Sociology 1101--Midterm 3 Study Guide
Sociology 1101--Midterm 3 Study Guide Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology)
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Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology)
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Sociology 1101 Midterm 3 Study Guide Highlight key term Highlight key concept Highlight key person Chapter 12 Family We think of family as a haven in a harsh world but in fact inequality begins at home typify the American quotideal family owned a home had two kids Harry worked outside the home Ozzie was fulltime homemaker But they were transracial transnational crossclass and interfaith they only shared the fact that they were both males By postwar males being the breadwinner was the dominant normative and mythical model quothow things ought to be of domestic life In the 1950s 86 children lived in twoparents families 60 were born into homes with male breadwinner and female homemaker Sociologists see this traditional family look more like an ideological construct not a universal norm Family Forms and Changes Before 1967 it was still illegal in 22 US states to have an interracial marriage marriage to someone within one s social group Legally forced in India marriage to someone outside one s social group Eg Michael Jackson amp Lisa Marie Presley Total exogamy occurs when people from completely different social categories get together much more rare the practice of having only one sexual partner or spouse at a time the practice of having more than one sexual partner or spouse at a time the practice of having multiple husbands simultaneously Occurs in some rural areas of Asia the practice of having multiple wives simultaneously Practiced in Islamic amp African cultures a heterosexual couple lives with their dependent children in a selfcontained economically independent household Usually patriarchal with wife and children dependent on male 1913 researched Australian Aboriginals and suggested that although they were engaging in nondiscriminating sexual promiscuity they recognized family relations and kept them distinct from other forms of social connection They still had a home base where family gathered 9 dispute is settled the family must be a universal human institution Also Malinowski said family was a necessary institution for childrearing Neurogeneticists are researching monogamousmating voles to see if humans share the same genes that create the mechanisms for partner preference coined by said that the family with breadwinning father dependent mother and kids was a functional necessity in modern industrial society because it fulfilled society s need for productive workers Were supposedly universal BUT suggested other institutions or methods couldn t fulfil that need as well that go against the Nuclear Family model Mandurucu Village of South America Men and women do everything on opposite ends of the house and only interact to have sex Na people of southern China marriage isn t an institution children usually raised by uncles No fatherhood Sex is anonymous amp spontaneous No restrictions on sex partners Zambia mothers do not provide usual nurturing for girls Suggests that a mother s unconditional warmth is not necessarily a biological given MaleBread Winner Model Arose as new middleclass cultural ideal in the early 20th century Few families actually corresponded to this ideal in the early 20th century Millions of Americans still lived on farms n workingclass urban families women and children often worked in paid employment child labor was widespread until WWII Extended family households were common before social security and private pensions gave seniors an independent income after WWII American s weren t as mobile and selfsupportive After WWII also the incomes for the bottom 80 were flourishing faster and more than the upper 1 A 30yearold man with a high school education could by a house with 15 of his income and support an entire family on his income alone in this period Job discrimination also prevalent for women Media during the 1950s showed tons of eg Ozzie and Harriet Father Knows Best and portrayed the quotideal family as having a wise hardworking father a homemaking wife and some young kids Father is head of the family Men and women were expected to promptly marry in their early 20s If males didn t 9 marked as odd or homosexual If female didn t 9 expected to frantically worry about becoming a quotspinsterquot Media in the 1950s often focused on the Men sought sex and women expected to quothold out for marriage Strong norms 9 premarital sex was seriously taboo Even though it still as frequent as today Premarita sex was VERY risky especially for women in 1950s Birth control not available until 60s Accidental pregnancy 9 hurried marriage or dangerous illegal abortion Discovery scandal and extreme social disapproval The men expectednormal to play the field before settling down but sexually active women received a lot more criticism and bad reputation Cultural Backlash Birth control and the sexual revolution9 reduced risks of premarital sex and loosened the link between sex and marriage Youth movement of 1960s challenged these norms Women s movement challenged the quotdouble standard see above By the 1970s media portrayal of the quottraditional 1950sstyle marriage were split between nostalgia and hostility Looking back to 1950s as a quotsimpler innocent time eg Happy Days or ridiculed for its double standards amp huge commitments made to lifetime partners based only on momentary attraction Why MaleBreadwinner was lnstable IThe dissatisfactions of women in the 1950s Economic dependence of women on men Penalties of failing to find a husband 9 lead to loneliness and poor Penalties of not finding a wife for men 9 only maybe lonely or called gay A man s emotional dependence on his wife may not outlive her economic dependence on him Woman have education amp potential yet they re stuck in the domestic home IThe dissatisfaction of men in the 1950s Men actually resented women s economic dependence on them 1950s masculinity required being a successful breadwinner my wife doesn t have to work Men come home from work and just want dinner and to be left alone but women seek companionship very dysfunctional Family in the Western World Today kin networks that extend outside or beyond the nuclear family Other possible family arrangements besides Nuclear families with no children quotempty nesters dualearner families blended stepfamilies 16 of US families adopted families etc Only 15 of American households consist of married couple with their own kids and 61 of households only have one or two people in them quot3940 of all marriages end in divorce of divorced men and 23 divorced women remarry Marriage will not disappear 9 eventually 86 of men and 89 of women are projected to marry living together in an intimate relationship without formal legal or religious sanctioning 23 s of cohabitates either break up or get married within three years 40 of US women born in the 1980s will never be married with children 25 of US households headed by single moms 20 of women remain childfree after marriage Women marry at 3927 years old Have children at 256 years old Multiple births twins or triplets has increased immensely as a result of delaying childbirth and is compounded with the widespread use of fertility treatments Adoption rates are also decreasing Globally 3915 of all families were headed by single women 2007 The Historical Divide between Public and Private The quottraditional family model is ONLY referencing the 1950s nuclear family and it s actually deviant from families 50 years before and after that time The was a site for both production and consumption where work was done in the home and the home was considered work families make and used their own food clothes and good without much surplus Division of labor wasn t as prevalent so men and women both worked and cared for the kids Children quotsmall adults without much of a nurturing period strings of relationships between people related by blood and coresidence marriage These members relied on one another during hard times rather than government or other services Relationships wn generations endured more than btwn different generations experienced a split between work amp home into separate spheres Men left to work for wages outside the home Homefamily becomes the site for consumption with women in charge of what amp how much the family would consume quotWomen s work became related to private domestic sphere went unpaid amp depended on the man s wages 9 gender inequality rises Ties with kinship networks broke down because of physical distances and changed the relationships to being much more vertical between parents and kids rather than horizontal between extended family and nuclear family Because of declining fertility and higher life expectancies mothers more likely to have to care for their parents just as their children are leaving the home the notion that true womanhood centers on domestic responsibility and child rearing Ideas about the quotnaturequot of a woman sprang up to support her role as housewife experienced a decreasing gap in the ideal and real income made to support the ideal nuclear family model of the 1950s Many families just couldn t afford to live solely off the man s income but it was more possible for white middle and upperclass families Economy and baby boom aided in keeping divorce rates at a low but the teenage birthrate was twice as high in 1957 as in the 1990s Marital ages were at their youngest average of women 3920 and men 3922 The Family and Work NotSoSubtle Revolution 1985 called the way of organizing work and home a Women s participation in the labor force has soared and fertility rates have plummeted Today 659 of all mothers married or not are working Marriage rates have declined Birth rate is near low point ISome suggest that having a working mother can lower cognitive achievement and increase behavioral problems if mother works in their early years Others suggest that for moms with lower income levels leaving kids in day care while at work is beneficial family situations are just too complex amp diverse to generalize so no one is quotrightquot found that if mothers worked while raising children the daughters were more likely to graduate college and earn more similar incomes to their brothers If the mother s didn t work the daughters earned quot8000 less than their brothers later in life 1985 characterized family as a of sorts were women and men learn to take on distinct roles paralleling the divide between the public and private spheres Family is where people first learn how to quotdo gender in conformity with the norms Marriage rituals are gender stratified brides are given away amp take the last name of their husbands Home is where the social construct of women and men being quotfundamentally different begins 1963 The Feminine Mystique Women s domestic labor went almost invisible 9 identity crisis for middleclass housewife Led to various dysfunctional coping behaviors affairs obsessions unhealthy attempts to live through children Distinguishing head of family Who determines the collective decisions made with money Women s earnings used for extras and nonessentials Men s earning used for essentials 2005 notes that the distinctions between household incomes help protect the man s status and sense of masculinity when the wife also takes on a breadwinner role in dual income families Family isn t immune to social constructs of gender Domestic Abuse Sibling rivalry is becoming more physically aggressive husbands and wives use force to control each other and adult children plunder their elderly parent s life savings Most frequent form of family violence is Strongest predictor of siblingonsibling violence are dads with short tempers and moms who get physical when it comes to punishment Abuse transmission is NOT genetic and only about 13 of all people who are abused as children go on to have seriously neglectful or abusive relations with their own children It s more of a Broad social factors like poverty singleparent homes and low levels of education are associated with higher levels of all types of domestic abuse IPV violence that occurs within a couple More than 13 of women and M of men have been raped physically attacked andor stalked by an intimate partner at some point Elder abuse usually occurs in the likelihood order of financial emotional physical amp sexual abuse The Chore Wars Supermom Does it All 1989 coined the term women s responsibility for housework and child care AFTER working a paid job Women are more likely to think about divorce with comprehensive reasons because they are bitter and fed up with being quotsupermomsquot who work and do the second shift In dualincome households men and women spend separate and unequal time on tasks When men do housework it s quothelping out around the house and wives zealously thank them Men however never report feeling lucky or extremely thankful when their wives do the housework Men are usually in charge of outdoor activities and women disproportionately do the work inside Men s chores aren t usually on a daily basis eg changing oil lawn mowing where women have routines Men also get to pick their chores and women do what s left Men spend more special recreational time with kids usually on the weekends where mothers do mundane activities Adult daughters more likely to care for the homes for aging parents than adult sons IAs long as women s income contributes some to the household without surpassing the husband will help out with the second shift BUT if she exceeds the husband s earning he will drop his share of the domestic work and there is a tension created from the quotdemasculinity of the man made by radical feminists of the 19605 stressed the value of social reproduction all the activities that women perform daily to keep their working husband s lives running smoothly and shouldn t be discounted just because there s no income being made US government established the in order to administer 7 billion to settle 5000 death and injury claims Distributed by attorney Kenneth Feinberg to families to make up for unpaid quotfuture incomes made by deceased workers but the feminists were able to allow casebycase compensation review for people who lost the quoteconomic value of household services that would have been provided by deceased moms 1983 suggested that gay and lesbian couples are more likely to have a more shared division of labor and also pay much more care and attention to household chores than heterosexual couples possibly explained because it may legitimize and validate their households Divorce disproportionately affects women harder than men bc they earn about 81 cS made by man 1998 found that where husbands and wives divided the roles of breadwinner and homemaker equally led to happier marriages and individuals and found these couples are more often close friends as well as partners Baby and Child Care 1948 other editions released later studies found that men are just as capable of doing the second shift as women and can benefit in terms of happiness health and longevity if they contribute and are involved but they tend not to live up to their potential as often when women are around to handle to second shift Nonwhite American Families African American Families Black and poor women have come to rely on extrafamilial female networks in order to manage childcare and work responsibilities often working another extra shift because she is often the primary or only breadwinner The Negro Family The Case for National Action 1965 found that 25 of black wives outearned their husbands versus only 18 of white wives Creates a that undercuts the role of the father in black families and leads to other problems such as domestic violence substance abuse crime etc He claimed that matriarchy is the root to these problems and that they re stereotypically bad black mothers that are domineering and unfeminine doesn t supervise her kids and emasculates her man argued that black femaleheaded families were the outcome not the cause of racial oppression and poverty They HAVE to work to pay rent put food on the table and take care of the kids because most black males are either unemployed or incarcerated found that in poor African American communities the presence of poorquality schools lack ofjobs and sometimes substance abuse make it difficult to undertake a traditional progression of dating love marriage and childbearing Often childbearing proceeds marriage but the fatherstobe often tend to strengthen their commitment to the mother 9 the issue lies in staying together until the couple feels financially secure enough to marry Latino Families Latinos make up the largest minority group in America 16 of the population IDefined as a person of Cuban Mexican Puerto Rican South or Central American or other Spanish cultures or origin regardless of race Because it s so diverse racially and geographically there are only a few common threads Family gt individual Families rely on each other and kinship networks are strong There is a strong sense of community and allegiance to the family Women listen to the men and children listen to their elders in a clearcut hierarchy Usualy practice Catholicism Leads to high marriage rates low divorce rates young aged marriages and lots of outofwedlock births no birth control condoms s the decline of marriage an important reason for growing economic inequality Not really There s a positive correlation in the amount of income inequality and the adult population that s married Meaning the more people that are married 9 MORE inequality in the country On the other hand singleparent families are more likely to be poor than twoparent families even if both parents have low income States have spent hundreds of millions of dollars over the past decade on marriage promotion among the poor TOTAL FAILURE Poor families have different ideals because they don t have the economic stability that helps marriage Many put off marriage until quotthey re ready economically Stability prerequisite for marriage Single mothers and poverty often go hand in hand Plague nonwhites more than whites Must rely on welfare family luck etc to make ends meet Many women are working hard often off the books and still need the welfare to make it by In other countries the range of social policies that can assist mothers for parental leave mandatory quotparttime work fulltime pay etc but NOT in the US did research on poor single mothers in the US and found all 379 preferred selfreliance over welfare Found that mothers on welfare could cover about 35 of expenses amp lowwage jobs INTENDED to cover everything else Almost impossible to save money up a sociologist and writer who tried to make ends meet with lowwage work in 1998 She worked two jobs S6 or 7 an hour paid high rent weekly ate for less than 9 a day had to get food from charities and still couldn t afford to live off her wages Welfare moms are forced to enter the workforce and give up providing adequate child care encouraging women to abandon their children in an unsupervised home Many mothers have to rely on cash assistance from family or boyfriends bartering with neighbors take side jobs going to relief agencies or resort to criminal activity Inequality Starts at Home The Pecking Order 2004 described the pecking order that exists among siblings in the form of a status hierarchy that ignites competition struggle and resentment The Clinton s are a great example Bill Clinton was a Rhodes Scholar who became president while his younger halfbrother was a college dropout who became a coke dealer Why such disparity IBirth order only matters in families of 3 children with limited resources Children born first or last fare better socioeconomically than those born in the middle Pecking order emerges but is conditioned by society Sibling disparity much more common in poor or singleparent homes because the success of one sibling often generates negative backlash among the others 9 leads to parents putting all hopes and dreams into one kid The Future of American Families Divorce Dip in divorce after WWII because people hastily got married before they left for war However they KEPT declining bc of the dissatisfaction w the expectations amp experiences in marriage Number of marriages also went down Why is the rate so high 1 Stress high demands to provide economic and emotional support There s less help from extended family amp communities Divorce comes in part from expecting too much 2 Changing role of women rejection of intolerable relationships by women and men 3 Sexual permissiveness allows sex to happen without marriage 9 more divorce ideal of lifelong marriage BUT we also want divorce to be easy People have much more freedom to define their own ideas of family Americans highly value marriage but have highest divorce rates of any comparable western country sociologist who noted the paradox above and explained that personal economics not personal values may be the contributing factor to divorce Couples who cannot provide themselves with a middleclass lifestyle often question the utility of their marriage Younger people are delaying marriage so they can find jobs first Divorce effects on children are not usually generalizable Most children adjust well but others end up with stress depression and lower future socioeconomic success Bended Families stepfamily 13 of the US falls into this category Cherlin estimates that more than 25 of US children today experience at least two maternal partner changes and 8 experience three or more Gay and Lesbian Couples They re just as successful as heterocouples in producing welladjusted successful offspring Opponents are often strongly religious conservatives who argue that this nontraditional family arrangement will wreak social havoc and also claim that marriage has the purpose of procreation biologically determined and since gay marriage doesn t produce biological children of both parents it s not functional right or natural Views are changing though Gay marriage is now legal in all 50 US states Mutiracia families the technical term for interracial marriage literally meaning quota mixing of kinds but because the term is politically and historically charged sociologists prefer exogamy In the 1960s nearly 80 of Americans were opposed to whiteblack marriages but by 2009 It dropped to 17 Attitudes vary greatly by location religion etc In 2010 Asian Americans had the highest rate of outmarriage 28 followed by Latinos 28 blacks 17 and then whites 9 Also varies by gender within these groups Expanding Marriage The US General Accounting Office has identified more than 1000 legal rights and responsibilities attendant to marriage Ranges from continuation of water rights upon death of spouse to the ability to take funeral leave States and localities have their own provisions Marriage rights and responsibilities need to be broken down to better suit nontraditional families Maybe instead of having ALL legal rights go to ONE person the spouse individuals should be allowed to apply the rights to specific and different people based on individual circumstances Families today take on many shapes and sizes that best fit their members needs and they are not defined by blood ties but by the quality of relationships Chapter 13 Education Although school is supposed to be the institution in society that provides equal opportunity it ends up sorting and stratifying students by the backgrounds from which they come Patrick Bernard EhidonyeJohnson a man who was born in Liberia but currently goes to school online while working jobs and supporting his family and saving up for his education and one of his sister s Takes online classes MOOCs and represents who the online education should be reaching but he s rare because of his access to internet computers etc that are needed for the classes Functions of Schooling the process through which academic social and cultural ideas and tooks both general and specific are developed Unfortunately 14 of US age 16 is functionally illiterate can t write or read well enough to be a functioning member in society and 22 age 16 is innumerate not enough math to function well Almost all students go through more or less the same socialization process because public school is free and mandatory up to high school the nonacademic and less overt socialization functions of schooling Power and Morality 1959 Argues that many schools sort students through testing and then teach them different skills and socialize them differently in the ways deemed appropriate for their futures eg gifted programs or vocational school However others argue that school stratify the students not by merit but by class disproportionately sending the lowerclass students more often into vocational classes Why Public Education Critical for many reasons Upward mobility in the US education should be the ticket out of poverty right Democracy depends on an educated informed citizenry 21st century technology requires highlyeducated workforces in order to compete globally Education needs to be a part of solving civilization issues Does School Matter Not all schools are created equal 9 affects educational outcomes of the students commissioned by the government 10 years after Brown v Board of Education to see if the reason the achievement gaps between black and white schools was remained high was measurable eg textbook availability class size Resources between schools did NOT matter The contributing factors of educational achievement were family background and the peers with whom students attended school Composition of the school has significant effects Back students better in majoritywhite schools Lowincome better in middleclass schools Links between students achievement outcomes and school characteristics schools with smaller classes significantly benefited in terms of fewer behavior problems and significantly higher achievement test scores Longlasting effects 9 more likely to graduate more likely to take ACT or SAT etc Catholic schools are best at preparing academically Private schools have higher attendance rates more homework completion higher academic program enrollment etc which could explain the achievement differences Aso Catholic schools stem from large amounts of social capital the information knowledge of people and connections that help individuals enter gain power in or otherwise leverage social networks These relationships are conductive to learning Are the schools failing in the US Conventional wisdom America is falling behind other industrialized countries OECD Pisa 2012 results US tied for 17th in reading literacy among 15 yolds Tied for 27th in mathematics literacy among 15 yolds 20th in science literacy among 15 yolds But what is the nature of the problem public schools are subject to too much gov control and bureaucracy They are ineffective because they lack incentives to do better Also bad teachers protected by unions Standards are too low amp families especially low income are locked into failing schools where no one cares amp opportunities are limited Answers to the dominant view rigorous national standards with rigorous testing to meet global standards Adding merit pay and funding incentives 9 successful teachers and schools should be rewarded and failing teachers and schools held accountable students should be able to leave failing schools for better ones Charter school movement9 anyone who wants to can manage a school that receives government funds New markets in education 9 schools should compete for resources amp students Dominant view expresses a consensus that includes both political parties education reform philanthropies forprofit education corporations and entrepreneurs and numerous education experts As a result the education landscape is changing rapidly Inside Schools The differences among students WITHIN schools is gt differences among students BETWEEN schools a way of dividing students into different classes by ability or future plans eg different preparation academic vocational or general Intended to create a better learning environment Predicts graduation rates amp whether students attend college or not Gamoran amp Mare 1989 Vocationa track students more likely to be employed in skilled jobs Arum amp Shavit 1995 Parents however may often step in and have students places in academic tracks despite mediocre test scores9 overrepresentation of higherclass whites over minorities amp lowincome studied nonCatholic students at Catholic schools Found these students were particularly ambitious amp their parents goals for them may play a large role in kid s educational success So is tracking really important Some students may suffer hugely because of the stark differences in quality of teaching and content of materials between tracks 1985 interviewed students and those in higher tracks were able to identify valuable lessons learned from class while lower track students admitted to learning almost nothing useful or helpful Teachers students can experience extremely differed types of instructions that vary in their quality Teachers have a social intimacy with students because of the huge amount of time spent with them 1968 found that teacher s expectations had significant impacts on student achievements a selffulfilling prophecy and in this case teachers expect more from the student9the student does better Works vice versa Peers who attends class sets a tone for classroom environment More behavioral problems in one student 9 more behavioral problems with other students and all reduce test scores IRaising average ability of the classroom will raise the individual student s ability Vice versa NCLB of 2002 Was supposed to be a reform map for school system on basis of accountability amp choice Major provisions Mandatory annual testing of reading and math grades 38 and once in high school All states required to ensure 100 of students reach proficiency by 201314 quotProficiencyquot as defined by each state NOT NATIONALIZED Every school required to make quotadequate yearly progress AYP toward the goal quotAYPquot also as defined by each state Schools failing to make APY designated quotschools in need of improvement and received penalties Schools reaching goals 9 rewards ie money The appeal of NCLB ncreasing standards backtobasics readingwriting is always popular reform themes after trying to quotenrichquot schools with extracurricular eg arts and sports Expertise in education not required of the reformers 9 the schools will improve in response to incentives ie rewardspunishments The 25 of schools failed to make AYP These were concentrated in highpoverty districts School choice lt5 of eligible students are transferring to successful schools The voucher that families save on public schools can t compete with wealthy families in terms of sending students to private schools Inequalities reproduced not undone Tutoring 80 of eligible students turned it down School restructuring mediocre results Some large school districts brought in directors but most schools still didn t improve Harsh sanctions for failing to improve 9 led to cheating scandals nationwide Goal of 100 proficiency by 201314 not met As of 2015 42 states have waivers allowing them to not comply with the NCLB The Charter School Movement Argues that NCLB fails bc of bureaucratic public schools where bad teachers protected by unions The solution is eliminating public schools 9 replacing with charter schools Replace unionized teachers with nonunionized teachers There are 5000 charter schools currently nationwide Research on charter school performance CREDO study one of many with similar findings 17 of charter schools have better results test scores 46 of charter schools have no difference in results 39 of charter schools have worse results All in comparison to matching traditional public schools most charter schools did NOT do any better than public schools ssues The results vary WIDELY on impact of charter schools Charter schools are less regulated have more reign They don t usually report things they re supposed to bc not government controlled Some charter schools fail and have to close half way through the year leaving students wo educational opportunities Some kick students out andor are more selective on admittance Charter school movement is one of the educational fads promising to cure society s is but it has the relationship between education and poverty exactly backwards IEducation CANNOT eradicate poverty IPoverty CAN prevent people from taking advantage of education as an upward mobility strategy It rarely happens Higher Education In 1910 only 3 of US age 25 had college degrees in 2012 jumped to 301 Perspectives Beieve the rise of education boils down to simple supply and demand Jobs are more technical and require more educated workforce therefore people go to school NOT wellbacked In fact most American s have too much education for the occupations they end up in Perspectives See education as badge of elite status As education expands the elite have to obtain more education to set themselves apart an overemphasis on credentials eg college degrees for signaling social status or qualifications for a job Skills in jobs aren t changing but the requirements are being raised by employers in order to screen out people 9 people overqualified for theirjobs Students stratified within the schooling system as they try to attend better schools get on higher tracks etc just to stand out against others The SAT Meritocracy and the Big Test They re supposed to predict a student s potential for college success better than highschool GPA and class rank because these two can vary among students from different schools But other studies show it s not as significant of a predictor Research shows that SAT accurately predicts freshman year GPA class rank likelihood of graduation and changes of obtaining an advanced degree ISAT is biased toward certain groups who can afford to learn the information that s being tested eg practice classes despite whether it s actually important knowledge Affirmative Action Myths and Reality refers to a set of policies that grant preferential treatment to particular subgroups wn the population typically women amp historically disadvantaged racial minorities Myth Levels the playing field for historically underrepresented groups Reality schools give preference based on many characteristics not just race or ethnicity such as being a legacy an athlete where you grew up leadership skills or unusual life circumstances Often these preferences are equal or higher than those given to black or Hispanic students Myth affirmative action takes away from deserving white students Reality Abolishing affirmative action would only improve white s chances of acceptance by 05 Asian students would benefit the most because they re not considered as an underrepresented minority Myth African Americans and Hispanics are underprepared and will flounder at elite schools Reality there are mixed results lower GPAs but higher graduation rates Eiminating affirmative action would decrease black and Hispanic acceptance rates by 1223 nteigence or IQ IQ tests only measure one kind of intelligence do not include thinking creatively or understanding complicated scientific concepts Also criticized for having bias that is commonly taught among white middleclass DON T measure innate intelligence but intelligence developed after interacting w environment Inequalities in Schooling There are many out of control background characteristics that affect educational outcomes or SES an individual s position in a stratified social order Composed of any combination of parental educational attainment parental occupational status family income and family wealth Higher on any 9 generally better educational opportunities More money afford tutoring prep courses move to better areas go to better schools etc More parental education more help in classes from the parents Higher SES more likely to see teachers as equals or inferiors and gain advantages for their students Lower SES more likely to not feel as empowered over the teacherschool the symbolic and interactional resources that people use to their advantage in various situations Coined by Pierre Bourdieu Three types Race 1 skills that rest in our body eg learning to play piano 2 objects that require a significant investment in time and money to acquire eg the piano itself 3 skills become legitimized through a formal system eg being accepted into an elite school because of your pianoplaying abilities What is considered useful in one timeplace may not be in another Schools also tend to reward middleclass knowledge obtained outside school Often having more social networks and cultural capital from families allows white students to succeed Does the responsibility of the educational gap lie on the shoulders of African American families or are larger societal forces more important contributors Blacks are lower on all of the SES indicators on average 30 live below the poverty line compared to only 10 of whites 40 of black children under 18 live below the poverty line compared to only 17 of white children The typical black family has only 5 cents to every dollar of wealth of a typical white family Class Intersections When controlling for SES the blackwhite educational gap narrows significantly IUpperclass children are being exposed to educational opportunities that encourage learning and growth while lowerclass children tend to lose some educational ground during the summer because of lack of opportunity Alternate explanations for the gap besides class Blacks fear of being accused of quotacting white schoo and book learning is associate with white behavior so many blacks downplay their intellect and disengage from school Fordam and Ogbu Others Tyson Darity and Castellino found limited support for this The inversion of dominant values is prevalent among underprivileged youth regardless of race causing kids to act out and see achievement as negative MacLeod and Willis Blacks feel socially isolated in honors and advanced placement classes so they may not reach for those Good news if they are placed most succeed in the rigorous track Stereotypes African Americans may have internalized the negative stereotypes which are resulting in the achievement educational gaps Almost like the Pygmalion Effect selffulfilling prophecy when members of a negatively stereotyped group are placed in a situation they fear they may confirm those stereotypes 1998 black and white Stanford undergrads were randomly assigned to one of two groups Each were given verbal tests similar to the SAT Group one was told it was assessing intellectual ability group two was told it was a simple problemsolving task Blacks in quottestquot group scored significantly lower than blacks in the quotproblemsolving group and scored lower than all whites explains that when people are aware of the negative stereotypes they perform worse Gene Movement Contrary to masses of evidence many still believe in the idea that racial differences in intelligence are genetic n 1900s many biased IQ tests were given 9 claim whiter skin led to high innate intelligence Stigmatized minority groups in all countries even when they are of the same quotracequot have lower IQ scores and lower educationaloccupational outcomes eg Buraku in Japan The Bell Curve Thesis 1994 claimed that everything was genetic so blacks did worse educationally because it was because of genetic tendencies Others reviewed their techniques and found they used intelligence tests to show what they learned in school NOT measuring innate intelligence Ethnicity Hispanics suffer from the highest dropout rates and have lower SAT scores higher rate of repeating grades and suspensionexpulsion than white students They are also a target of negative stereotypes and targeted for explaining inequalities that stem from genetics Asians even though when they first arrived they suffered from huge amounts of discrimination and oppression they now consistently score higher on math have higher GPAs and higher college attendance rates than nonAsians How d they do it 1996 suggested that they have more social capital than other immigrants within their communities because of close ties and support for each other s parenting rules BoyGirl Achievement Gap 30 years ago girls lagged behind in educational outcomes but now girls are surpassing boys are less likely to repeat a grade or drop out They outperform on reading and writing attend college in higher numbers and more likely to graduate than boys More than half of all graduate degrees awarded are earned by women yet still doesn t pay off in the workplace 9 women 80 cents1 a man makes w equal education more likely to engage in risky behaviors and experience serious problems at school They also make up larger proportion of those taking calculus and science AP tests and score higher than girls on these tests IGirls have started doing equally well across all SES at the same time boys from lowerSES started doing worse The crisis has limited effects on middle amp upperclass children The family at home Growing up with same parents at siblings will end up with similar educational outcomes hypothesis stating that parental resources are finite and that each additional child gets a smaller amount of them Especially true for kids born close together Resources include economic eg money and amount of interaction Only children do better educationally 9 have a monopoly on parental resources IMiddle children do the worst off particularly boys in families of three or more children Laterborn children better chance of getting parental financial support for college than older siblings 9 possibly because of improving parental financial status Biological take babies with smaller birth weight have lower educational outcomes than their heftier siblings Also low birth weight has been correlated with poor classroom behavior Research in the Sociology of Education The Charter School movement s diagnosis of the problem is simply wrong Teacher quality only accounts for 1015 of variability in student achievement gains but it is the most important factor IN the school INonschool factors account for 60 of variability in achievement IStudent SESfamily income is the single most important factor in school performance Kids who are poor hungry homeless or abused have more difficulty learning relative to kids who are not Why are we rewarding improvement and punishing failure of teachers when most of the factors aren t under teacher control Creating perverse incentives eg cheating and discouraging good teachers to go to bad districts because they re paychecks rely on the students test scores Counterproductive because we need good teachers to improve those districts Practice feedback proper training etc is what drives improvement NOT incentives The idea that schools of concentrated lowscoring students are designated as failing but why Schools with predominantly middleclass kids are prepared before school eg kindergarten preschool etc Continue learning over the summer Schools with predominantly lowerclass they learn at the same rate as the middleclass kids while in school they are just less prepared before school Additionally students regress during the summer because of stress environment etc IOutside process are making the gap bigger NOT the schools themselves Policy Vouchers The idea behind the voucher movement is that for schooling to be equal students should be able to choose where they want to go regardless of whether they can pay for it Proponents want government vouchers for students that can be redeemed at any school public or private Students take the dollar amount on the public school they would have spent and apply it to the tuition at another school Benefits students can choose better schools competition in schools will improve allaround standards etc ssues do the schools have the right to limit in number of students Would it make the school less effective Not all parents could or would choose to send their kids to other schools Currently voucher programs being tested around the US so far Although findings vary overall there is NO consistent benefit found and has made no difference to child achievement scores Revisiting the Education Problem Question So why are US Pisa test scores so mediocre against international competition Answer The US has some of the largest concentrations of impoverished schools INearly 25 of children in the US are poor The child poverty rate is HIGHER than the total poverty rate US has a HUGE range of schools that are either stellar or extremely impoverished Education isn t our problem CHILD POVERTY IS OUR PROBLEM Implications Since were not committed to ending or reducing child poverty it s reasonable to ask what schools can do to REDUCE the effects of poverty on achievement Poor students need more school resources than affluent students Current public school funding is opposite Students in wealthy districts enjoy MORE educational opportunities than counterparts in poor communities Chapter 11 Health and Society What causes people to die changes over time but the group at greatest risk of dying from these afflictions those low in socioeconomic status stays the same The Rise of the Medical Profession IDoctors have enormous social power political power and prestige Comes from the ability to offer quothealth and longevity or at least claim to offer it They re intimate AND objective with patients Medica schools are limited in strict numbers and are limited with how many doctors can graduate each year 9 contributes to the prestige and selectivity of the field Doctors are assumed to answer to a higher moral calling eg the Hippocratic Oath9 obligates them to help in emergency situations and only in the patient s best interest a professional who violates the unstated ethic of getting the approval from peers ie other doctors by seeking the make a client happy at the expense of the esteem of hisher peers Ex If a professor cancels the final and gives everyone an A 9 students happy Other colleagues angry feel undermined may kick professor out of profession Trust is the most important factor in patients rating their doctor David Mechanic and Sharon Meyer Doctors may create excess demand for their services on the basis of knowing the more the patient comes in the more money the doctor receives The patients trusts that the doctor knows more about quotwhat s best asymmetry of information amp keeps returning Doctors set their own pay control demand for services have prescription authority amp selfregulate AMA in charge ofjudging indicting and jailing doctors Very reluctant to take away licenses though because of the selfinduced shortage of doctors in the field the process by which problems or issues not traditionally seen as medical come to be framed as such Ex alcoholism used to be a problem of selfcontrol now accepted as a disease with genetic tendencies and biochemical aspects Culture of Biomedicine In ancient Rome medicine was a lowlevel occupation Only recently has medicine held such great power 9 the power comes from being able to actually offer health and longevity Technoogy and knowledge advances helped doctors go from observing to examining patients ILicensing allowed the states to define what types of medicine could be practiced gave doctors some legal power to sue for missed payments etc amp created limits on degrees awarded 9 higher wages and guaranteed constant employment for doctors Doctors gained power in social institutions ie hospitals because they came to supply the patients Doctors Denouement IBy 1990 doctors authority began to decline because 1 Market forces infiltrated medicine healthcare became a political issue 2 Rise of external regulation Medical quotbill of rights now exist on top of AMA rules Also 1986 Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act ER must treatstabilize patient regardless of hisher ability to pay for services 3 Heterodoxy nontraditional medicine may be challenging authority of traditional medicine as more people explore alternatives such as acupuncture chiropractics and herbal medicine 4 Rise of technology many procedures no longer require a steady hand Drug companies also challenge medical community Doctors are victims of own technological innovation amp success 5 The internet patients can search their symptoms and become active consumers of health care challenging and questioning the opinions and judgments of the doctor The Sick Role the concept describing the social rights and obligations of a sick individual including 1 Right not to perform normal social roles depending on severity of illness 2 Right not to be held accountable for his or her condition 1 Obligated to try and get well 2 Obligated to seek competent help and comply with doctors orders Those who meet all rights amp obligations cannot be morallyjudged if they don t work when sick However today we put more emphasis on the individual rather than the social context We tend to hold the person at least partially responsible for their diseases rather than unaccountable as is presumed under right 2 eg notice if the person diagnosed w lung cancer continues to smoke IBUT how many patients have access to help and resources to obtain it Unlimited time and money 9 more likely to seek treatments If you can t seek treatment because of lack of resources do you lose your rights as a sick person because you didn t fulfil your obligations What it means to be sick or healthy varies across time and place Ex A Hmong immigrant family has a daughter who was diagnosed by Western doctors as having epilepsy However in Hmong culture the seizures are seen as a high honor because they view them as periods in which her soul visited the spirit world The US Health Care System current model of insurance in which you pay a copay small sum on the services you need and the insurance covers the rest of your bill Causes perverse incentives 9 doctors encouraged to overtreat supplierinduced demand Drives up medical costs for everyone as insurance gets repeatedly billed medical provider receives a capitation a fee per person as opposed to a fee per treatment Was an attempt to hold down costs of insurance by paying doctors salary based on number of patients Patients still pay a copay each time they go to the doctor but the doctor has more incentive to keep you healthy so that you require less treatment and less visits 9 undertreatment of patients because they don t get much extra money each time you come in dominates the US market Insurance acquired through employers Insurance company s guess at how much health care a given firm s employees will consume and calibrate their premiums monthly charges copays patient s share of the bill and deductibles portion that patients have to pay all by themselves before the insurance kicks in accordingly f insurance company overshot 9 lose business to competitor with lower rates If they underestimated 9 suffered losses within the insurance company Easier to adjust for age and family composition in larger companies than smaller ones an issue that arises when it comes to individual insurance If one is healthy there is no incentive to get insurance but if one is ill or knows heshe will need a lot of health care resources for that year for another reason heshe might want to buy the best possible plan for that particular year So when individuals have choice they tend to sort themselves out by their own risk which they know better than the insurance company ever could the individual insurance market goes into a death spiral because only the sickest people by insurance 9 increased prices 9 further drive away healthy potential buyers Insurance can t work if only sickest participate Resoutions and given to the poorest and the oldest people Gives them health insurance but limited bc these people may not have access to the technology amp resources to take advantage of the insurance Also did not help spread risk for insurance companies SCHIP effective in the late 90s to provide more money and statelevel assistance for children s health care Federal government matches state provided funding while allowing states to set own eligibility and control disbursement of funds aka quotObamacare requires everyone to have medical insurance 9 ensures that the risk will be spread for insurance ensures a healthy pool of buyers and lowers costs for all buyers Eliminated the variation in pricing or rejection from coverage based on preexisting medical conditions Intended to help the individualized insurance market Social Determinants of Health and Illness IMedical care amp health systems are NOT very important in predicting mortality rates life expectancy and quality of life IFactors like nutrition clean water lifestyle choices and social position are what better predict 1967 British researchers study the health of civil servants Examined the difference among men of different social classes in similar occupations civil service sector In the initial 10 years men with lower SES had much higher rates of common illnesses and ailments 9 higher mortality rates Lower SES men had more risk factors eg obesity higher stress and lower levels of physical activity IEven factoring out for prior health status men in lowest SES were twice as likely as men in higher SES to suffer from heart problems shows lower SES is the cause of issues not an effect This society has open access to healthcare for everyone and none of the participants were poor or undernourished and ALL have a sufficient salary to survive who you are where you live how much you earn and what you do for a living all play a major role in determining your health Shows that social forces effect illness in a general sense Whether you get the chicken pox acute condition or have lower back pain chronic condition will be affected by social forces death Social forces affect likelihood of an individual or group dying Social stress 9 poorer outcomes The lower SES 9 more social stress 9 poorer outcomes through direct eg stress hormones released by body or indirect eg behavioral responses such as overeating and smoking means as related to their social position Whitehal study is controversial it doesn t address the possibility that underlying personality differences and skill sets could have led to both occupational and health differences or that health could directly determine the rank a person rose bc its effects on productivity Height the Relationship between Health and Society 2004 New Yorker magazine article that discussed how tall men benefit from their height They have higher income more political power and are luckier in love Height is determined by both genetics AND environmental conditions during infancy and childhood Ex Mayan populations study done where some Mayans immigrated to US had more access to better diet and after 15 years avg quot394 inches taller than Mayans who stayed in Guatemala Equaity may be the key factor in height 9 the Netherlands have some of the best equality among their populations and better access to better healthcare 9 leading to most nutrients being maximized 9 tallest populations nequaity 9 creates stress 9 indirectly effects behavior 9 poor diet choices 9 not as much height Prenatal and Early Life Determinants process of inserting a needle into the uterus to extract fluid from amniotic sack surrounding the fetus Used to collect fetal DNA and run genetic screening for diseases before birth Ethical issues Should mother abort the child if it has incurable conditions like Down s syndrome What if knowing the sex of the baby will cause mothers to abort girls because males are more likely to return the investments when they grow up IBirth ratio of boy girl may be off at birth because the sperm with Y chromosome can travel faster than the ones with X chromosome This usually evens out because males have higher infant mortality rate and eventually flips because women outlive men in old age Some countries like China where they have a onechild policy are running the risk of having lack of marriage partners because there birth ratio is much higher from boys girls and higherorder births happening because women are doing in vitro fertilization where several zygotes are inserted into the uterus in hopes of increasing the chance of implantation Also women are taking more ovulationinducing drugs Ethical issues does a mom abort some of the embryos because of the risks that come with multiplebirths What about the risk for the low birth weight and prematurity with multiples Postnatal Health Inequalities Low birth weight 5le 802 or less at birth In 2011 rate of lowbirthweight babies 81 Can result from inadequate growth intrauterine growth restriction or prematurity Contributing factors Parenta birth weight Mother s health and nutritional status ndirectly the parental income eg mother needs resources to stay healthy ILowbirthweight babies suffer from lower average educational attainments lower SES and greater chance of giving birth to lowbirthweight babies Race in the US Whites 790 years African Americans 753 years Whites amp Hispanics 53 blacks 124 Asians 44 American Indians 85 What accounts for the differences Blacks are disproportionately poor in the US 9 higher stress levels 9 poorer health Blacks are more likely to be victims of overt and subtle forms of prejudice 9 high stress 9 high blood pressure and psychological issues 9 poorer health theory that suggests that the story of a man winning a race but then dying from exhaustion symbolizes the hardworking African American man Many blacks work extra hard to battle the negative stereotypes 9more stress9 health issues Socioeconomic Status SES Higher income 9 longer life expectancy Higher education 9 longer life expectancy WHY Resources and information leads to healthier habits eg smoke less eat healthier Also have more knowledge of healthcare system amp how to make choices that will affect their health BUT could better health have led to attaining higher education ie didn t miss as much school so better prepared for higher education The relationship between lower income amp higher morbidity is false not actually causal because other factors such as genetics amp biology affect both health amp SES Health causes social position If you don t have good health you may not be able to work so higher morbidity would lead to lower SES social status position determines health Being of lower SES causes higher morbidity and lower general health What factors could make this happen I Psychosocial interpretation relative status to those around you 9 leads to feelings of inadequacy low worth and stigma 9 stress poor choices 9 higher morbidity I Materialist interpretation socioeconomic factors cause differences in access to a healthy life 9 can t access healthy food gyms etc 9 higher morbidity I Fundamental Causes interpretation multiple and everchanging mechanisms exist by which SES affect health amp what the causes have in common the greater ability of high SES individuals to make use of new information amp health resources available economist at Princeton University Found that an extra year of schooling decreased individuals chances of dying by 36 in a given 10 year period studied elderly as Social Security Administration choose an arbitrary date for people to receive larger social security packages than those born after a certain date Found that those who received smaller packages compensated by working parttime longer 9 increased longevity bc of the mental amp physical benefits of being more socially connected Marital Status Married people men especially tend to live longer But being married doesn t necessarily CAUSE longer lives maybe healthier people do better on the marriage market 9 more marriages even though they would live long regardless Maybe marriage lowers risk for risky or unhealthy behavior 9 better health Gender IWomen in the US outlive men Women 811 years Men 763 years The gap is decreasing as more women seek higher education and better more stressful jobs Women are more likely to seek healthcare than men nteractions between race and gender White women 813 years Black men 721 years Nonwhites are more likely to face racism have low SES and work more dangerous jobs Family structure Larger family 9 higher child mortality rates Could be caused by division of resources or lack of supervision eg Western cultures suffer more from child accidental deaths than food scarcity Kids spaced more closely together 9 higher child mortality Parental resources are more taxed when the children are born closely together IFirstborns more likely to die young Possibly bc lack of parental experience or because they are usually unintended pregnancies so mom wasn t making the best choices when the fetus was developing because she didn t know she was expecting Firstborns that are also only children suffer from higher risk of death only because if the first born is severely ill or dies in infancy mom is less likely to have more children Sociology of Mental Health Used to be sane vs insane but now is seen as a spectrum created Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder DSM in varying editions in order to standardize the canon of mental disorders and their definitions so that one person in Maine with certain symptoms would receive the same diagnosis as a person in Texas with those same symptoms First and second edition were a little vague and usually attributed causes such as life events to the diseases Only had about 60 diseases Third addition was largely diseases were not attributed to certain causes Making it primarily used for diagnosing and it was largely adopted as the medical model rather than a psychological model Today have the fifth edition Contains 400 distinct mental illnesses because of the insurance industry needing to have a diagnosis that quotfitsquot into a category focuses on identifying the internal conflicts that produce a mental illness Was replaced by the focuses on identifying symptoms of specific underlying diseases Sadness vs Depression symptoms of depression last longer than 2 weeks and often interfere with daily life and functioning What if the depression is the result of a huge life event eg September 11 2001 Wouldn t depression be a normal reaction to life s trauma Overdiagnosing depression and lumping appropriatelysaddened individuals with those who suffer from a serious mental illness may dilute attention and resources Power of a Pill Now that mental illness is seen as an organic disease all you need is a pill to fix it right Drugs can and do help people but often drugs are over or missprescribed Some illnesses would be treated better with therapy but insurances don t usually cover the therapy So many patients just get prescribed a drug to treat the symptoms Global Health Poverty and Health Cause vs Effect US is tied for 33rel place in terms of life expectancy on the global scale with Colombia amp Qatar leading cause of death worldwide More than 780 million don t have access to clean water and 16 million dieyear from diarrhea alone majority under age 5 There s an effective feedback loop poor countries have more health problems because they re poor and they are poor because they have so many health problems eradication of this disease is number one on the World Health Organization s list Before antibiotics its morbidity rates were so high it could wipe out entire villages African mosquitoes target humans they ve evolved this way 9 more of an issue in SubAfrican regions bc they are populationdense amp lack an animalcrop mixed system Malaria has fatally drained out productivity in Africa 9 stop in development So controlling amp eliminating malaria are prerequisites for further economic development ssue antibioticresistant strains of malaria gonorrhea etc are reemerging bc of the practice of adding antibiotics to animal feed amp failure to finish prescribed course of antibiotics Vaccines development of vaccines is important to eradicating diseases The Age of AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome AIDS had first case reported in 1981 and thought to be a disease of gay men not true though AIDS killed more than 25 million people worldwide within 25 years after the first case African Americans men and women amp homosexual men are at highest risk of infection HIV is carried in bodily fluids so can be transmitted through shared needles unprotected sex and mothertoinfant exchanges More prevalent among poorer populations especially on the global scale Drugs are available to prevent HIV from becoming fullblown AIDS but access is limited and the resources such as good nutrition and clean water affect its effectiveness Housing for Health Could providing homes to the mentally ill actually improve their condition New York University psychiatrist who pioneered the Housing First project and Pathways to Housing project that provided housing to individuals wo having them jump through hoops Permanent housing leads to individuals making better choices for themselves Forcing them to quotget clean in order to keep housing at a sense of permanency 9 individuals don t feel incentive to change 2006 studies participants that have permanent housing and those who did not The ones who had housing had less ER visits less incarceration amp improved psychologically with their conditions Specific to this study was alcohol they drank a lot less by the end of the study Money spent on housing and counseling actually saves money in the long run Chapter 17 Science the Environment and Society Society invents technologies to minimize dangers from nature but those same inventions create new risks that need to be managed had a bilateral preventative mastectomy 9 led to other women getting tested for BRCA alleles that increase risk for breast and ovarian cancer This case shows that human genetic sequences shouldn t be patented because the effects of genes are fluid and subject to change because of everchanging social practices So the BRCA genes may not eventually predict breast cancer but mastectomies great example of social adaptation Found that when everything else is equal the prices of the stocks on the New York Stock Exchange increased with sunny weather in Manhattan and vice versa with rainy weather He then published his work publically Wall Street found out changed their statistics and prices according to the weather and poof No more phenomenon Science and Society scientist and scientific historian says that periods of quotnormal science are ruptured every so often by scientific revolutions that shift the paradigm of a given science the framework within which scientists operate The ideas practices and conventional knowledges shared about a specific area Ex Plate Tectonics we all believe that the Earth s crust is broken up into large plates and this is why we have volcanic patterns earth quakes etc It s a paradigm about how the Earth works science that s conducted within an existing paradigm Basically adding to or clarifying existing knowledge and not overturning paradigms or when enough scientific anomalies accumulate to challenge the existing paradigm showing that it is incomplete or inadequate to explain all observed phenomena Pretty infrequent Ex Copernicus Earth is NOT the center of the universe not even the center of its own solar system the notion that science should be unaffected by the personal beliefs or values of scientists but rather follow objective rules of evidence Not practiced though because science is constantly influenced by political and social factors Scientists study what interests them making it bias from the start Scientific research needs funding this is where political influence matters Money decides what gets studied and what gets ignored INonscientists often make decisions that affect the course of science Ex President George W Bush limited research on Stem cells by adding funding stipulations based on pressure from religious conservatives and his own personal moral beliefs Al science claims to promote knowledge but sometimes different sources reveal different things Who is credible What s actually true Science holds a privileged place in relation to knowledge and truth so the quotscience seal of approval is what we look for when we stand behind something Thomas Gieryn Alternate theory to Darwin Claims that life to too complex to have evolved through natural selection rather an quotintelligent designer had a hand in creating and selecting various species a tenured biochemistry professor big proponent of this theory work done to maintain the border between legitimate amp nonlegitimate science within a scientific discipline or between legitimate disciplines Referring to the instances in which divisions between fields of knowledge are created advocated attacked or reinforced and Laboratory Life studied the Nobel Prizewinning physician Jonas Salk s laboratory to observe how scientists conducted experiments reviewed papers and interacted with one another in a laboratory setting Social scientists often go out into real world to study but natural scientists often bring things into lab settings to study which is why the lab plays an important role in the scientific process Study showed that scientific discovery has its own language own system of promotions and own hierarchy that decides which results or explanations receive attention Latour challenges scientists by saying that facts are created NOT discovered Scientists dismiss this claim and stick by the belief that scientific facts preexist and are discovered a term coined by Robert Merton 1986 used to describe the notion that certain scientific results get more notoriety amp influence based on the existing prestige of researchers involved Agriculture and the Environment rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases resulting in higher global average temperatures The biggest environmental challenge we face Greenhouse gases are trapped in the atmosphere naturally warming the earth This process enables the planet to remain at comfortable temperatures however in recent years the concentrations of these gases has skyrocketed as is the raising average global temperature All the world is in agreement Climate change is real it s observably happening NOW and human activity is the primary driver of rapid climate change NO scientific body standing currently disagrees with these conclusions IPossible causes Deforestation and burning of coal fossil fuels natural gas and oil Deforestation burning forests releases C02 and deforested trees can t absorb atmospheric carbon once they re gone Burning of resources emissions of huge amounts of C02 as a result Cimate is in a precious cycle of ice ages and warming periods Caused by changes in the earth s orbits which lead to small changes in amount of light in the northern hemisphere IVery likely impacts 1 Rising sea levels destroy civilizations living on the coast 2 More extreme weather large and sudden rainfall changes in rainfall patters 9 changing crop productions Extreme draughts and floods Prolonged heat waves have already lead to catastrophic death IEx US lost 739 individuals during Chicago 1995 heat wave most of which were African American elderly and poor residents because they were socially isolated and couldn t get the help and assistance they needed 3 Further rapid increase in rate of species extinction Possible impacts Temp rises incompatible with continuity of human technological civilization 115 degrees F by 2100 is realistically possible Potentia worsecase scenario Push the earth into a new geologic period Global ecosystem collapse mass extinction Science and Food products from cows not injected with hormones pesticidefree no genetically modified ingredients and at least 70 of the ingredients are certified organic pesticidefree no genetically modified ingredients and at least 95 of the ingredients are certified organic not made with genetically modified ingredients IEating organic has become a way of life and a political statement about farming food production and consumerism It doesn t necessarily mean healthier though or that they come from small local farms The certification of being organic is expensive so large corps are currently the ones who can afford it The crops themselves are more expensive 9 limits access Genetically Modified Crops benefits can yield more produce lower costs for consumers and have better resistance to insects disease etc while increasing quality of the food They may stay fresh longer too which reduces waste Risks could it disrupt food chains What are the ripple effects of modifying a primary food source professor in Switzerland invented golden rice which could help solve Vitamin A deficiencies in children all over the world which causes blindness describes a society that both produces amp is concerned with mitigating risks problems that derive from nature eg hurricanes earthquakes etc problems that derive from human activity The Next Catastrophe 2007 argues that although we can t avoid the risks that come in life we can reduce their impact by distributing risk Making disasters less disastrous even as they remain inevitable The Green Revolution 1950 IRefers to the introduction of highyield crops in developing countries and the improvements in agricultural technologies eg irrigation fertilizers pesticides etc Africa has been a late beneficiary bc of its type of crops amp high dependence on rainfed crops Reshaped farming from being individual based to group and company based in order to coordinate costs and efforts more effectively IHowever it has also depleted biodiversity in areas and puts farmers at higher risk because their fields are more susceptible to disease or predators because they re all the same crop Also creates too large of a demand on water and depleting soil nutrients Sociology and the Environment Three ways environmental issues are social issues I Environmental degradation is caused by industrialization consumption amp population growth I Environmental degradation impacts societies and institutions I Social institutions play roles in solving or blocking solutions to environmental degradations Sociological causes Example Logic of the capitalist firm Competition with other firms 9 powerful drive to lower costs Bureaucratic organization systematic examination of all costs Externalization of costs wherever possible cut corners in order to save money Prices do not usually reflect environmental costs what is it costing the environment Social Impacts IHealth effects in humans Airborne particulates lead to respiratory disorders lung cancer heart disease birth defects etc quot50000 deathsyear in US alone ndustrial chemicals in environment quotlegal until proven dangerous Ingested or absorbed via skin and lungs Some very toxic chemicals accumulate over our lifetime eg mercury lead and pcbs Health effects can take decades to manifest and are very difficult to link to chemicals that cause them hard to isolate the effects Leaded gasoline added into gas in the 19305 despite known health effects Took several decades to solve the problem 9 huge amounts of lead in the atmosphere poisoning the human race globally Now we have unleaded gas Depletion of critical resources Eg Industrial agriculture in much of North America Draining the aquifer s to provide irrigation Erosion of topsoil not replaceable Eg Global deforestation extractive industries large scale ranching and agriculture Half of world s tropical forests gone estimates 90 gone by 2030 Destroys livelihoods for the world s poor Loss of biodiversity and potentially useful species Negatively affects global warming water cycle soil erosion and local rainfall Socia Institutions and Environmental Solutions 1963 1970 1990 qualifies by important success story Response to problems caused by particulates ozone smog and sulfur acid rain US Air quality before CAA was significantly worse than today Limits emissions impose fines amp penalties for violations amp new enforcement agencies 1972 Response to widespread pollution of US waterways Limits emissions impose fines amp penalties for violations amp new enforcement agencies mportant successes though challenges still remain of US waters safe for swimmingfishing rose from 13 to 23 Dramatically reduced rate of wetland destruction Americans w modern wastewater treatment from 8 million 9 175 million Future of Global Warming Regulation Multinational effort required Agreed in 1997 took effect in 2005 Set countybycountry targets for C02 emission reductions relative to 1990 levels US target was a decrease of 7 relative to 1990 US only major country to NOT ratify the treaty US has been the number one releaser of C02 until recently 2ncl now to China US per person has a HUGE carbon footprint But there are ways we can change without noticing a change in our living standards Why is this an institutional problem and notjust an individual problem As an individual I can only change my footprint a little unless I make huge lifestyle changes no more car no more comfy 72degree house in winter etc IThe key is that if we change our society s energy infrastructure something we can t do as individuals we won t HAVE to make big individual lifestyle changes Global Warming denialism in the US Aims to cast doubt on the science of global warming and confuse the public Promoted and funded by industry groups Use the same tactics as big tobacco companies t s working In the US only 65 of public believe climate change is a serious problem and this number is falling Alternatives Carbon Tax tax items that emit C02 legislation if you re under your cap you can sell your leftover amounts of C02 use to other companies 9 rearranges the incentives Experiment Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative RGGI 9 northeastern US states took effect tin 2009 results very encouraging 9 Half of reductions in emissions were a direct result of this legislation And without little notice or effect on public lifestyle Sources of Climate Despair ndustries don t want their pockets damaged so they claim change will hurt the economy People claim we can t do anything without getting rid of capitalism Both of these claims are wrong There are policies that can fix these issues that can change incentives making firms innovate wo HUGE changes the lifestyles of the people Scientists from all fields are all in agreement that we HAVE to do something soon Biotechnology and the Human Genome Human Genome Project launched in 1990 scientists seeking to understand the building blocks of DNA which are adenine thymine cytosine and guanine Found there s only between 20000 to 25000 genes in the human DNA If we discover causal genes for health issues should we screen people privacy stratification and stigmatization Who has the right to this information from the testing Should we tell people all about the chronic debilitating illnesses they may eventually get so they know this information ahead of time What do we use the genetic information for Homosexua gene Gay gene controversy leads to huge investigation in the 90s by scientists to find the genetic sequences that may lead to gayness Some showed results but failed to replicate consistently ISome explanations supporting gene theory Family solidarity gay unclesaunts needed to help raise their nieces and nephews Not much support though Group selection some individuals make reproductive sacrifices for the wider community Not widely accepted among biologists Antagonistic Pleiotropy meaning same genes causing women to be more fertile also may cause men more likely to be gay Still needs more testing Prenata causes in utero chemicals amp hormones may influence likelihood of being gay Race and Genetics Companies selling kits to quottrace ancestry based on genetic codes Concerns accuracy of the test privacy accuracy and possible unintended social economic or psychological consequences IThere are NO definitive genetic markers for race They merely find similar genetic codes to the ones sent in by the person They do NOT have an exhausted data base either 9 inaccuracy PBS Documentary The Lost Tribes of Israel 2000 Genetic testing was used to confirm that a group ofJewish South Africans called the Lemba were most likely direct descendants from the original tribes of Israel IRace is a social construct BUT with all of the negotiating over genetic testing its biological results have an impact on the sociological outcomes and actions of the person as a result Chapter 18 Collective Action Social Movements amp Social Change What makes you an individual is your affiliation with multiple group identities Dalton Conley meets the Yes Men who for satirical purposes publicly impersonate and shake up government officials and corporations They even described Conley as a consultant on corporate crime to presidential candidate George W Bush He learned it is possible to be swept up in a social movement INVOLUNTARILY Collective Action action that takes place in groups and diverges from the social norms of the situation collective action face to face presence with other members in the action group eg ray protest collective action action that occurs when not all members are physically together eg letter writing campaign Theories of collective action people with similar views and habits naturally find each other Ex Riots at a soccer match people who like soccer usually go to the matches Sometimes if they re too overzealous andor drunk the game may end in a riot Doesn t explain the inconsistency of group action Why do they sometimes riot at the games and other times go home peacefully people who are in close contact naturally develop similar outlooks and behaviors Ex when you re at a football game and they start the wave you may feel obligated to do the wave when it gets to your section Especiay true under the encouraging influence of a charismatic leader downplays freewill treats individuals as mindless sheep and doesn t explain inconsistency between situations and why some people are more prone to imitation than others Why do some do the wave while others resist personality and circumstances turn some individuals into leaderlike people called who promote new behavioral norms especially in unusual situations for which established norms are inadequate Their actions become intentionally or not the behavior copied by an entire group Ex during a plane evacuation one person may start directing people in an orderly fashion That person wasn t elected to be the leader but people start copying and behaving the way they want so that person is a keynoter for that unusual situation doesn t always explain why particular people emerge as leaders doesn t explain why particular people set terms for new behavior why one behavior is followed over another or why new behaviors only sometimes emerge and not every time collective action is a response to a problem that requires a collective solution There are six conditions that are required for a movement to coalesce amp be successful 1 Must be social strain present that existing powers are unable or unwilling to alleviate 2 Folks must agree on a definition of the problem 3 Folks must be free to act on their grievance s 4 There must be a spark to ignite the controversy 5 There must be mobilization for action people gathering together in organized way 6 There is a failure of social control by established power holders dentity and collective action IWhat makes us an individual is all of the multiple group identities Group affiliation with others help us develop emotional attachments to that person Not only does your identity determine the groups you belong in but the groups you belong in also determine your identity We have multiple identities because we belong to multiple groups Can cause conflict Leads to ambiguity amp poorly defined lines between the multiple identities 9 role strain role conflict Social Movements collective behavior that is purposeful organized and institutionalized but NOT ritualized it doesn t happen over and over Usually motivated by a social or political aim Types of social movements 4 seek the most limited social change and target a specific group eg MADD success eg Models with Conscience not success dissolved when founder left seek radical social change and target a specific group eg Covenant House success want people to have a daytoday routine instead of drugabusing lives seeks limited social change and targets entire society eg Critical Mass success want everyone to ride bikes to work seek radical change and target entire society eg Weather Underground faiIure wanted to overthrow gov through armed attacks United Democratic Front UDF in South Africa sought to overthrow the apartheid gov South Africans were classified into white colored Indian and black Segregation was rampant In early 19805 the UDF coalesced after the African national Congress ANC had been banned Successful movement 9 new elections 9 Nelson Mandelapresident Tea Party movement seen as false grassroots movements because they received money from political influences to run the organization Occupy Wall Street movement unsuccessful because they didn t have leadership or a single message across the group Limited social change Radical social change Target particular subgroups Alterative Redemptive Target entire society Reformative Revolutionary How do social movements arise there is a structural weakness in society that results in the psychological disruption of individuals which leads to the social movement Social strain from many different places can lead to collective action and movements there is always some sort of strain in societies so what kinds and what magnitudes lead to a movement Individuals are made into mindless creatures and it overemphasizes psychological tensions tried to add more to the Classical model of social movements but rather emphasizes political context and goals buy also states that social movements are unlikely to emerge without the necessary resources Or if they do without the resources they don t succeed Seems like the rich should be the ones leading the movements but more often than not it s the ones who are powerless and poor Also if the movement becomes too dependent on outside resources it usually will eventually fail because of conflicting demands Lastly unclear where the social grievances came from model of social movements that focuses on the structure of political opportunities When these are favorable to a particular challenger the chances are better for the success of a social movement led by this challenger Conditions influencing expanding political opportunities indigenous organizational strength eg from churches etc and certain shared cognitions among the group eg beliefs of injustice being suffered sense of selfempowerment etc ISustainability of the movement depends on responses from other groups in society Widely accepted model of social movements But some argue it downplays cultural or emotional components which can sometimes play a major role ITownsend movement began in the early 1930s Organized 392 million elderly Americans into Townsend clubs to all demand pensions from the government 9 pres Franklin D Roosevelt proposed Social Security and there request was answered Successful movement Three Stages of Social Movements 1 occurs when the social problem being addressed is first identified 2 resources are mobilized that is concrete action is taken around the problems outlined in the emergence stage eg donations lobbying etc Many movements fade now bc of demands for resources or they reach objectives 3 or a formal structure develops to promote the cause Usually sets up a headquarters from which to organize its activities and coordinate efforts develop to recruit new members amp coordinate participation The groups also often raise money clarify goals and structure participation in a movement Types of organizations movement organization have fulltime leadership staff dedicated to the movement and a large membership base that plays a minor roles Leaders speak on behalf of the group amp often lobby for policy influence Ex NARAL ProChoice America movement organization Rankandfile membership is directly involved This can be further divided into mass protest organizations and grassroots organizations organization advocate for social change through protest and demonstrations Relies heavily on member participation organization relies heavily on communitybased membership participation to promote change Work through existing political structures Often use letterwriting campaigns and local political organizing Vountary Organizations Democracy in America 1830s called America a meaning that Americans frequently came together to join voluntary associations He noted that in democratic societies like the US they enjoy greater equality than in aristocratic societies IAlso makes us independent and weak because without voluntary organizations were basically politically powerless What good is one vote IWhy are Americans so likely to join groups Ideas Democracy makes us more likely because were in theory relatively classless and individualistic 9 need voluntary groups to gain power amp make change Unique pattern of settlement early town square culture had people come together to discuss amp debate current civic issues 9 longlasting culture of voluntary association America s identity as a land of immigrants who formed voluntary organizations to unite with other immigrants who shared similar culture amp values Social Movements and Social Change refers to the transformations in social institutions political organizations and cultural norms across time Change happens whether a movements causes it or not eg immigration and social evolution IUS changes over time early 1930s 1980s High immigration to American urban centers from Europe 9 WWII 9 Rapid development of suburbs 9 Baby boom 9 Civil Rights Movement 9 High immigration from Latin American and Asian countries 9 Cold war with the Soviet Union Some changes affect the demographic structures political issues or culture Ex 1900 Census 460 people household in America 1970 314 people household 2011 260 people household Ex Civil Rights movement 9 eliminate overt discrimination against African Americans and banned segregation Ex Hippie fashions eg tiedyed Tshirts came into play because of the peace movement during the Vietnam War Premodern Modern and Postmodern Societies All of these terms refer to social change across longer periods of time such as historical periods in order to indicate particular ways of understanding framing and conceptualizing society Premodern Societies used to be called primitive individuals live in small groups there is a low degree of literacy low division of labor and technology is relatively underdeveloped The individual doesn t control what groups they re in amp they re the center of their social world Ex Me 9 family 9 village 9 kingdom 9 religion social relations characterized by concentric circles of social affiliation a low degree of division of labor relatively underdeveloped technology and traditional social norms Rely on myths or stories to explain the world around them and may have a spiritual leader who passes knowledge from the gods to the people Modern Societies social relations characterized by rationality bureaucratization and objectivity as well as individuality created by nonconcentric but overlapping group affiliations Some point to the Renaissance or the Enlightenment or Industrial Revolution as its origin Common theme is the notion of progress a rational linear notion of advancement in a single direction of betterment Central to progress is technological innovation to manage nature ISome point to the demolition of PruittIgoe Houses in St Louis a symbol of modernity as the end of the modern period Postmodern Societies social relations characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history the replacement of narrative with pastiche and multiple perhaps even conflicting identities resulting from disjointed affiliations taking a little bit from one culture and a little bit from another to make a collage of sorts Grand struggles eg capitalism vs communism that defined the modern period abandoned All about multiculturalism and blending of different narratives Phiip Johnson s Sony Building in New York 1984 is a good ex of postmodern architecture It s paradoxical decentered affiliations with a lack of self Causes of Social Change ISocial change can result from new technology new ideas and changes in cultural identities and conflict between social actors Computers and internet 9 huge influence on the organization of social amp economic life New ideas 9 lead to social change New information on health dangers amp politics have changed many behaviors and societies Conflicts can have huge impacts Ex WWII lead to differing developments between East and West Germany the Cold War the establishment of Israel the founding of the UN etc 17701831 says conflict drives history as follows each idea thesis has an opposite antithesis and when they come into conflict they result in a resolution a synthesis This resolution becomes the new thesis that has its own antithesis which will need its own synthesis eventually Policy Is Activism Dead The buildup to US invasion of Iraq in 2003 triggered the largest antiwar rallies since Vietnam yet the chants of the protestors had little effect in Washington Should they have used the Internet instead of inperson marches There s less expenses online and organizing can be much more efficient However politicians and policy makers can easily ignore online social movements 9 they value it less It s so much easier to fundraise online with the click of a button However it s hard to take advantage of the personal social networks because you lose the compelling nature of facetoface interactions people won t feel as compelled to do much about an email as compared with someone inperson asking them and explaining their cause Groups using the internet to their advantage IElectronic Disturbance Theatre EDT a group that organizes virtual sitins by publicly distributing an app called FloodNet that will send automatic browser reload requests to the targeted website every few minutes Hope to quotdisturbquot ie shut down the website IBureau of Inverse Technology BIT archives phone calls and other information against the government that will be available to the public as stark contrast to the way the government is increasingly collecting secret information about the public These internet groups still say that nothing can replace the power of facetoface protest Conclusion Technoogy allows global influence on social change dentity and its emotional impulses both result from and form the basis of collective action 9 social movements 9 social change Movements are NOT individual efforts and NOTjust when people have resources A successful social movement should end up destroying itself because it will have solved the problem that motivated its very existence Sociology Lec Week 15 Social Movements Causes of social change 1 Drift unplanned unplanned events such as population growth technology and globalization a Also have unintended consequences such as pollution from industry 2 Planned Action a Actions of rich and powerful people b Planned government policy initiative c Social movements Social change almost always causes conflict bc some gain and some lose materially or symbolically Social movement large s of people who join together to bring about or resist some social or cultural change Sociological Perspective 1950s mass behavior theories Protests seen as irrational Partly a reaction to the labor movement class conflicts lead to these irrational protests because they normal means should be able to accomplish the goals 1960s 70s Resource mobilization theories Protests seen as an organized attempt by excluded groups to achieve political goals Grievances aren t irrational They are real issues eg black voting rights 1980s 90s Political process theories Movement successes explained by political opportunities organizational resources and effective issue framing Social movements are seen as rational Social Movement Waves Social institutions can be understood in part as the legacies of past waves of social movement organizing and protest 9 one wave inspires the next Each wave leaves behind new institutions that become part of mainstream takenforgranted background of everyday life eg Equal Rights Protection Agency ensures nondiscriminatory housing selection but we don t think twice about it eg Human Resources department result of the labor movement 9 quotno need to form unions because out company has a great HR department to deal with conflicts and issues Sociological Aspects of Social Movements Grievances issues that the group has with the current norms People always have these Grievances don t always lead to social movements Mobilization amount of materials resources and people being put to work on organizing planning and implementing the movement Why do grievances sometimes lead to collective protest and sometime not Perceived threats amp perceived opportunities are key to mobilization Targets ofprotest figuring out who can fix the problems and also who can help support the cause Messages conveyed via protest amp media audience very important in this aspect Have to inspire hope in participants amp convince the broader audiencetargets that it is necessary to make change Having the targets feel responsible is important Providing ideas for improvement amp making the movement legitimate is extremely important Also need to ensure that the CORRECT intended messages are being reported by the media Movement strategiestactics internal conflicts avoiding conflict WITHIN the movement is important for legitimacy Keeping a strong base is important for keeping a movement going Must define the goals and appropriate strategies as defined by the group ocial movement organizations Defining membership roles and expectations to ensure everyone knows their part within the group Organized movements accomplish a lot more than disorganized one Spontaneity needs organization as paradoxical as it may sound If you want to accomplish anything movements have to be organized ocial movement outcomes victories defeats Reaching the goals of the movement big and small or failing to meet the goals as a result of lack of resources etc Big Movements Labor Movement biggest success Has accomplished so many things including 8hour work days better pay better working conditions right to organize amp protest end child labor health and safety regulations minimum wages overtime rules social security unemployment compensation etc Environment Movement helped clean up and protect water and air Also help conserve forests Lastly help protect endangered species Civil Rights movement changing culture and many norms Still has a lot of changes to come Women s movement getting more equal rights for all women Gaining more control over reproduction birth control access and changing social attitudes and norms Downsides of social movement society Astroturfing grassroots support can lend legitimacy to the agendas of vested interest So many will hide the investors of the group to make it seem that the commonordinary folk are the ones interested in making the changes NOT corporations Which are genuine and which are topdown from corps Genuine but misguided movements eg Antivaccine movement Misguided fears about vaccinations have led to needless new outbreaks of contagious disease Having wrong information leads to misguided movements In sum Social movements have pushed the US to live up to its founding values BUT competing visions of what these values mean in practice Countermovements push back Astroturf movements confuse important issues some movements wellmeaning but misinformed Thus crucial to movements is detecting what is real and false in terms of issues Major social institutions are fields of contending opposing forces We can t assumes our dominant institutions will identify address and solve the problems were facing Sociology Videos and Concepts Section 3 SlideShow Union of Concerned Scientists Shows the reality of disinformation and what tactics are being used Information laundering using seemingly independent organizations to present information in a way that seems objective in order to confuse the public and make information seem legit Numerous companies also make disputing claims creating an quotEcho Chamber Video AGU Chapman Conference Climate Science Richard Alley YouTube Shows the effects on crops on really hot days As we go to warmer temperatures at first nothing happens amp suddenly almost everything drops off It doesn t take many hot days to ruin the crops regardless of other factors eg pesticides water etc if it s too hot productivity drastically declines Using real world data it s not just predictions Documentary Film quotHow to Survive a Plague 2012 Overview About the AIDSHIV epidemic 6 year long epidemic without drugs there s almost 100 fatality rate 392 years to live after diagnosis Symptoms night sweats weak immune system pneumonia dry patchy skin skin lesions etc Grievances things people were unhappy about Need to address the epidemic of AIDS crisis AIDS being diagnosed in the hospital also incentive for hospitals not to diagnose it Security guards beating up AIDS patients People who died funerals wouldn t accept people who died from AIDS Too much complacency with finding the cures DHPG failure to legalize as overthecounter drug until ACT UP pushes actions Writing up a treatment agenda describes how the cure should be found tested and administered There wasn t a guide for the treatment by the FDA so ACT UP wrote one Need more access and effective drugs Lack of response from NIH and other research committees mmigration problems gay immigrants denied on basis of quothealth problems amp blatant discrimination Solving the structure of HIV protease could we prevent HIV from replicating amp stop it Fear within the organization ACT UP leads to division within the group Crixivan seemed to work at first but then failed EXCEPT in patient 143 His levels dropped and stayed down now they had to figure out how to get everyone cured Defining the problem why is collective action the solution Need a huge group effort to bring real attention with real power to real problems that are KILLING millions worldwide We need a NATIONAL level research plan of action Targets of collective action Provide power to individuals Be able to get government institutions to make more advances in finding the cure the treatment of the gay community and other AIDS victims and funding for clinical trials Getting the government to work with the AIDS community to develop treatment Get more attention Strategytactics Learn about NIH FDA etc to work better to finding treatments amp funding SitinsKissins to get meetings and statements from public institutions Letterwriting campaigning to recognize nontraditional families in terms of housing New drugs being tested on HIVpositive volunteers AZT is the drug 10000 year Target the FDA Encourage them to research more quickly and efficiently Make AIDS a part of the federal campaigns make it a political debate Funera on Washington march Pouring ashes all over the White House lawn TAG group put less pressure on timing they want to make sure that the drugs actually work Socia movement organizations AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power ACT UP take over city hall in New York trying to get Ed Koch to address the AIDS epidemic and declare a state of emergency We re the most influential group at solving the AIDS crisis People With AIDS Help Club importing drugs from international countries to test treatments AIDS Conference finally open up science meetings committees etc to AIDS community members amp have them actively apart of the research A part of MERCK Research Company Treatment Activist Group TAG split off group from ACT UP Much more formal amp focuses more on legislation Wanted complete reorganization of research bc drugs out were useless ntended audience and messages communicated Lawmakers declare a state of emergency Allocate funds Science researchers find a cure Genera population want to get people to understand what activists are doing and why Drug companies drop prices of drugs make them more available and effective Cathoic church the church condemns the use of condoms The AIDS community must fight against this to prevent the further transmission of the HIV virus President George Bush he was very complacent about addressing the AIDS issue Jesse Holms congressman who needed to stop fighting against the AIDS community A Japanese research company were dragging their feet on developing drugs that could save cancer patients breast cancer and AIDS patients Concusion Combination was the way to go Crixivan two other drugs 9 cure HIV within 30 days 6000000 lives saved because of the drugs Yet 4 people die every minute because they still can t afford the drugs
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