not work together as a good team) o Variables of input – resources, ideas, influences o Throughput – procedures (like decision making methods, roles, rules, consensus, leadership) that the group uses o Output – decisions, solutions, recommendations, productivity • Group problem solving o Standard agenda/reflective thinking – a rational process for solving problems; a six step guide to solving problems • Problem Identification – clarify the problem; find difference between current state of affairs and desired ones • Problem analysis – assessing the problem and factors of the problem; scope, harm, causes • Criteria selection - decide on the characteristics of a valid solution prior to discussing specific solutions; what are the standards for solution • Solution generation – brainstorming; generate options • Solution evaluation and selection – group members use previously selected criteria to evaluate each solution • Implementation – putting the solution into affect o Brainstorming – when group members are encouraged to generate as many ideas as they can as quickly as possible o Nominal group technique – combines the standard agenda, brainstorming, and the Johnson’s methods for generating ideas; the group cuts interaction to a minimum; members rank their favorite idea and it is chosen; eliminates potential conflict; allows quieter members to be herd • Group rolls o Task rolls – focused on accomplishing specific goal; (solving a problem, making a decision, creating a product); results in productivity; (eg: initiator, contributor, orienter, recorder, opinion giver, devil’s advocate) o Maintenance rolls – focused on maintaining positive social climate / relationships among group members; results in cohesiveness; (eg: encourager, harmonizer, follower, group observer, tension reliever) o Negative / Dysfunctional roles – focused on personal goals that inhibit achievement of group goals (clown, stagehog, blocker • Group think – when a group gets too confident and makes poor decisions; the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision making outcome; members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative viewpoints, by actively suppressing dissenting viewpoints, and by isolating themselves from outside influences; members believe they can do no wrong; can occur when cohesion is too high and members are too similar o Symptoms • Illusion of invulnerability – group loses all sense of reality • Belief in the groups own mortality – the members believe their actions and beliefs are more valuable than those of people outside the group • Shared stereotypes – members believe that anyone who opposes the group is stupid or wrong • Collective rationalizations – members stick to an ill-advised course of action even in the face of contrary information • Self-censorship – individuals who doubt the group feel that they have to censor themselves because they will be met by disapproval • Illusion of unanimity – a doubting member believes that everyone else agrees with the group’s chosen action • Pressure on dissenters – if a dissenting member speaks up they are severely sanctioned • Mind-guards – people who protect the leaders of the group from outside and negative opinions / information o Ways to prevent groupthink • Members can assign someone to be devil’s advocate; they can take criticisms seriously; shouldn’t brag; hold second-chance meeting to review the flaws of a decision; monitoring behavior Ch. 9: Organizational • Definition - communication that takes place within an organization; how different elements of an organization come together to determining how it functions; what makes an organization is communication practices; exploring organizations through communication; We need to understand things like gender, ideology, ethnicity, etc. to have good organizational communication • Systems Theory - characteristic of an organization; there are different elements that are independent from each other and they function differently than when they are together v when they are not (parts of a car - useless when they are not together); this theory can apply to people and roles within an organization • Information flow of organizations o Formal Structure – when information flows through a structured chain of command officially recognized by the organization (worker goes to the manager who sends it to their supervisor) o Informal structure – when information takes a more personal and less structured path (gossip in the lunchroom); “heard it on the grapevine;” more often face to face; at least as accurate as formal channels o Downward flow – when someone near the top of the organization sends a message to someone near the bottom (instructions, appraisal, orientation) • Problems: not enough information (inadequate info on how to do their jobs); or information overload (with junk emails and memos); inappropriate channels; filtering through serial transmission; pervasive climate of dominance and submission • Fixes: target to proper audience; build in redundancy; use multiple channels; encourage questions o Upward flow – when a message travels from the bottom to the top (progress reports, problems, suggestions) • Problems: often neglected, no follow-up, distorted to avoid negative info • Fixes: Ombudsman (watchdog!); follow up; encourage and reward criticism o Horizontal flow - when communication occurs with people at the same level (cross-department teams and meetings; problem-solving; info sharing) • Problems: clash of interests and perspectives; jargon/vocabulary; competition/territoriality • Fixes: Build cooperative climate; paraphrasing and clarifying o Network Analysis – a method of mapping informal communication patterns o The structures: loose coupling and tight coupling • Loose coupling – autonomous units; when relations between subunits in an organization is relatively weak; information flow is gradual • Tight Coupling - subunits within an organization that are closely connected and highly interdependent o Roles • Clique – a group of people who communicate more with each other than they do with others in their organization; members of cliques may have similar jobs or share a common status • Liaison – someone who connects the two cliques without being a member of either one; may help info spread between people who would not normally communicate • Bridge – a member of a clique that has connections with another clique • Isolate – someone who is outside the informal network; an isolate that has no links to any clique • Organizational Culture o Defined - a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs, which governs how people behave in organizations. These shared values have a strong influence on the people in the organization and dictate how they dress, act, and perform their jobs. o Organizational rituals / rites - a public, dramatic set of planned activities that consolidate various forms of the company's culture; exemplifies the organizational culture and therefore reinforces it (CI, the Dundies) • 6 different types of rites 1. Passage - celebrates new role (CI) 2. Degradation - strips away power (impeachment) 3. Enhancement - rewards (Dundies) 4. Renewal - improve functioning (corporate retreat) 5. Conflict resolution - reduce conflict (grievance procedures) 6. Integration - create common identity (end of semester party) o Organizational stories - help us make sense of organizational culture by reflecting company values; narrative examples or anecdotes (GW snow days, law students sued GW for lost time due to unnecessary weather closures, this organizational story has a stigma about GW) o Organizational metaphor - linguistic expressions that allow us to experience one thing in terms of another; see something in terms of something else; (colonial inauguration); embody aspects of organizational culture Material covered since last exam: Ch. 10 and 11: Public Communication • Audience Analysis – important in public speaking because you have to know who you’re talking to and trying to convince; what are their attitudes and what are you trying to make them believe o Demographics - Looks at age, gender, ethnicity; looking at basic categories we can put people into o Psychographics - how do different groups of people lean on things; separate from demographics; looks at categorizing people differently based on stuff like interests and lifestyles, (marketers might segment their targets based on psychographics) o Beliefs – opinions that individuals hold about the world and their place in it; ▯ Peripheral beliefs – relative inconsequential and easy to change; less resistant ▯ Core beliefs – basic long term beliefs that cannot be changed without disrupting our entire belief structure fundamental beliefs held for long periods of time; if you change someone’s core beliefs then it’s life changing for them because they can lose their identity (your belief of self, your religious beliefs) o Attitudes – opinions that link an individual to a topic; a positive or negative predisposition; we have an attitude about anything we encounter ▯ There are 3 dimensions • Cognitive – what an individual knows about a topic (I know there are X amount of hungry children in America). • Affective – what an individual feels in regard to a topic (I feel sad when I think about hungry children). • Behavioral – what an individual intends to do in regard to a topic (I will donate money to feed hungry children). o Values – general and enduring opinions about what we should or should not be the case; the strongest or most personal of the three cognitive constructs; tied closely with our identity; we have fewer vales than beliefs and attitudes (World peace ought to be our highest goal). ▯ Spranger’s Value Systems – what types of values we have relate to our personality • Theoretical / Intellectual – pursuit and discovery of truth • Economic / practical – usefulness. Efficiency • Aesthetic – form, harmony, beauty • Social / sensitivity – love, warmth, relationships • Political / competitive – influence, power • Religious/spiritual – unity, wholeness, sense of higher purpose • Source characteristics – the tools that the speaker/source has to appeal to the audience (eg; ethos, pathos, logos); we want credible sources; how speaker is perceived by the audience is important) o Credibility – a kind of source characteristic; we look at expertness and trustworthiness; these two characteristics increase credibility and enable the speaker to influence and educate audience members o Power – a second kind of source characteristic; the belief that sources can influence others through power; power is exercised whenever an individual controls a valued resource • The Toulmin model – based on the idea of argument as practical reasoning rather than a form of logic; concerned with probabilities in everyday life and not with absolute certainties o There are 3 necessary elements of an argument ▯ Claim – what the speaker whishes the audience to accept; the conclusion or thesis of the argument; claims vary in strength – using words like (ALWAYS) indicate that the claim is strong ▯ Data – evidence; what supports the claims; eg: statistics, illustrative examples; research results, etc.; citing data does not guarantee that the claim will be accepted (she showed us an ad for a weight loss pill that cites data but its still stupid) ▯ Warrant – link between claim and data; (Eg: The claim is that women faculty at a school should be increased. The data is that 7% of faculty is women and few students have the opportunity to study with a woman teacher. Warrant: that the presence of a woman teacher is valuable and desirable.) o There are 3 non-essential elements ▯ Backing – support for warrant; eg: outlining the educational and social advantages of having a female teacher (look at the example above for reference) ▯ Qualifier – indication of relative strength of the claim; using words such as “always,” “sometimes,” etc. ▯ Rebuttal or reservation – acknowledgement of exceptional cases where the claim does not hold true; if the audience has reservations about the warrant, a rebuttal is needed to show knowledge of the opposite side of the argument • Types of arguments / types of warrants o Authoritative – based on source credibility; (Eg: surgeon giving argument about someone’s health – they’re a doctor!); the beliefs of the credible person may by used as data in an argument (Drugs are bad because 85% of surgeon generals say so!) o Motivational argument – based on the emotional needs and desire of the audience; (Killing baby seals is bad!) (This perfume makes you irresistible to men!) ▯ Some arguments are “motivational” depending on the audience (if they’re single and want to attract guys) o Substantive – connects data and claim through logical reasoning ▯ Casual reasoning – arguments from cause; trying to establish why something happened • (Claim: if this politician is reelected, the economy will grow worse; Data: inflation and unemployment has grown dramatically since they’ve been in office.) ▯ Sign reasoning – arguments from sign – seeks to protect one condition by pointing to another condition associated with it; easily confused with casual reasoning (eg: smoke is a sign of fire but not the cause of fire) • (Claim: This year’s class will not do as well as the previous year’s class. Data: Their SAT scores are lower. Warrant: SAT scores are a good indicator of success) ▯ Generalization – seek to establish a general conclusion on the basis of data taken from a small sample of cases • (Claim: James will win the election. Data: Out of 1000 people, 57 percent said they would vote for James. Warrant: the rest of the people will act as did the sample). ▯ Analogy – seek to establish the similarity between 2 situations • (Claim: The president will be able to balance the budget. Data: When the president was a governor, he was able to balance the budget. Warrant: Being a governor is similar enough to being president that success as the formal level means success at the higher level). Ch. 12 and 13: Campaigns • RACE Model of campaigns o Research - finds out about the situations facing your organization, how they came about, who is involved in them, how they relate to your organization's goals, and how you - as a public relations practitioner - can maximize the benefit and/or minimize the harm they might do. o Action - uses your research findings to determine the best course of action, plan your response, and then implement these plans. Some RACE proponents call this step "Assessment" instead of action, but they invariably include the same activities. o Communication - takes advantage of all available media to deliver carefully- focused messages through the most appropriate channels so they can have positive effects on each of your organization's publics. o Evaluation - analyzes what's been done during the first three steps to see how it affected your publics and their perception of your organization. Once this step is completed, you return to the research step and begin the process again. • McGuire’s Matrix – idea that there are different factors at play when thinking about a campaign; who the message should come from; what are the different messages; explains persuasion affects by identifying inputs and outputs o Not in our textbook – find out more from Miller • Public Relations / Strategic Communication campaign strategy concepts o Campaign planning ▯ Analyze the situation: find the problem and look at the opportunities (what can we gain from this problem) ▯ Audience identification • The public – a group with similar interest • Stakeholders – people wit special interests in the organization • Audience – the overall people whit whom you are communicating o Primary Audience: who you seek a direct affect with o Secondary audience: the opinion leaders for the primary audience o Tertiary audience: to what groups or clubs do the primary audience members belong ▯ PR Communication Tactics • Messaging has to be clear, consistent, resonant, backed with action • You have to look at channels to discover your goals • You have to look at events that occurred in the past or things that your audience would want to attend Ch. 14: Media • Mass Mediated Communication o Functions of Media • Surveillance - news doing sports reporting; investigative journalism • Correlation - analysis part of media; journalists talking about policy issues or sitting in a circle after a debate to analyze it; Cultural transmission - we become acculturated through our media; how we • become educated and socialize through our media • Entertainment - use tv shows to relax or entertain o Media effects • Agenda setting - Agenda setting says that the extent of coverage an issue gets, reflects that they think the public has most interest in; media creates a public agenda; attacks in Paris v attacks in Lebanon, we pay more attention to the stuff in Paris; really hard to study effectively or make claims with certainty • Framing theory - kind of replaced agenda setting theory; doesn’t look at the issue and whether it is important or not, but rather how people perceive the issue; looking at how the media frames school shootings- one possible frame is to talk about mental health services, another frame is looking at guns and policy issues • Cultivation theory - TV as a story teller; long term. Cumulative development of a particular conception of social reality; heavy TV watchers have sometimes unrealistic perceptions of reality and think the world Is more violent; Mean world - they think the world is worse than it is • Hegemony - concept suggesting that power differences in society are maintained through media messages that lead to disempowered groups to buy into their own subjugation; eg: McDonalds targeting people of color in their ads • Spiral of silence - media over reports on positions that are most popular, leading to the perception of lack of opposition, which further silences the opposition; there is a false sense of consensus and those who disagree with that consensus are afraid to speak their minds in fear of reprimand o Selective processing - choosing what happens • Selective exposure - we seek to see certain stories or messages and then actively choose to avoid others • Selective attention - we focus on stories or messages that we think are relevant, and ignore those that aren't (Paris again! -- we have more ties / are more relatable to an attack in Paris) • Selective perception - despite what the story might be saying, we get from it only what we want; we hear what we want to hear; the take away message is ours • Selective retention - only remembering a small part of the message; particularly one that stood out to us or one that supported our views Ch. 16: • Characteristics of scholarly research o Question Oriented – question grows out of previous research; when a researcher encounters a state of affairs that needs explanation o Methodological – research is systematic and ordered with built in guarantees that the findings will be as accurate as possible o Replicable – other people must be able to replicate your results o Seeks influence – with peers and the public • Rhetorical criticism o Definition – an extension and refinement of the everyday critical impulse; it is a systematic way of describing, analyzing, and evaluating a given act of communication; investigating and evaluating rhetorical acts and artifacts for understanding the rhetorical process; rhetorical critics engage in a thorough examination of a given message and it’s effects, giving special attention to the situation that prompted the message as well as the social and personal constrains of the speaker; the way we talk about things matters; in class she gave the example of how we can scientifically study how Hitler’s messages against the Jews affected the German people; a social constructionist would probably use this method o What makes a judgment rhetorical ▯ Implies judgment of value ▯ Implies policy recommendation ▯ Addresses somewhat particular audience o A rhetorical act is any act of communication that influences belief or behavior of an audience o 3 part process to rhetorical criticism ▯ Description – looking at the context, rhetor, structure, language strategies, themes, etc of the message ▯ Interpretation / analysis – looking at how these elements come together, looking at the strategies that function for the audience; and looking at the deeper message ▯ Evaluation – looking at how effective the message is; if it’s ethical or moral or if it has social efficacy • Ethnographic research o Definition – seeks understanding of norms and patterns of interactions; whenever curiosity about human behavior motivates us to observe others, we are engaging in our own private version of ethnography; studies behavior in natural setting, inductive process, attempts to be presupposition-less, results in rich / thick description; a pragmatist would use ethnography o You have to observe participants in their own territory ▯ Covert role - when you observe people without being aware of ones presence, you become a member of the community to study it • Problem: there’s a problem getting consent from participants; its deceptive • Solutions: perhaps you can reveal yourself at the end of the study and make sure you guard the anonymity ▯ Overt role – the ethnographer enters the field as a scientist and the people know they are being observed • Problem: people may be deceptive or try to impress the observer • Solutions: trying to blend in as much as possible o Getting information ▯ Field notes – a record of critical events and behaviors accompanied by the ethnographer’s self observations, feelings, and interpretations ▯ Informant – a member of the culture who is willing to show the researcher around, to answer questions, and to set up interviews with people ▯ Interviews are very important, the more the better • Survey research (overall process, sampling techniques, open and closed questions, rating scales), o Definition – an investigator who chooses a sample of people to question; decides what to ask and how to ask it, and administers the questions in either written or oral form o Ways of surveying ▯ Descriptive (polls; like a snapshot) • You take a small group of people (sample) from the population, so you don’t have to ask everyone questions ▯ Analytical (explains relationship between 2 or more variables) – might talk about your relationship or how you feel o Choosing a sample – you need a sampling plan / a systematic method for studying participants ▯ Random – members of population have equal chance of selection (can be randomly selected by a computer) ▯ Stratified selection – seeking specific percentages based on characteristics (eg: based on religion, you get an equal amount of representatives from each group) ▯ Accidental / convenience sample – you survey who ever you have access to; ask demographic data and compare to the population o Designing the survey / steps in survey research ▯ Determining the types of items / questions you’re going to ask • Open ended – hard to read lots of; hard for computer; but lots to analyze • Close-ended – yes / no; easy for computer; but don’t give you a lot to analyze • Rating scales – rate from 1-5; lots of options for analyzing data and easier for computer than open ended ▯ Frame Questions – questions should be answerable, clear, avoid leading ▯ Order items – make the easiest first, sensitive ones later, you don’t want to give away what you want you find ▯ Collecting the data • Interview v questionnaire – in person or something like survey monkey • Big issue is privacy issues; make sure they’re untraceable; questions you ask make sure that they don’t reveal about themselves in the answers • Experimentation (independent and dependent variables), reliability and validity o Involves manipulation of at least one variable; experimental research alters the independent variable ▯ The dependent variable is the one that is affected by the experimental treatment and is measured for affect *Ch. 15: • Ways of defining culture – looking at beliefs, values, and practices (these define each other, practices are a way of demonstrating our values and beliefs); we look at both material and immaterial expressions (it’s a systems approach – independent elements come together to create something that is greater than the parts); looking at the combination of values, norms, institutions, artifacts; we can also think of culture as a shared worldview (when a group of people take similar perspectives towards the world) • Individualism and collectivism – individual goals vs group goals; looking at how we define oneself by group membership vs individual characteristics (personal v shared) o Individualism ▯ Prominent in Western/European countries – US is very high on individualism ▯ Emphasis on the good of the individual, looks at people singly ▯ A characteristic of individualism is horizontal relationships – people relate to one another as equals; they might not be equal but they treat people as so; (eg at a workplace, there are people of different ranks but they call each other by the first name, casual and treating each other the same) ▯ Values include freedom, honesty – sometimes hard for other cultures to deal with blatant honesty ▯ Typically low-context (context means everything that surrounds the message) • Characterized by direct language • Explicit meaning of the message seen as most important • Goal directed (we communicate to get stuff done) and speaker focused o Eg: “It’s cold in here” “Let’s put the heat on” ▯ trying to get something done o Collectivism ▯ Prominent in Asian, South American countries ▯ Emphasis on the good of the group (eg might look out for the best of the family, or best for the country) ▯ Vertical relationships; value status and hierarchy – they are accepted and promoted; calling people by titles ▯ Values include harmony, modesty ▯ Typically high-context • Characterized by indirect language • Meaning derived from implicit situational and relational cues • Relationship directed and listener focused • Eg: Instead of saying “it’s cold,” you might shiver, and the other person would turn the heat up (if they’re also from a high context culture) • Cognitive biases used to maintain prejudices (we covered this lightly on the last day of class) - We can take the exact precise behavior and label it a certain way o Negative Interpretation: predisposition to interpret out-group behavior as negative; we perceive people who are different than us as negative o Discounting: dismiss info that doesn’t fit the stereotype; when we see some who doesn’t fit our stereotype we dismiss them as an exception of the stereotype o Fundamental Attribution Bias: negative out-group behavior seen as internally motivated; its because of how they are as a person o Exaggeration: interpret out-group behavior as extreme o Polarization: focus on difference; ignore similarity
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