BIC 1324: Exam 2 Study Guide
BIC 1324: Exam 2 Study Guide BIC 1324
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Frazier on Friday April 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIC 1324 at Baylor University taught by Dr. Rust in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views.
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Date Created: 04/01/16
FRAZIER ▯1 M IDTERM STUDY G UIDE I. VIKINGS LECTURE A. SHARED RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY 1. the world tree — we live in middle earth, gods live inAsgard 2. heaven — fighting, sleeping, feasting B. GEOGRAPHY : Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway, Sweden) is homeland C. CULTURE IS ORIENTED TOWARD THE SEA 1. the ship becomes central to identification (nobility) D. RAID AND TRADE METHOD OF SETTLEMENT CIVILIZATION 1. chieftains were governmental unit 2. friendship/family/relationships were the currency of power 3. vikings hold up white shield to signify peace when trading E. THE SAGAS : 1. oral tradition then written form a) folk literature can be used to identify where archeological ruins are buried 2. old norse language — Runes are the alphabet 3. mix of fact and fiction a) themes: bloodlust b) vinland sagas (1) when Thor goes fishing with Giant, he uses ox head as bait to catch the Serpent (2) Eirik involved in skirmished and had to leave Norway (3) Olaf sends Lief to convert greenland to christianity (4) a bull scared the skraelings (the native people) and they left (5) Thorstein dies and is raised from the dead to tell Gudrid her fate, then he dies forever II. THE MIDDLE AGES : AND OVERVIEW LECTURE A. DEFINITION — church dominated era that stressed faith at expense of learning/reason B. THE MEDIEVAL WORLDVIEW : 1. god acts through his word and his church, assigning everyone a place and role in life 2. promise of salvation through faith, devotion, and good works 3. scriptures and church traditions are ultimate authority, not human reason or learning C. PAPALPOWER 1. god endows secular rulers through pope 2. hierarchical network (clergy, bishops, pope, etc) 3. immense wealth 4. spiritual weapons (excommunication, interdict, sanctuary, inquisition, etc) D. RELIGIOUS ORDERS — CLOISTERED ,NON -CLOISTERED ,MILITARY 1. monks: devoting life to god through separation from world 2. friars: social workers F RAZIER ▯2 3. military: religious warfare as service to god >>three vows: poverty, chastity, obedience<< E. FEUDALISM — ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ORDER 1. fief: land grant in return for loyalty 2. vassal system: lower lords depend on higher ones 3. serfs: unfree rural labor forces 4. guilds: urban trade organizations 5. manors: rural, self-sufficient economic units F. FEUDAL SOCIETY 1. three orders: those who pray (clergy), those who fight (nobles), those who work (everyone else) 2. two hierarchical models: rural, urban ·······feudalism declines due to black death······· G. MEDIEVAL LEARNING 1. high illiteracy: learning reserved fro elite 2. universities concentrate on: theology, law, medicine, liberal arts H. late medieval trends 1. growth of nation-state in W. Europe 2. political fragmentation 3. expanding trade, literacy, learning 4. toward vernacular languages, secularism 5. age of renaissance, reformation, and “reconnaissance” (european overseas expansion) III.TRISTAN LECTURE A. ELEANOR OF AQUITAINE — ESTABLISHED “CHIVALRIC ” COURT B. “COURTLY LOVE ” 1. of literary origin (celtic storytelling) 2. aristocratic 3. extra-marital 4. had strict rules 5. themes: a) beauty (physical and internal) b) passion transforms poet for the better c) rejection is bitter but inevitable C. WHY IS COURTLY LOVE IMPORTANT ? 1. gave us our romantic vocabulary and understanding of love 2. gave us some of our most enduring love stories 3. gave us the prejudices about love today D. TRISTAN 1. would not be possible without courtly love F RAZIER ▯3 2. mixture of celtic magic and christian overlays 3. The Romance of Tristan and Isolde a) troubadours (1) Brandgane wants mark and Isolde to drink the love potion so they will fall in love and it will be peace between lands (2) after Tristan and Isolde drink the love potion, Brandgane (cousin) throws it into the river (3) Tristan kills the dragon, not the steward (4) when Isolde realizes Tristan kills her uncle, Tristan is in the bathtub and she holds a sword over him, but does nothing (a) her good virtues are fighting against the pain and vengeance (b) gender ideals: “[how could she ever,…but she didn’t have the heart, while she did have anger…]” >>“tender womanliness” kept her from acting (5) Brandgane spends the first part of solders wedding night with mark (a sacrifice of her esteemed virginity for her cousin, Isolde, who is not a virgin, possibly giving up her chance to marry) E. GOTTFRIED ’S MESSAGE 1. dynastic marriage is hollow = marriage does not require love 2. a “noble heart” makes love an ennobling emotion = love makes you happy 3. love is the “physician” which heals all F. EPIC HERO 1. larger than life 2. of national importance 3. of cosmic importance 4. brave 5. receives a quest or challenge 6. must demonstrate superhuman strength, skill, courage, and intelligence IV. MONASTICISM LECTURE A. ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH AND LATIN CULTURE B. INSTITUTIONS : 1. monasticism: benedictines a) purpose: work of god b) monasteries: self-sufficient institutions >>plan of fountains abbey, Yorkshire<< a) francis’s understanding of christianity: poverty, humility, joy, nature, suffering b) friars: work in the world, not cloistered 2. the papacy (power, influence) C. PATHOF THE CHRISTIAN LIFE : ETHICAL a) seven deadly sins, seven sacraments FRAZIER ▯4 V. DANTE LECTURE A. LIFE OF DANTE : 1. born in florence 2. from the merchant class 3. condemned to exile 4. wrote much of the divine comedy while in exile 5. Dante is the hero of his own poem 6. Dante sets the poem in medias res (half way through his life) B. HISTORICAL CONTEXT 1. church (papacy): declining system…state (roman empire): rising system C. DANTE ’S DIVINE COMEDY 1. written in vernacular Italian — beginning of the renaissance 2. provides a synthesis of medieval thought (view of cosmos and of afterlife) a) Beatrice — dante’s muse b) Virgil — leader through the underworld c) begins the night before good friday; ends just before dawn on easter 3. centers on one man’s journey to god 4. main action — the movement of his soul toward its final goal: to become one with the universal will 5. 100 cantos — make note of satan’s appearance 6. the moral geology of hell: a) the hierarchy of sin b) contrapasso — the punishment of souls in dante's inferno: by a process either resembling or contrasting with the sin itself c) 9 LEVELS OF INFERNO : (1) LIMBO (2) LUSTFUL (3) GLUTTONOUS (4) MISERS & SPENDTHRIFTS INCONTINENCE (5) WRATHFUL (6) HERETICS (7) VIOLENT VIOLENCE (8) FRAUDULENT FRAUD (9) TRAITORS >>the three categories of moral failure represent the inversion of classical virtues<< FRAZIER ▯5 VI. INTRODUCTION TO RENAISSANCE LECTURE A. HISTORICAL CONTEXT 1. THE RENAISSANCE PARADOX : RENEWAL IN AN AGE OF CALAMITIES a) famines, natural disasters b) failure of crusades c) mongol invasions d) 100 years’war e) black death f) church troubles (heresies, schisms) g) islamic advance B. A RENAISSANCE REVOLUTION 1. RECOVERY OF THE CLASSICAL HERITAGE a) “renaissance man” b) physical fitness c) humanism, tolerance of others d) open-minded inquiry, curiosity e) classical aesthetics in art and literature 2. REJECTION OF MEDIEVAL WORLDVIEW a) life is to be enjoyed, not suffered 3. DEMYSTIFICATION OF NATURE a) look at nature as it is, without prejudice (scientific) (1) allows control over nature (to our own benefits) b) Crosby thesis: The Measure of Reality (1) master of material rather than enslaved (a) i.e. musical notation, cartography, ship building, ballistics, arabic numerals, perspec- tive 4. REORIENTATION :THE ONSET OF MODERNITY a) reformation ends catholic monopoly on “truth” b) geographical expansion redefines boundaries of physical world c) decline of feudalism yields rise of middle class, capitalism d) strong dynasties yield nationalism 5. PETRARCH : FATHEROF HUMANISM a) “Ascent of Mount Ventoux” — letter written to his former professor of philosophy at the University of Paris who had once given Petrarch a copy ofAugustine’s Confessions (1) climbs Mount Ventoux (2) takes brother and Confessions (3) “i turned my eye upon myself” — renaissance idea of finding the answer within FRAZIER ▯6 THE DECAMERON BY BOCACCIO — DURING THE BLACK DEATH 6. a) STORY 3 — Saladin, religious tolerance, rings — unsure heir — three laws (abrahamic tradi- tions b) STORY 9 — courtly love, nobleness of spirit, marriage, love and faithfulness c) STORY 7 — gender and law, women’s courage, cleverness, power of rhetoric d) STORY 10 — relics, intelligence, religious corruption, danger of uneducated public (he gets away with it) 7. THE CANTERBURY TALESBY CHAUCER , FATHEROF ENGLISH POETRY ” a) “the shipman’s tale” (1) written in vernacular (2) the woman used her trickery to pay off her debt; criticism of church VII.MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE MUSIC LECTURE A. MEDIEVAL MUSIC 1. psalms, early spiritual songs 2. gregorian chant — monophonic, male voices, “prayer on pitch” 3. additions in liturgy a) tropes 4. polyphonic music — the most significant innovation in the history of western music 5. beginnings of notation — necessary when harmony is added a) Odo of Cluny b) Guido d’Arezzo — Guidonian hand (do re mi etc.) 6. instruments in sacred music — not huge B. SECULAR MEDIEVAL MUSIC 1. Goliard music — latin texts: wine, women, satire 2. Chanson de geste — epic narrative, in vernacular, troubadours 3. troubadours a) noblemen who are poets and composers b) subject — chivalric love, war (crusades), drinking songs, vernacular c) Duke William ofAquitaine — earliest known troubadour d) Moniot d’Arras — latest know troubadour C. ARS NOVA :TRANSITIONAL PERIOD 1. Guillame de Machaut: french poet — first priest and composer, first mass 2. Francesco Landini — blind, prolific Italian composer D. RENAISSANCE — GOLDEN AGE OF ACAPELLA MUSIC 1. John Dunstable — leading english composer 2. Josquin dez Prez — first to use text painting E. REFORMATION AND COUNTER REFORMATION F RAZIER ▯7 Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina — the composer of the counter reformation 1. VIII.WOMEN IN MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE SOCIETY LECTURE >>TWO QUESTIONS << 1. ARE MEN AND WOMEN FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT ? a) understanding of biology b) understanding of theology *powerful women were anomalies 2. IF SO,HOW DO WE CODIFY THAT DIFFERENCE ? a) limited political power b) limited agency under law *clothing reflects: technical innovations, religious values, societal values, class, gender, cultural values B. FASHION INNOVATION 1. women's headdress 2. length of dress showed wealth C. CODIFICATION OF DIFFERENCE 1. marriage a) a private matter b) church privileged virginity c) priests in charge >>QUESTION :MARRIAGE AFTER THE R EFORMATION ?<< D. CHILDREN 1. contraception 2. high mortality rates E. NUNS 1. powerful abbesses 2. confining of nuns (Boniface viii) 3. beguines (lay women) — lived together, helped poor, no vows >>QUESTION :WHAT DID THE R EFORMATION DO FOR WOMEN ?<< —married state now preferable to celibacy, role in church >>QUESTION :WASTHERE A R ENAISSANCE FOR WOMEN IN ART ?<< —problem: workshop structure —women could not gain experience F. WOMEN S ARTISTIC ENDEAVORS 1. embroidery 2. illustrations 3. painting — Gentileschi 4. writing — von Gandersheim, Marjory Kemp, Christine de Pizan: City of Ladies FRAZIER ▯8 >> QUESTION : WHICH SEX IS SUPERIOR?<< 1. Mary — idealization of virginity 2. Eve — denigration of sexuality —gave rise to the debate over women, yielding Malleus Maleficarum a) M ALLEUS M ALEFICARUM — HAMMER OF THE WITCHES (1) By Kramer and Sprenger (2) Basic premise: Women have the potential to be witches and use their awful powers to ensnare and entrap men, bringing about certain ruin to civilization (which is male-dominated) (3)Use the Bible, historical figures, church leaders to back up claims (4)M AIN POINTS (a) No moderation in women (either evil or good, no balance) (b) Emotional displays are a trap (c) If left to our own devices, we think evil thoughts (d) Women always act opposite a man's commands (contrary) (e) We are made from a twisted rib, making us imperfect and deceptive; twisted (f) Susceptible to carnal lust: animalistic(Eve versus Mary) (g) Women have a week memories: we forget our discipline (h) Manhood has been sanctioned because Jesus, who died for us, chose to be a man (i) We can't keep secrets/we gossip, spreading witchcraft (j) We doubt our faith IX. MEDIEVAL CHRISTIAN DRAMA LECTURE A. ST. GENESIUS :THEATER BEING REBORN IN THE HEART OF THE INSTITUTION THAT CLOSED IT DOWN B. H ROSVITHA VON G ANDERSHEIM 1. First known western dramatist of the post-classical era 2. First known female dramatist 3. Latin C. L ITURGICAL DRAMA — AND ORDER , EVERYONE PARTICIPATES ,WORSHIP 1. Symbolic performance/ ritual 2. Tropes: “playlets” —> liturgical drama 3. Became associated with cathedrals a) Made liturgical drama more accessible to laypeople D. C YCLE PLAYS 1. The feast of Corpus Christi a) to call attention to: (1) The body of Christ (a) Eucharist (b) Church body F RAZIER ▯9 (c) Literal body of Christ b) Falls at the end of the liturgical year on the church calendar c) How celebrated: (1) Procession with Eucharist (2) Cycle plays (a) Trade guilds (b) Performed outdoors (c) Episodes from the Bible (d) Begin with creation, ended with final judgment i) “N OAH ’SF LOOD ” (1) Part of the Chester cycle of plays which were performed every year at the feast of Corpus Christi (2) God has the first and last words (3) Note differences from Genesis story: (a) Noah’s wife does not want to get on the ark (b) Raven sent out to look for dry land X. MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE ART AND ARCHITECTURE LECTURE A. C AROLINGIAN ARCHITECTURE :BASILICA ,OCTAGONAL 1. Church of holy sepulcher § San Vitale B. C AROLINGIAN ART 1. “Christ in majesty” 2. R OMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE (CLASSICAL EMPHASIS ) a) Emphasis on Roman models b) Major characteristics: murals, towers, Heavy walls, decorated interiors, Romanesque façades (1) Speyer Cathedral c) Statement of power 3. A RT OF THE ROMANESQUE PERIOD a) Cologne Cathedral — Goro cross: oldest known freestanding sculpture depicting the suffer- ing and death of Christ b) Essen Cathedral — Golden Madonna c) Carving in Ivory 4. G OTHIC ARCHITECTURE — C ENTRAL F RANCE a) Emphasis on verticality and light b) Pointed arch, stained glass, urban monuments, flying buttresses (1) St. Denis (first Gothic church) (2) Salisbury Cathedral (pinnacles, spyres) c) Rose windows — Christ is center d) Brunelleschi (Il Duomo, Firenze) FRAZIER▯10 5. G OTHIC REVIVA: DUKE CHAPEL 6. G OTHIC ART— MOVEMENT ,EMOTION (1) Iconography transitions to movement, emotion (2) Giotto — frescoes b) INTERNATIONAL G OTHIC (1) Bright colors (2) First secular paintings
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