Developmental study guide Exam 3
Developmental study guide Exam 3 PSYC 3120
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Friday April 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
Developmental Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide Highlight = important terms Highlight = important people Highlight = important concepts **Anything bolded is a “vocab term” 1. Egocentrism in adolescents thinking (imaginary audience, personal fables) • Imaginary audience: teen tends to think they are the focus of everybody’s attention o Always “onstage” o Sensitive to public criticism • Personal fables: teen thinks their experiences are unique o Thinks that no one understands what they’re going through- especially their parents 2. Know the term Meta-Cognition • Meta-cognition: self-knowledge for your own thinking process o Leads to better study habits and study skills o They can understand when they actually know something o Leads to the ability to monitor your thinking process 3. Know/understand Piaget’s formal operational stage • Formal operational stage: the stage at which people develop the ability to think abstractly • Better at solving abstract problems and reasoning about hypothetical problems • Necessary for things like algebra 4. Factors associated with eating disturbances (body image) • Eating disturbances: obesity, anorexia nervous, bulimia • Obesity- overweight • Anorexia nervosa- underweight • Bulimia- not necessarily underweight but over-worried about weight 5. Difference in onset of puberty for boys and girls • Boys o Starts later than girls (usually around age 13-14) o Penis and scrotum begin to grow at an accelerated rate around age 12 (reach full size about 3 or 4 years later) o Prostate gland and seminal vesicles enlarge o Spermarche (a boy’s first ejaculation) usually occurs around age 13 o Pubic hair begins to grow around age 12, followed by growth of underarm and facial hair o Voice deepens as the vocal cords become longer and the larynx larger • Girls o Starts earlier than boys (usually around age 11-12) o Most obvious signal of puberty: menarche (a girl’s first period) o Breasts begin to grow at around age 10 o Pubic hair begins to appear at about age 11 o Underarm hair appears at about age 13 6. Factors related to being an early maturer vs. late maturer for boys and girls • Early maturation o Boys- can be a positive event, can involve risk of delinquency § Tend to be more successful at athletics § Tend to be more popular and to have a more positive self- concept § Can also be a negative event- more apt to have difficulties in school, more likely to become involved in delinquency and substance abuse o Girls- can be mixed whether it’s positive or negative § May lead them to feel uncomfortable and different from peers § May have to endure ridicule from their less mature classmates • Late maturation o Boys- can lead to low self-esteem § Boys who are smaller and lighter tend to be viewed as less attractive o Girls- may be positive (high self esteem, like being “leggy”) § May end up with fewer emotional problems 7. Factors associated with depression and suicide (symptoms, gender differences in suicide method) • Symptoms o 2 weeks of either depressed mood or the loss of interest in nearly all activities § In teens, this mood may be irritable rather than sad o Significant distress or impairment in social, academic, or other important areas of functioning o Appetite is usually reduced (rapid changes in weight) o Insomnia (sleep disruption) o Negative view of self, world and future o Academic problems (low motivation) o Sometimes associated with: conduct disorder, ADHD, anxiety disorders, substance abuse and eating disorders • Gender differences in suicide method o Women are more likely to attempt suicide o Men are more likely to commit suicide o Boys tend to use more violent means such as guns o Girls tend to choose the more peaceful strategy of drug overdose 8. Know percentage of adolescents who experience depression • 20-35% males have experienced depressive moods • 25-40% females have experienced depressive moods • 3% of teens are severely depressed 9. Know the term cluster suicide • Cluster suicide: one suicide leads to attempts by others to kill themselves 10. Trends in college enrollment (broad trends related to gender and racial/ethnic background) • Currently more women than men enrolled in college • U.S. college students are primarily white and middle class (about 70% white, 15% African American, 15% Hispanic, 10% Asian, <1% Native American) 11. Factors involved in college success (i.e., deriving benefits from college; high impact activities) • Benefits of college attendance o Self-understanding o Enhanced self-esteem o Firmer sense of identity 12. Recognize examples of Labouvie-Vief’s Theory of Postformal thought • Postformal thought: thinking that acknowledges that adult predicaments must sometimes be solved in relativistic terms • Example: Ben is known to be a heavy drinker, especially when he goes to parties. Tyra, Ben’s wife, warns him that if he comes home drunk one more time, she will leave him and take the children. Tonight Ben is out late at an office party. He comes home drunk. Does Tyra leave Ben? o An adolescent would say it’s clear- she leaves him o In early adulthood, the answer becomes a little less clear because they must take more things into consideration 13. Know Schaie’s 4 stages of cognitive development (know when each stage is supposed to occur and what each primary developmental/intellectual task is) Figure 13-6 • Acquisitive stage o When: all of childhood and adolescence o Main developmental task: acquire information • Achieving stage o When: early adulthood o Main task: applying intelligence to attaining long-term goals regarding their careers, family and contributions to society • Responsible stage o When: late stages of early adulthood and middle adulthood o Main task: protecting and nourishing their spouses, families and careers • Executive stage (entered by many, but not all people) o When: later in middle adulthood o Main task: become more concerned about the larger world • Reintegrative stage o When: late adulthood o Main task: focus on tasks that have personal meaning- information acquisition is directed toward particular issues that specifically interest them 14. Be able to recognize the difference between dualistic and multiple thinking (William Perry) • Dualistic thinking: first year student thinking; things are right or wrong • Multiple thinking: towards the end of college career; students realize there are multiple theories- there’s not one true theory 15. Know the broad reasons for the gender gap in STEM (stereotypes) • Classes in education and social sciences typically have more women than men • Classes in math and science tend to have more men than women • Women are “supposed” to pick careers more oriented toward females, like nursing and social work (nurturing careers) • Men are “supposed” to pick careers more oriented toward males, like engineering (earn more money, men are “smarter” than women and can do these careers better than women) 16. Be able to define the term academic dis-identification • I was not able to find the definition for this in the book or from lecture notes 17. Factors involved in attraction (e.g., proximity, similarity) • Similarity o We tend to like people who have similar interests, values, backgrounds and personalities • Proximity o Who we become associated with and whom we befriend can be best predicted by proximity 18. Cultural and gender differences in mate selection • Cultural o United States- men and women both rank love and mutual attraction as primary o China- men rank good health as primary, women rank emotional stability as primary o South Africa (Zulu)- men rank emotional stability as primary, women rank dependable character as primary • Gender o Men tend to pick female mates who are young and attractive o Women tend to pick male mates who are ambitious and industrious 19. Sternberg’s Triangular Theory • Triangular theory: love is made up of three components • Intimacy component: encompasses feelings of closeness, affection and connectedness • Passion component: comprises the motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness and romance • Decision/commitment component: embodies both the initial cognition that one loves another person and he longer-term determination to maintain that love 20. Know recent trends in marital age, Marriage Gradient, Homogamy, evolutionary perspective, filtering model • Age of first marriage is increasing o Median age for first marriage in the U.S. is 27 years for men o Median age for first marriage in the U.S. is 25 years for women • Marriage Gradient o Men tend to marry women who are slightly younger, smaller and lower in status o Women tend to marry men who are slightly older, larger and higher in status o “Bottom of the barrel” men – low status men who can’t find someone of low enough status to marry o “Cream of the crop” women – women who are of higher status than anyone in the available pool of men • Filtering Model o People screen potential mates through successively finer-grained filters o First filter consists of broad determinants of attractiveness o As the filters get more and more finer-grained, the pool of potential mates decreases • Evolutionary Perspective (David Buss) o Men seek out young, fertile women who have a high fertility capacity (able to produce more offspring over a longer period of time) o Women seek out mates who will be able to provide resources that will promote survival of the child (economically well-off men) • Homogamy o Homogamy: tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, religion, and other basic demographic characteristics 21. Factors associated with career selection (Ginzberg, Holland) • Eli Ginzberg: people typically move through a series of stages in choosing a career o Fantasy period (until age 11) § Career choices are made without regard to skills, abilities or opportunities o Tentative period (adolescence) § Start to think about job requirements o Realistic period (young adulthood) § Start to explore specific career options • Holland: certain personality types match well with certain careers o Realistic- down to earth, practical problem solver; don’t really like to be with other people (e.g., truck driver, farmer) o Intellectual- lean towards theoretical issues; social skills aren’t strong (e.g., science or math careers) o Social- good with verbal skills and interpersonal relations; good at working with people (e.g., salesperson, teacher, counselor) o Conventional- like very structured tasks (e.g., clerks or secretaries) o Enterprising- risk takers; enjoy taking charge (e.g., politicians or office manager) o Artistic- express themselves; prefer art to social interactions (e.g., any career with art)
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