Dr Smant Final Exam
Dr Smant Final Exam HIST 1311 - 001
Popular in HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES TO 1865
Popular in History
This page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Banks on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1311 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Kevin J Smant in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES TO 1865 in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 12/07/15
The Jacksonian Era Wednesday November 11 2015 1101 AM 1824 election No clear successor to Monroe 0 So there were many candidates Two candidates stand out Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams John Adams ls father 0 What is interesting is that both are nominated by resolutions and state legislatures Final election results 0 Controversial 0 Jackson had most electoral votes but not majority Jackson also had more popular votes than everyone else But Popular votes don39t matter in American politics So election goes to the House of Reps KeyHenry Clay speaker of the house 0 O O O He said something that went against Jackson Clay wants quotinternal improvementsquot Clay thought that Adams was the better choice because he thought like he did 0 So Adams wins in the house JQA appoints Henry Clay to secretary of state Jackson and supporters angry o Called this the quotcorrupt bargainquot o Vowed he would run again in 1828 The Presidency ofJQA Adams 0 Intelligent wellread experienced 0 But not a good politician cold man not a lot of charisma abrupt doesn t get along with people that good Had interesting ideas 0 for internal improvements 0 Federal support for science arts national university observatory But also in lst annual message to congress let everyone know what he wants to dowhat he is doing 0 Screw public opinion I39m doing what I want Plus1824 controversial outcome Congresspro Jackson Election of 1828 A lot changes in our perception of the office 1economic growth more own land 2more believe in equality Anyone can create wealth become rich 3restrictions on votingreduced If you believe in equality more people ought to have the right to vote 4more ppl vote 5and politicians need to be quotcommon manquot whom they identify with Jackson gets this so he highlights how he was a common man Forms structure of new party DEMOCRATS Jackson wins 0 640000 popular votes On Jackson Democrat 18291837 Role of poor beginnings frontier o Grew up in the backwoods frontier poverty 0 Never forgot his humble beginnings Violence in frontier His attitudetemper probably in uenced by the frontier Fought in at least 5 duels Was shot in the chest in a duel then killed the other guy Butwealthy and in uential o Owned a plantationmansion Smarter politician than people gave him credit for 0 Used his temper to his advantage to get what he wanted Focus on two major issues 0 O O TariffNullification 1South emphasizes agriculturecotton not manufacturing 2Nation tariff had been rising 0 because of the role of the northin uence of manufacturingindustry 0 Want a higher tariff because it is going to keep out European industrial goods 0 Make people buy Americans northern goods 3South increasingly unhappy with high tariff 0 Had little industry manufacturing 0 High tariff hurts them helps north 0 Feared consequences Thought that the other countries would increase their tariff as well making it harder to export cotton to other countries 4Then TARIFF OF 1828 o Called TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS o Increases tariff yet again 0 South hates 5Jackson 0 Election of 1828 o Hoped he would change the tariff 0 His response well I would like a fair tariff rather than what we have now 0 Talked about improving it but nothing really changed 6so now role ofJOHN C CALHOUN 0 South Carolina 0 Former nationalistwar hawk 0 Supported the tariffsouth Changes his mind about tariff The only way you can protect the south and their cotton is by getting rid of tariff 0 So quotnullificationquot Looks at it like the tariff is the quottyranny of the majorityquot because it helps north hurts south Just because they have the votes to pass it doesn t mean that it39s right O Unconstitutional If you don t like something the government does call a convention they discuss what the government has done Has to go through the process If the people voted to the convention agree to nullify then the law becomes null and void in that state 71832South Carolina nullifies Jackson39s response He cannot allow this and people would think he would go crazy but he didn t He lets it be known that he will lead an army to South Carolina himself and that he would hang John C Calhoun at the nearest tree if he caught him because he is a traitor Passes the quotforce billquot would allow Jackson if necessary to use military force to enforce the law in any state lssues an of cial proclamation to the people of South Carolina basically saying quotback off I39m not allowing this he would like to see a compromise Doesn t immediately invade Asks congress to see if they can make a compromise bill that he would agree with Second Major Issue2nd National Bank quotBank Warquot Jacksonothers distrust banks Unregulated banks Could issue own currency Anyone could create a bank Loans make you repay it immediately High interest rates 1Panic of 1819 0 Many lost money due to banks collapsing 2National Bank N Biddle control 0 Jackson worried that the bank bene tted wealthy people not common man Didn t like N Biddle thought he was a Philadelphia aristocrat 0 Daniel WebsterHenry Clay support 0 O O 0 bank Stable national currency Capital for manufacturing jumpstart Capital for roads bridgesbank can provide ClayWebsterBiddle 1832 early push to recharter bank They gure that ifJackson vetoes then it can be approved when it re charters lfJackson signs then they re charter Jackson opposes Principle distrust He sees political advantage too Dislike of Clay etc Jackson Vetoes Unusual in those days for a president to veto a bill Only reason other presidents wouldn39t sign a bill back in the day was if it was unconstitutional Jackson all for improving power of the presidency quotI can veto any damn bill I want toquot Focus issue of democracy and equality The bank helps the rich Election of 1832 Jackson withdraws federal deposits Puts federal deposits in state banks quotpetbanksquot National bank withers and dies Growth of Opposition Party Who joins 0 Clay and his supporters want national bank internal improvements 0 WebsterNew England high protective tariff to protect industry 0 CalhounSouth oppose Jackson and his stance on Calhoun nulli cation 0 Those worried about quotKing Andrewquot Name Whigs 0 Name based off of a group in B that opposed the king Very LOOSE COALITION Held together by hatred forJackson Can39t settle on one candidate in 1836 instead quotfavorite sonquot candidates run in different part of the counrty 0 Thinking behind this maybe if they put 3 forward nobody will get majority and they can pick one candidate to be supported in the house Election 1836 Van Burendemocrats win Jackson still popular Election is closer than it appears 0 Numbers aren39t everything 0 Van Buren 760000 popular votes 3 whigs combined 730000 0 Dems carry 557 countries whigs 485 Whigs are competitive Van Buren Administration D 18371841 Genial suave good with people 0 But still a politician what did he really beHeve 0 He quotrowed to his object with muf ed oars Van Buren39s successes 0 Independent treasury 1840 US government deposits used to form this taken from the state banks that Jackson moved the deposits to 0 Boundary dispute MaineCanada This land was valuable with a lot of timber on it War threatened Van Buren successfully calmed down people of Maine Van Buren39s main failure 0 Did not get reelected o Seen as a failure because of 1837 economic depression Bad depression Causes Land speculation buying land to hope the value would go up and that they could sell for a pro t they wouldn t live there or farm just own it Banking instability people losing their money con dence in banks drops signi cantly Fall in demand for US crops in europe End of 1837 30 unemployed NY city 200000 homeless Election of 1840 WHIGS know they can win blame the economy on Van Buren o Whigs meet in convention early in 1839 in baltimore They nominate William Henry Harrison a general who won at tippecanoe celebrity Slogan quottippecanoe and Tyler TOOquot john tyler VP candidate 0 WHIGS have no platform statement in what they believe in and what they will do if they win Because they are such a loose coalition they didn39t all agree on certain things Democrats nominate Van Buren with no enthusiasm Then democrats try to slam Harrison in a newspaper saying that if possible Harrison would live in a log cabin and drink hard cider all day 0 Whigs quotexactly Our candidate is a common man more than yoursquot 0 This becomes the log cabinhard cider campaign 0 Whigs begin putting out different products with a log cabin symbol on it such as whiskey shaving cream posters o The democrats get irritated that the whigs are outdoing them with this stuff it39s outrageous to them Harrisonwhigs wins convincingly in electoral college 0 Harrison 13 million votes 0 Van Buren 11 million votes 0 Over 80 of eligible voters voted Presidency ofJames K Polk Successes 0 Tariff reform quotwalker tariffquot reduced tariff rate around the country 0 Independent treasury keep it o By the time I leave of ce I want Oregon and Texas to be US territory But war with MEXICO o Manifest destiny 0 Polk39s desire for SW territories 0 Mexican unwillingness o How did the war start General Zachary Taylor amp men sent to the Rio Grande But then the Mexicans shoot at the army Polk goes to congress and demands that we attack them Polkwar declaration Course of the war 0 American advantages Men supplies 0 American heroes both are whigs Zachary Taylor Win eld scotthelped direct an invasion 0 War ends 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Mexican cession California Utah California Texas Oregon New Mexico US pays 15 million for that land Nicholas Trist discussed treaty northerner who was uncomfortable with war agreed to pay for land Payment accepted by northerners and whigs because they are guilty Whigs and northerners came to oppose the war uncomfortable with losses and wounded over territory Increase slave territory But Despite American victory 0 Opposition to war because of slavery 0 Who decides if slavery allowed Wilmot Proviso amendment to a slavery bill says any territory gained from mexico slavery ought to not be allowed 0 Did not pass but serves as a divider of north and south in congress Election of 1849 Dems nominate Lewis Cass quotpopular sovereigntyquot Whigs nominate Zachary Taylor NO PLATFORM Rise of FREE SOIL PARTY o 10 of the popular vote surprisingly well Taylor wins But by 1850 country is in crisis again 0 Congress no speaker 0 President taylor slavery need not expand South is outraged as early as 1850 ppl in the south talk about secession Debate in congress Great compromise 0 Great debate in congress compromise was always talked about 0 Clay John C Calhoun Daniel Webster Calhoun thought that the north and south should be separated and even that the north and south should have diff presidents Webster thought that slavery must have speci c factors in order to work example New Mexico not right conditions Why worry about this Antislavery activists thought he had not been quotloud enoughquot about slavery At rst compromise defeated but President Taylor dies from infection Role of Stephen A Douglass Helped pass the compromise Role of Millard Fillmore VP of Taylor becomes president in favor of compromise Key parts California admitted as free state Popular sovereignty decides the rest Fugitive slave law Legacy Did the compromise have a big impact Did it solve anything No civil war still came 11 years a er But it postponed civil war which was a good thing If the civil war would have broken out in 1850 the south would have likely won But the crisis deepens in the 185039s They were hoping that the compromise would take slavery off of the table Elements of the compromise help keep slavery alive Fugitive slave lawhelped keep slavery alive Fugitive Slave Law 0 5 worth 10 If you accuse a slave as a runaway slave and its true you get 10 If you accuse a slave as a runaway slave and they arent convicted you get5 o Testimony 0 You have some blacks who have been living in the north for 20 years and they are returned to south and ut back into slavery even if free 0 Protests in north over the taking away of slaves They may still be racist but they do the right thing Uncle Tom39s Cabin 0 Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe White woman 0 Fiction but able to capture the violence and the inhumanity of slavery and how bad it was how it affected families etc She made people care about slavery and how bad it was When Queen victoria read her book she wept 0 Most widely readwidely sold novels of it39s time 0 Increased awareness of violence of slavery Election of 1852 Democrats 0 Role of South You can39t nominate anybody unless the south agrees with his policies on slavery You can39t nominate anybody unless the candidate agrees with the south39s views 0 Platform Agree with reclaiming fugitive slaves Whigs o Divisionnorth vs south 0 Nominate Win eld Scott but it doesn t work Had ties to antislavery 9 prominent southern whigs come out and say they39re not going to vote whig and instead vote democrat PierceDemocrats win 0 Landslide 27 of 31 states 0 Whigs begin to breakup and crumble o By 1856 the whig party is gone Rise of KNOWNOTHINGS 18531856 AntiImmigrant AntiCatholic Secrecy 0 Name is based on secrecy if you are a part of it and someone asks you if you are quotI know nothingquot Become known as the quotAmerican Partyquot 0 Wins MA KY MD TX in 1855 o Ppl like it because they don39t talk about slavery They too divide over slavery Kansas Nebraska Act 1854 Stephen A Douglas D Illinois 0 We need to have a trans Continental RR that connects the west with the east Wants it to go through his state Must organize KSNebraska and pass a bill South has concessions o The Missouri compromise becomes quotnull and voidquot 0 So slavery becomes decided by popular sovereignty 0 So basically he opens up to the possibility that slavery could be allowed in Kansas Bill passes north is outraged 0 Not comfortable with slavery expanding 0 There is nothing we can do even though we don t like it Bleeding Kansas 18551856 Both sides are armed Electionsfraud 2 governments both unsuccessful quotcaningquot of sumner 1856 o Sumner gives a speech about kansas and blames everything on the proslavery side 0 Preston Brooks thought that sumner needed to be taught a lesson he shamed the south 0 Beat Sumner so badly he couldn39t return to the senate for 5 years 0 Preston Brooks resigned then ran for reelection and won with 90 of the vote People even sent him new canes because he broke the cane beating sumner John Brown wanted to get revenge for what happened In the senate o Pottawattomie Massacre Kansas brown hacked pro slavery men to death in front of their families Rise of the Republican Party Most direct cause needing a northern anti slaveryexpansion party Meetings 18541855 Election of 1856 0 Try to be a player 0 Nominate John C Freemont war hero 0 Democrats nominate James Buchanan from Pennsylvania but friend of the south Who did Buchanan know example Howell Cobb all friends were slave owners Some in south threaten to secede if freemont elected Democrats still a national party could still get votes in north and south 0 Republicans get over 30 of the popular vote which is crazy because they39re new They set out to create a foundation for their party 0 REPUBLICANS THINK THAT SLAVERY SHOULD NOT EXPAND THAT DOESN T MEAN TH EYRE ABOLITIONIST
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