Exam #3 Study Guide
Exam #3 Study Guide DEP 4014
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DEP 3403 Psychology Of Adulthood
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kharla Notetaker on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to DEP 4014 at Florida International University taught by Erin Hedemann in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 444 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Parenting in Psychlogy at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 12/07/15
Chapter 11 Key Terms and Concepts Single Parenting and its Effects The most common nontraditional family structure in the U.S. Though exceptions exist, single parenthood usually occurs for one of three reasons: o The parent was never married, o The parent has been separated or divorced, or o The spouse has died (the least common cause of single parenthood) Generally, single parents are mothers o One of the most significant structural shifts over in U.S. families has been the number of unmarried women who become mothers o Unmarried mothers are diverse. The main subgroups consist of: Adolescent single women, Older single women, and Unmarried women living with a partner Single parenthood is not a static characteristic o Many single parents are legally single, but are supported by a partner o Women are often in long-term relationships, but choose not to marry The caregiving quality of single mothers ranges from abusive and neglectful to exemplary parenting o However, due to the nature of the single-parent family structure, single mothers usually face excessive demands on their time, which results in high levels of stress Variations in the level of stress (and the amount of support, which can mitigate stress) influence parental interactions Stress for a single mother comes from many sources, including: o Financial issues, o Troubled relationships, o Never-ending demands of parenting, and o Not enough time for rest or other self-care tasks The relationship between single parenthood and financial stress is pronounced: 43% of children living with single mothers live at or below the poverty level o Compared to only 8% of children that are being raised in households with both biological parents present Social supports can compensate for the effects of stress and includes material and financial help while working as a moderator toward the adverse effects of stress o Social support also consists of having someone to talk with about the children, such as a family member, friend, or spouse o Feelings ofsatisfactionwith socialsupportaremore importantthan theactualamountof social support received (*) The number of stressors is also linked to children’s psychosocial adjustment o Meaning, the more risk factors (neighborhood issues, poverty) a single mother experienced, the more likely her children were to have internalizing problems This data illustrates what is called a cumulative risk model One of the most dramatic trends over the past 50 years is the increase in single-fatherhood households o These men tend to be younger, less educated, and less affluent than their married counterparts Single fathers spend similar time as single mothers in many respects, except for providing child care to children five and under o In those cases, father spend less time in physical care and housework but more time in play and eating with their children o Thesefathers, however,aremorelikelyto bedepressed and report lower happinessthan married fathers Four nationally representative longitudinal studies found that the problematic outcomes include being more likely to drop out of high school, to have a child before they are 20, or to be unemployed o Those results are partially due to the decreased economic resources, decreased parent involvement and supervision and lower aspirational levels, and the negative effects of residential mobility Father absence was found to negatively affect children’s socioemotional well-being, particularly if the father was absent during early childhood o This negative effect was stronger for boys than for girls Grandparents as Parents The first alternative as surrogate parents of children Thisnontraditionalfamilysituationoccurformanyreasons,includingdeathofthechild’sparents, financial problems, illness, incarceration, maltreatment, or substance abuse Though grandparents have the knowledge, wisdom, and time needed, they have less energy, more issues with discipline, and a generation gap Typically, they’re found to be highly committed to the well-being of their grandchild, and their parenting is in the normal range Older individuals (more than 65 years) tend to adopt a formal parenting role, compared with the “fun-seeking” grandparents who are younger and are more informal and playful in their relationship with their grandchild A second ground of younger grandparents are characterized as having benevolent but distant relationships Involved grandparents can serve as a positive influence since they can provide more cognitive stimulation However, grandparents who are surrogate parents can react with anger and resentment toward their adult child for putting them in this situation They aremore likely to reportmental problems, as well as financial strains and physical problems Teen Parenting and its Effects Contributing factors to teen pregnancy include living in poor neighborhoods, experiencing school problems(orfailure),notusingcontraceptives,unrealisticexpectationsaboutbeingaparent,and having low or no aspirations for the future Though they can be competent and loving parents, there is overall less cognitive and verbal simulation from their part when it comes to raising the infant Many teenagers experience pregnancy and parenthood as a crisis o Not only are they unprepared to be a parent, but their own phase of development conflicts with early parenthood E.g., typical adolescent tasks of identity formation and role experimentation are not easily accomplished at the same time as assuming the parental role Adolescent egocentrism may interfere with forming an attachment with and developing empathy for the newborn (*) Most adolescent parents are unprepared for what parenthood brings, and lack the necessary maturity and preparation needed to be a competent parent, which leads to further stress, relationship problems, and reliance on public assistance o When compared to children with older parents, children with adolescent parents tend to have more behavioral and psychosocial problems This can be moderated by their parents’ self-esteem, support system, intelligence, etc. Same-Sex Parents Not much research has been done; it’s difficult to collect samples given the low percent of same- sex parents, and most of the research could be characterized as limited by convenient, non- representative samples Few significant differences have been found between gay and lesbian parents and heterosexual parents (*) When differences are found, studies tend to find more positive functioning in gay father families, or that same-sex parents are more likely than heterosexual parents to share childcare tasks more evenly Other benefits include how lesbian mothers show more awareness of their children, and have beenobservedtoengageinmoresupportiveco-parentingwhencomparedtogayorheterosexual couples In general, studies haven’t found negative effects from this kind of parenting on children’s psychological well-being as assessed by anxiety, behavior problems, alcohol and drug use, self- esteem, sexual behavior and preferences, and school grades But one difference is that these children may face frequent antigay prejudice, harassment, and teasing from their peers Adopted Children Unlike biological parents, adoptive parents need to be evaluated and then certified as fit to be a parent (*) Mostadoptionscomethroughoneoftwosources:aprivateagencyorastatechildwelfareagency o Private agencies typically involve infants o State child welfare agencies generally involve older than infants Most parents who adopt an infant do so because they’re unable to have a biological child Only half of the parents who adopt from welfare agencies cite infertility The transition to parenthood for adopting families relies on expectations, letting go of the biological parenthood identity, preparation, and social support The screening procedure they go through, along with their positive expectations, contribute to reports of positive experiences altogether with their adoptive children Adopted children, especially those from foster care, are more at risk for genetically based psychological problems o They may also have experienced prenatal difficulties, such as inadequate nutrition or exposure to teratogens, as well as issues of maltreatment (for those adopted out of the foster system) o Other issues involve the formation of their identity, as well as their tendency to have higher rates of school problems (for foster system children) Reactive Attachment Disorder Referstoasyndromeconcerningtheinappropriatedevelopmentofattachmentrelationshipsthat can begin in infancy and appear prior to age five This may take one of two forms: o Inhibited/Emotionally withdrawn, or o Indiscriminant/Disinhibited (where children are unselective I their attachment behavior) Children may also be hypervigilant or ambivalent in how they response o Characteristics such as frozen watchfulness and resistance to comfort, etc. Children with this syndrome do not have an adult they prefer to go to for comfort when they are distressed; rather, they don’t respond to comfort, they show neither emotional nor social reciprocity, and they have difficulties regulating their emotions RAD is a result of serious neglect or repeated changes in caregiver which prevented the proper formation of a secure and stable attachment Many children with RAD are able to develop and form secure attachments once they’re adopted into good homes Chapter 12 Key Terms and Concepts Parents with Serious Mental Illness There are six commonly studied categories of mental health problems in parents: o Depression o Anxiety o Schizophrenia o Bipolar disorder o Antisocial personality disorder o Alcohol or substance abuse There is an incomplete understanding of how mental illness affects parenting and children’s development When considering how mental health problems affectparenting and children’s development, the environmental context needs to be considered Part of the reason for the focus on mothers is that they are typically the primary caregivers, but there is a long history of mother blaming o Mothers have been accused of causing a variety of problems in their children, such as autism and schizophrenia o This is due to an orientation or cultural view that a mother has primary responsibility for growth, development, and behavior of their children There are two types of multiple problems in these individuals: o Co-occurrence, when there are two or more problems in the family o Co-morbidity, when there are two or more disorders in an individual Mentally ill parents typically aren’t capable of providing emotional nurturance, reciprocal interactions, supervision, discipline, structure and stimulation, and warmth that young children need o And as these children grow older, parents may have difficulties granting autonomy to them There is also more stress, less social support, and nurturance in mentally ill mothers when compared to other mothers Depressed parents can also range from being irritable, negative, and disengaged with their children to being highly intrusive and overstimulating Children, as a result, are affected by their biological and genetic predispositions, cognitive interactions, family interactions, and characteristics Thoughchildrenareatriskfordevelopingdifferenttypesofproblems,ameta-analysesfoundthat the likelihood of children developing behavioral problems was actually small Parents of Children with Serious Developmental Disabilities (+ History of Related Theories) Parental stress comes from many sources: o Interaction difficulties, such as aggression and difficulty in controlling the child o Trying to solve challenging behavior problems o Interference with typical family functioning and other relationships o Feelings associated with having a child with special needs o Financial costs associated with rearing the child o Etc. In addition to being more stressful and demanding than rearing a typical child, the task is – for many parents – less rewarding There is evidence that the relation between maternal distress and children’s behavior problems is circular: o Distress leads to increased child behavior problems, which in turn lead to increased maternal distress There are still parents who are resilient; have more parental self-efficacy; or have a greater network of supportive friends, family, or groups, and are less likely to be adversely affected The main point for parents of children with SDD is that they need to readjust their perspective to better fit the child and their needs, rather than what prior expectations they already had Parents from Low SES Backgrounds Low income, also investigated as poverty or low SES, is the risk factor with the greatest likelihood for negative effects on parenting and child’s development What are the implications of living in poverty? o Living in a poor-quality physical environment Children in poverty live in toxic environments These residential areas are often plagued by crime, drugs, and violent gang- related activity o Poverty also means crowded and noisy living spaces; frequently changing housing situations; unemployment or low-paying jobs; underfunded, poor-quality day cares and schools; and – for minority members especially – discrimination Evidence is very clear that low income is interrelated with multiple negative contextual and interpersonal characteristics o Poor families have less financial and social capital to invest in their children o Such families are also more likely to be made up of single parents or members of a minority or immigrant group and have low educational achievement Not all parenting is adversely affected by living in low-income urban neighborhoods o Some parents respond in a variety of ways to try to counteract or at least buffer their children from some of the potentially damaging experiences Reactions by some parents include heightened commitment to their role as a parent, modifying their parenting practices to protect their children, and seeking out resources and opportunities for their children Economic hardship diminishes a parent’s capacity for supportive, consistent, and involved caregiving, in part because it results in depression Low-income parents are chronically more stressed and, on average, have more health and emotional problems than their higher-income peers o In terms of their parenting, they tend to be less warm, less responsive, and less talkative to their children o They are more likely to engage in harsh discipline (i.e., corporal punishment) and neglectful parenting Thewell-beingofchildreninpoorfamiliesisatriskforavarietyofhealthandbehavioralproblems o These children have more self-regulatory deficits, attentional problems, maladaptive coping skills (i.e., withdrawal and avoidance), behavior problems, and school failure than their higher-income peers Affluent Parents AttheothersideoftheSEScontinuumareaffluentfamilies,technicallydefinedasfamiliesearning greater than twice the country’s median income Some adjustment problems of children from these wealthy families includes anxiety, depression, and substance use Privileged children are believed to be at risk for several reasons: o They may experience unusually high achievement pressure, they may be more isolated from their parents (literally and emotionally), and their parents may devote less time to them o Children of affluent families perceive their parents as emotionally and physically unavailable – to the same extent as youth raised in poverty o They may lack after-school supervision, which is associated with externalizing problems o High-profile parents may also be reluctant to seek professional help in their efforts to maintain a veneer of well-being o Finally, these children have more than adequate money to spend on illegal drugs and alcohol Another potential cause of youth problems is the parents’ excessive focus on acquiring possessions (materialism): o They value money, work, and possessions; o They model consumerism (by their shopping habits and responses to advertisements); o They devote energy to making money and purchasing items rather than to family time; and o They reinforce valued child behavior with gifts or money Materialism and consumerism are associated with unhappiness because the desire for more and more possessions forces us into a more frantic pace of life, causing stress, strain, and neglected relationships What materialistic parents are doing – either intentionally or otherwise – is shaping their children’s values in, perceptions of, and orientation toward the external world The most commonly documented problems are anxiety, unhappiness and depression, and somatic problems (insomnia, gastrointestinal disturbance), as well as delinquency and substance abuse Other outcomes include the development of overly materialistic values to the neglect of more prosocial values Parents, as well as peers, can directly influence the development of materialism by modeling, reinforcement, and communicating consumption attitudes Youth with positive self-perceptions are less materialistic, so parents who are supportive of their children and promote healthy and realistic self-esteem will have adolescents who are less consumer oriented Effects of Intimate Partner Violence on Children’s Development In most of these homes, the father is the major perpetratorof violence, although it is not unusual for the violence to be bidirectional as mothers attempt to defend themselves Fathers who are violent toward their partners are also likely to be authoritarian, angry, controlling, and verbally abusive Fatherswho wereatriskforchildrenmaltreatmentreportedmorestress,anger,substanceabuse problems, and psychological problems as well as behavior problems in their children than the fathers who were not at risk for maltreatment Mothers living withviolentmen are also at risk forproblematic parenting,often because they are overwhelmed by stress and trying to cope with a violent partner Mothers who are more traumatized and have poorer psychological functioning are more likely to show poor parenting practices, such as less warmth and more frequent verbal or physical harsh punishment Children are at a high risk for problems, with many factors contributing to this, such as: o The traumaof seeing theirparents fight, problematicparenting, and other commonly co- occurring problems (e.g., poverty, child maltreatment, mental health, and substance abuse problems) o Children exposed to intimate partner violence were more likely to have internalizing, externalizing, and trauma symptoms than other children o Boys especially at risk for exhibiting externalizing problems Chapter 13 Key Terms and Concepts Research on Parenting and Culture Issue with psychology and parenting research is that it’s centered on WEIRD societies o Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic o 90% of developmental psychology research is conducted in the U.S., the remaining 10% comes from regions that account for 90% of the world’s population The “correct way” of rearing a child, according to Westerners, is what’s known as the continuous care and contact model o Where one adult needs to provide sensitive care to a child for optimal development o Compare to tribes where multiple women help raise a child by breast feeding, providing simulation, etc. Immigrant Families and Parenting The term immigrant refers to an individual who is living in the U.S. but who was born a citizen of another country (first-generation immigrant) or who was born in the U.S. to at least one foreign- born parent (second-generation immigrant) When there is a discrepancy between the parents’ and children’s level of acculturation, unsupportive childrearing and a sense of alienation between the parent and child is a likely consequences o In turn, the child is at risk for adjustment problems Language barriers and economic stress are two central issues that immigrant families face, and these issues affect their parenting African American Families and Parenting The second-largest minority group Although there is a considerable amount of intragroup variability among this population, several common parenting features have been identified o However, these features are based on research with African American mothers The singlemost commonlyreported characteristicsofAfrican Americanmothers it thatthey tend to assume authoritarian parenting styles o The primary attributes of the trait are that the parents value respect for authority and quick compliance o In contrast to European Americans, African American mothers show lower levels of emotionalsupportandwarmth–interpretedbysomeresearchersasanefforttotoughen up their children in preparation for future hardships A second characteristic sometimes attributed to AA parents is a reliance on physical punishment o A number of studies indicate that they are apt to spank their children more frequently than White parents However, SES is more often linked to use of corporal punishment o In a recent comparison, White parents reported more reasoning, denying privileges, and yelling than did African American parents, but there was no difference in the amount of spanking between the two However, SES was negatively associated with use of spanking African Americans parents engage in one type of parenting than White parents do not o By virtue of their minority status, they are compelled to engage in race socialization in an effort to prepare their children to deal with the majority culture o Involves verbal and nonverbal messages transmitted to children so they can develop appropriate values, attitudes, and behaviors in light of their minority status o Includes messages about racism, group identity, intergroup interactions, and rolemodels o Race socialization is recognized as a mechanism for promoting positive development in youth Hispanic/Latino Families and Parenting Latino/Hispanic Americans constitute the largest and most diverse minority group in the U.S. Commonly identified characteristics of Latino families are the values of respeto and familismo o Respeto, or “proper demeanor,” refers to maintaining appropriate relatedness to others Most clearly manifested in parents teaching children to respect and obey them as well as other adults o Familismo concerns valuing the important of the family This family-centered, multidimensional orientation has been related to enjoyment of family life, positive attitudes toward parents, and a large and close extended-family social network Due to the heterogeneity of the Latino/Hispanic Americans, there is inconsistent evidence about whether these cultural groups engage in particular parenting practices Individualism and Collectivism Sometimes called independence versus interdependence Individualism (or independence) emphasizes the individual’s goals, with free choice held as the most important value o This value extends to families; the U.S., as a society, values families’ rights to privacy and self-determination In culturesthatvaluecollectivism,personal goalsaresubordinateto thegoalsof the largergroup, such as the family, employer, or community o Individuals in collectivistic societies are defined more by group membership and position in the family than by individual characteristics or accomplishments These two value systems relate directly to competing developmental goals of autonomy and relatedness o NorthAmericanparentsvaluecontrolovertheiryoungchildrenbuttheyalso,asthechild growsolder,encourageautonomy(independence),self-directiveness,personalstyle,and social initiative in their children as well as equality with themselves o In contrast, Asian societies value interdependence and norm-based behavior, where an individual fits in rather than stands out In countries where interdependence isvalues, socialization occurs with a great deal of close body contact, giving children a sense of warmth and relatedness with multiple caregivers o Child care occurs in the midst of other activities Children then begin to learn about themselves as coagents (joint partners) along with their caregivers rather than being the single causal actor o Mothers also verbally emphasize relatedness (“We had fun together!”) instead of autonomy (“What do you want to do?”) Another way parents can promote a sense of collectivism in their children is by engaging in a particular parenting style o Authoritarian parenting styles are likely to promote a sense of collectivism by negating individual choice Parenting in Different Countries Cross-cultural studies are employed to better understand the sources and consequences of childrearing differences The most intensely investigated example of cultural influences on child rearing lies in comparing parental values between Asian and Western countries o In Asia, the family is considered the fundamental unit of society, and there is a strict hierarchical order of human relationships o These values are, in turn, reflected in childrearing attitudes: Children are expected to show family loyalty, filial piety, and elder respect A more general cross-cultural value dichotomy concerns individualism versus collectivism o Sometimes called independence versus interdependence Individualism (or independence) emphasizes the individual’s goals, with free choice held as the preeminent value o This valuing of individuality extends also to families, where the U.S., as a society, values families’ rights to privacy and self-determination In culturesthatvaluecollectivism,personal goalsaresubordinateto thegoalsof the largergroup, such as the family, employer, or community o Individuals in collectivistic societies are defined more by group membership and position in the family than by individual characteristics or accomplishments Thesetwo differentvaluesystemsrelate directly to competing developmentalgoals ofautonomy and relatedness o NorthAmericanparentsvaluecontrolovertheiryoungchildrenbuttheyalso,asthechild growsolder,encourageautonomy(independence),self-directiveness,personalstyle,and social initiative in their children as well as equality with themselves o In contrast, Asian societies value interdependence and norm-based behavior, where an individual fits in rather than stands out In countries where interdependence isvalues, socialization occurs with a great deal of close body contact, giving children a sense of warmth and relatedness with multiple caregivers o Child care occurs in the midst of other activities Children then begin to learn about themselves as coagents (joint partners) along with their caregivers rather than being the single causal actor o Mothers also verbally emphasize relatedness (“We had fun together!” “Let’s play together with these toys”) instead of autonomy (“What do you want to do?” “Once you finish that activity, you can leave”) Another way parents can promote a sense of collectivism in their children is by engaging in a particular parenting style o Authoritarian parenting styles are likely to promote a sense of collectivism by negating individual choice Cultural differences can be readily recognized in ethnotheories of development – a parent’s system ofbeliefsconcerning the natureofan idealchild and howto socialize thatchild to achieve those values Chapter 14 Key Terms and Concepts Maltreatment vs. Abuse Child maltreatment is the abuse and neglect that occurs to children under 18 years of age o Includes all types of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, neglect, negligence, sexual abuse, and commercial or other exploitation, which results in actual or potential harm to the child’s development, dignity, health, or survival in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust, or power Exposure to intimate partner violence is also now recognized as a form of child maltreatment (*) The word maltreatment is preferable to the term child abuse because it encompasses two types of behavior: o Actively doing something (commission) to injure a child, and o Failing to do something (omission) and thereby harming a child Both types of acts are damaging Today, child maltreatment is categorized into four categories: o Physical abuse o Sexual abuse o Neglect o Psychological maltreatment Co-occurring maltreatment is a combination of two or more categories Physical Abuse and its Effects Physical abuse is the most studied form of maltreatment because it is easiest to detect o Involves an act of commission, where a parent or other individual injures a child Physical abuse is often a reaction to a mundane event; in some cultures, harsh or cruel punishments are not uncommon The actions that lead to the abuse may begin with a push, shake, or spank which escalate and become behaviors that can seriously injure the child or even kill them o In some cases, the abuse is intentional o Much more commonly, however, the injury is unintended Physically abused children are likely to exhibit a wide range of consequences: o Internalizing problems (e.g., anxiety, depression) o Externalizing problems (e.g., aggression) Emotional deficits (e.g., low self-esteem), insecure attachments, limitations in controlling emotions, and cognitive problems (e.g., poor school performance) are also frequent consequences of abuse Not all children are equally likely to be abused o Infants and young children are more likely to be the victims than older children 51% of abused children are five years old or younger o Physically abused children also tend to have challenging or difficult temperaments o Children who are handicapped or who have serious medical problems (such as prematurity) are also at higher risk for abuse A parent with a serious diagnosable mental illness (such as antisocial personality disorder, depression, or schizophrenia) have a heightened risk at becoming perpetrators o In such cases, the likelihood of physical abuse doubles o However, mental illness is not implicated in most cases of physical abuse A large number of parental risk factors have been identified by researchers, indicating the multiple-etiology nature of the problem Contributing factors can be divided into biological, cognitive-affective, and behavior characteristics o Individuals who are biologically predisposed to be hyperreactive parents are more at risk to abuse than calmer individuals are o A large number of cognitive-affective variables have been linked to physical abuse Specifically, parental social-cognition problems include feelings of powerlessness when trying to control children, hostile attributions, inadequate parenting knowledge, poor problem-solving skills, and unrealistic expectations about children o Behavior characteristics include a reliance on physical punishment and personal substance abuse Children of substance-abusing parents are three times more likely to be abused in comparison to other children A parent’s context or environment can contribute to risks. Four commonly identified factors are: o Poverty, o Poor social support, o Having been raised in an abusive family, and o Experiencing partner violence Many of these risk factors can be organized into a model of physical child abuse: o The model begins with risk factors based on parent, child, and contextual variables o Next, when the individual then has the child, he or she does not engage in effective parenting, and so the child develops problems o Those problems then contribute to poor quality parent-child interactions, such as coercive cycles, escalating aggression, and negative emotions o Eventually, the negative interactions result in child abuse Many abusive behaviors are likely triggered by stress, such as that which results from marital problems or poverty, which consequently may elicit actions that otherwise would not arise Munchausen syndrome Munchausen syndrome by proxy is when an individual (usually the parent) either feigns or produces illness in another (usually their child) in an effort to get attention and support from themselves In most cases, the perpetrator is the mother, who typically intentionally causes an illness in her child but then either saves the child herself or takes them to the hospital for medical assistance At other times, the mother fabricates medical symptoms to seek medical tests or even surgery Sexual Abuse and its Effects Sexual abuse usually comes to light only when the child discloses it or an alert adult recognizes some of the behavioral indicators o These include changes in habits, preoccupation with genitalia, sudden fear of an individual, or unexplained knowledge about sex Childsexualabuseiscommonlydefinedaseithersexualactivitybetweenachildandasignificantly older individual or a forced sexual behavior imposed by an adult Perpetrators ofsexual abuse tend to be a heterogeneous group, so it isn’t possibleto find a setof common characteristics Risk factors include: a childhood history of abuse (e.g., sexual, physical, or neglect), cognitive distortions,deficitsinsocialskills,deviantsexualinterests,lowlevelsofinvolvementincaregiving of the victim during the first five years, marital dissatisfaction, psychopathology (e.g., antisocial personality disorder), and substance abuse It’scommonforchildrentoexperiencepost-traumaticstressdisorder(PTSD),whichcharacterized by frequent re-experiencing of events (e.g., flashbacks, intrusive thoughts, nightmares), a numbing effect, and persistent symptoms of increased arousal (e.g., poor concentration, sleep problems) o Other emotional consequences are avoidance, depression, dissociation, and elevated anxiety Some children react to their emotional agitation by engaging in tension-reducing activities, including binge eating and purging, cutting or self-mutilation, indiscriminant sexual behavior, substance abuse, or suicide attempts o In extreme situations, the child might develop dissociative identity disorder, a/k/a multiple personality disorder Thenatureandextentofhowchildrenrespondtosexualabuseisafunctionofanumberoffactors, including: o The child’s age and gender; o The nature, duration, and severity of the abuse; o The child’s perceptions and attributions; o The parents’ post-abuse response; and o Whether the child received effective therapy, such as trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy Some children are resilient and appear to recover more quickly than others Parents, assuming they were not involved in the sexual abuse, can have several important roles in helping children recover: o First, they must believe the child’s disclosure o Next, they need to keep the child safely away from the perpetrator o Third, parents should obtain therapy for the child o Finally, parents can help the child minimize the likelihood of cognitive distortions, including dysfunctional attributions, self-blame, and guilt Through this, they work to restore the child’s self-esteem Children of parents who were supportive are better adjusted (less distress, better attachment quality with parents) Neglect (Different Types) and its Effects Neglect involves the failure of a caregiver to provide the adequate physical and social ingredients for what is considered, based on community standards, the minimal care necessary for children to grow and thrive Signsofneglectinclude:inadequatenutrition,lackofsupervision,poorhygiene,tatteredclothing, unsafe environments, and abandonment Dental, medical, or mental health problems, such as failure to thrive (indicated by small stature), can also be indicators of neglect Neglect generally refers to a longer-term pattern of behavior There are different types of neglect: o Physical neglect is the classic and stereotypic manifestation of a neglected child o Medical neglect refers to a failure to provide appropriate health care for a child (despite the financial ability to do so) Reasons for this form of neglect are cultural or religious beliefs (most common), anxiety about a medical condition or intervention, and financial considerations Sometimes, medical neglect is caused by parents who do not know any better (such as those uneducated on dental hygiene) or who harbor mistaken beliefs (such as an exaggerated fear of immunizations) o Educational neglect refers to failing to comply with state laws requiring school attendance, failing to provide an approved home curriculum, permitting truancy (a/k/a absenteeism) without a proper reason, or not attending to special education needs To date, little research has been dedicated to educational neglect or to the parents who engage in it o Psychological/Emotional neglect (pretty much psychological maltreatment) refers to how children are greatly affected by words that degrade, denigrate, or reflect parental rejection The seven major manifestations are: degrading, denying emotional responsiveness, rejecting, terrorizing, isolating, corrupting, and exploiting Other childrearing behaviors that can be abusive include: excessive psychological control, showing favoritism and/or scapegoating among siblings, reversal of parent-child roles, and chaotic and incompetent parenting One specific population of children who are psychologically mistreated are those whose parents or parents’ partners engage in intimate partner violence Neglect affectsnotonly thephysicaldevelopmentandwell-beingofchildren(dueto malnutrition and failure to thrive) but also their emotional cognitive, linguistic, and social functioning Neglected children tend to be apathetic and withdrawn o Exhibit low self-esteem, negative affect, and disturbed attachment and interaction patterns o Some of these behaviors may be due to brain damage that has occurred as a direct result of inadequate love, attention, and stimulation (neglected children have much smaller brains) Neglect more commonly occurs as a consequence of the parents’ own development history, lack of coping strategies and resources, unusual beliefs, and/or poor psychological functioning, Many neglectful parents were abused or neglected themselves, and thus may have never experienced adequate parenting o However, some are also addicted to substances Poverty andeconomicstress, though likely to becontributing factorsto neglect,are notsufficient to explain all cases There are three identified pathways of poverty to negative outcomes in children (including neglect): o First, a lack of parental investment Poor parents may not have the resources or knowledge to provide their children with appropriate simulation o Second, the elevated chronic stress due to low income, which can be aggravated by substance abuse, mental health problems, or disabilities o Third, poverty level is simply the strongest predictor of neglect Psychological Abuse and its Effects See: Psychological/Emotional neglect (CTRL+F) Effects of psychological abuse on children include: o Unfulfilled basic developmental needs o Low self-esteem o Emotional problems (e.g., depression, failure to thrive) o Behavioral problems (e.g., acting out, aggression) o Health and cognitive deficits (e.g., being smaller and sicklier than other children, handicapped mental and social functions) There are certain effects relating to specific kinds of abuse, further elaborated in their respective sections Common Perpetrators of Different Types of Abuse Parents are the perpetrators of physical abuse about 80.3% of the time; biological parents are 88.5% of perpetrators o Mothers are the sole perpetrators 36.6% of cases; fathers in 18.7%; and both mothers and fathers in 19.4% o Mothers are more likely to be the perpetrator due to the fact that they are the ones spending most of the time with the child Sexual abuse is heavily gendered, both for victims and perpetrators: o Girls are the victims in about 90% of cases, and at least 90% of the perpetrators are male Uncles are the most common male perpetrators (*) Effects of Co-occurring Maltreatment Co-occurringmaltreatmentiswhenchildrenaremaltreatedinmultipleways,attimesbymultiple perpetrators Experiencing two or more forms of maltreatment makes it worse for the child o Adults who revealedtheyweresurvivorsofthree form ofmaltreatment werefunctioning less well than those who survived two, and so forth o The stronger the dose of maltreatment, the worse the outcomes Chapter 15 Key Terms and Concepts Policies Around Maternity/Paternity Leave In comparison to other Western countries, the U.S. has been slow and reluctant to provide assistance to families o Though the U.S. spends more on total health expenditures per capita than 12 other industrialized nations, the quality of health care provided to children actually ranks significantly below that of the other countries The U.S. isn’t among the 70 countries that provide medical care and financial assistance to all pregnant women o In a survey of 100 countries, the U.S. is theonly one that failed to provide universal, paid, job-protected maternity leave as a national policy (*) The relatively high rate of infant mortality is likely attributable to the U.S.’s failure to provide medical care and financial assistance to all pregnant women (*) o There are 55 other countries that have lower rates Many other countries (169 out of 173) provide guaranteed maternity leave with income o In 66 of those nations, fathers are also qualified to receive paid paternity leave In addition, many other Western countries subsidize daycare costs, but the U.S. doesn’t Policies Around Prenatal Care Adolescent mothers are the group least likely to obtain prenatal care (which costs around a total of $1,400) There isn’t much assistance offered to pregnant women; though the U.S. is one of the countries that spends the most on healthcare, the quality and affordability is lackluster The U.S. is not among the 70 countries that provide financial assistance and medical care to all pregnant women Western European countries, on the other hand, lead the world in supporting families o Currently provide guaranteed parental leave with pay after a child is born, family allowance basedonthe numberof children,nationalhealth insurance,subsidized houses for a good number of families, and academic and vocational opportunities for all children Infant Mortality Across Countries th The U.S. has a relatively high infant mortality rate (29 in the world) This rate is likely attributable to the lack of prenatal care; there are a total of 55 countries that have lower mortality rates than the U.S. Fertility Rates Across Countries In an effort to reduce the population growth in China, the government passed a federal “one- child” fertility law o Resulted in a sex imbalance because of sex-selective abortions, as well as the abandonment or even murder of female newborns In contrast, Western European leaders have provided financial incentives due to their declining fertility rates o Benefits range from 14 months paid leave after the birth of each child in Germany to paying the mother for each child born Fertility is not the most pressing issue in the U.S. o ThoughtherewasaprograminNewYorkwhere“cashtransfers”weretestedasastrategy to promote better parenting behaviors ModelPrograms(e.g.,HomeVisitPrograms,HeadStart,21 CenturyCommunityLearningCenters,WIC, After School Programs) Programs vary considerably in terms of content (e.g., the information provided), intensity (e.g., thenumberofsessionsorvisits),method(e.g.,whetherit’sgroupinstructionvs.homevisitation), and population served (e.g., at risk individuals), as well as type of community where service is offered The leading contemporary model of parent intervention involves home visitation o Designed to identify families in need and then address those needs o It relies on the development of a positive relationship between the home visitor and the parent o The main idea is that parents will change their behavior accordingly to the information presented via the persuasive abilities of the home visitor o Then, the parents will mediate changes in their children; home visitors typically don’t interact directly with the children o Overall, there are modest positive effects from home visitation; though it does show stronger effects when it comes to improving infant attachment, maternal sensitivity, and preventing child abuse Project Head Start began as a summer program to prepare poor four- and five-year-olds for school o It then expanded into a year-round program that serves more than 621,000 children by providing them with a preschool education, meals, and medical services o Parents are encouraged to be engaged and involved in their children’s education o Studies of Head Start and other preschool intervention programs have found that early intervention is successful o Head Start graduates are likely to be more ready for school, exhibit higher cognitive competence, and perform better than their peers who didn’t participate in the program o Long-term consequences involve increased chances graduating high school, becoming and staying employed, and avoiding juvenile delinquency o Parents involved in Head Start are also less likely to spank and provide more books for their children o Major problem for Head Start is that it’s underfunded 21 Century Community Learning Centers refers to turning functioning public schools into centers that: o Provide before- and after-school programs, as well as activities during vacation periods o Offer day care for their students’ younger siblings o Become centers for family support on topics such as information, parent education, and referral services The Nurse-Family Partnership Program has nurses engaging in three major tasks: o Promoting mothers’ positive behavior as it’s related to the health of her children, her life course, and pregnancy; o Helping mothers develop supportive relationships with others; and o Linking mothers and their families to needed health and human services The Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program is exemplary and fights against inadequate nutritional care found among low-income pregnant and breastfeeding mothers as well as their children (up to age five) o Provides vouchers for high-protein foods such as beans, cheese, and milk o All participants are required to undergo nutrition education and child health checkups o Highly cost-effective; it reduces the number of low birth weights and fetal deaths as well as providing improvement for at-risk children’s nutrition and increasing the rate of child immunizations A cost-benefit analysis of early childhood program concluded that they are all indeed cost- effective, as they reduce the likelihood that the child will be arrested, drop out of high school, be held back in a grade, require special education classes, or smoke cigarettes as an adult Changes in the American Family Over Time Some of the most easily identifiable changes include: o There’s a fewer number of children born Thistrendreflectsseveralsocialchanges,whichincludesadecreaseinthestigma of childlessness, the desire to have fewer children, and dissatisfaction with parenthood o Proportionately more unwed mothers Racial-ethnic differences exist in single motherhood: 28% of White women, 75% of Black women, and 51% of Latinas had children as single mothers in 2007 o Proportionately more women in the labor force with young children Regardless of marital status, most mothers today are in the labor force In addition to there being more mothers working outside the home, mothers are now also returning to work sooner after having children than mothers from previous generations o An increased divorce rate The U.S. has one of the highest divorce rates in the world It’s important to note that these four factors are not mutually exclusive; each impacts and is affected by the other in various ways The majority of fathers do not pay child support o Theamounttheyneedtopayusuallyvaries,butonlyaround24%offathersactuallymake those payments When mothers are paid child support, it usually isn’t the full amount and, at times, fathers move out of state in order to avoid making payments Inadditiontofinancialhardships,thereisalso apressureinfindingadequatechildcareinworking families o This has led to a rise in what are known as “latchkey” or “self-care” children, or children that are left alone after school (between 2 and 4 million children) These children are more likely to have emotional problems or experiment with alcohol, drugs, sex, and stealing After school programs are seen as especially valuable and of good quality here, and have been proven as effective by meta-analyses (*) Controversial Policy Ideas Though this wasn’t a topic listed in the study guide, remember this just in case (or if you feel like it might help you): o John Westerman proposed that all parents procure a parenting license prior to a baby’s birth Licenses could be obtained at the time of marriage, when finding an individual acceptable for adoption, during pregnancy, or in the hospital immediately after the child is born This license is handled by authorities who issue marriage licenses and birth registrations Prospective parents would only need to show documentation of their marriage license, proof that they’re of legal age, and evidence that they’re self-supportive Parents then sign the agreement; parent-education courses are optional Should an unmarried, underage girl find herself pregnant, she’d have to go through her pregnancy knowing that her baby would be removed from her care and put up for adoption (*) o The U.S. is one of three countries that hasn’t ratified the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child; those against it state that they fear it’ll take away parents’ freedom by prohibiting them from doing things such as spanking their children (*)
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