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Final Study Guide

by: JennaLFerguson

Final Study Guide PFW 103

Marketplace > Ball State University > PFW 103 > Final Study Guide
GPA 3.5

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This is the answers to the study guide posted to Blackboard.
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by JennaLFerguson on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PFW 103 at Ball State University taught by Zenisek in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 107 views.


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Date Created: 12/07/15
Personal Fitness Study Guide  Physiological differences in men's and women's exercise performance levels Women have 20% lower oxygen uptake than men; men have 30-40% greater physical strength; women have more fat mass and only half as much (or less) muscle; Men have higher performance and endurance and more hemoglobin and higher blood volume; women have less tolerance to heat than do men; women have 1/10 as much testosterone as men  Similarities in men and women's responses to exercise Rates of improvement in maximal oxygen uptake; loss of fat from deposited areas; increased bone density; decreased exercise heart rates  Recommendations for exercise during pregnancy and post partum Physical activity most or every day; no supine position after first trimester; avoid heat injury; avoid extremes in barometric pressure; avoid ballistic movement; don't restrict calories; avoid deep flexion or extension of joints; warm up and cool down; use "talk test"or RPE; avoid holding breath; rise from floor slowly; stay hydrated  Recommendations for safe exercise in cold weather Layer clothing; avoid overheating; avoid overexposure (hypothermia); protect exposed body parts; work with the wind; exercise with caution; stay motivated  Recommendations for safe exercise in hot weather Avoid high heat exercise to _prevent hyperthermia; drink plenty of water before, _during, and after exercise; wear loose and light-colored _clothes; avoid vinyl or rubber clothing; acclimate to the warmer _weather; stop at the first sign of heat _illness; check with physician about effects _of any medication with exercising in _the heat  Effects of a regular program of exercise on the aging process Inactivity significantly contributes to physiological decline at any age (up to 50% of decline is related to sedentary lifestyle); exercise slows the aging process; helps decrease or prevent the onset of various diseases; positively affects psychological health  Guidelines for preventing sun exposure Avoid prolonged exposure; plan activities in morning and evening; apply sunscreen (SPF 15 or higher); wear protective clothing; avoid tanning; know the signs  Early warning signs of malignant melanoma Moles or warts are asymmetrical, have irregular border, have uneven color, change in size, and/or change in shape, size, color, or elevation (ABCDE test)  Four main reasons why injuries occur Overuse, improper equipment, weakness and inflexibility, mechanical problems  Tips for avoiding overuse injury Allow recovery time, increase duration by 10% weekly, know signs (of overuse injury)  Four common muscle imbalances Calf/shin, front/back of thigh, low back/stomach, chest/upper back  Recommendations for treatment of common injuries PRICE; protect from further injury, rest for at least 24 to 72 hours, ice every 3 to 4 hours for 48 to 72 hours, compress towards heart w/ elastic wrap to decrease swelling, elevate as often as possible  Vital components of rehabilitation needed to resume activity safely without injury (know two) Range of motion (move injured part as early as possible w/in a pain-free range to regain flexibility); begin to build strength (after obtaining 80% pain-free range of motion); gradually work your way back into it  Two most important keys to preventing lower back pain Strengthen (abs, glutes, and upper back) and stretch (back, hamstrings, hip flexors)  Proper posture when standing Head straight, hips over ankles, parallel feet, breathe into torso, arms hang (not collapsed forward or pinned back), adjust tension (stabilize pelvis beneath ribcage)  Proper posture when sitting Shoulders relaxed, arms relaxed at sides, lower back supported, thighs parallel to floor w/ 90 degree angle w/ lower leg; feet flat on floor  Proper posture when sleeping On back w/ knees slightly elevated; OR on side w/ pillows between knees; avoid sleeping on stomach  Proper posture when lifting Bend at knees and hips, not waist; staggered stance; keep weight close to body; avoid spinal rotation  10 primary heart disease risk factors Inactivity, high blood pressure, high blood lipids, cigarette smoking, obesity, diabetes, family history, males and postmenopausal females, ethnicity, age  6 secondary heart disease risk factors (Individual) response to stress, emotional behavior (anger and hostility), excessive alcohol (+ some legal and illegal drugs), metabolic syndrome, C-reactive protein, homocysteine  Lifestyle changes to cut CVD risk Become/stay physically fit, don't smoke, avoid secondhand smoke, consume a diet high in omega-3 fats, control stress, control blood pressure and weight  Role of HDL Protect arteries from plaques  Role of LDL Can accelerate plaque formation; dangerous  Hypertension aka high blood pressure; one of most prevalent forms of CVD; major contributor to strokes, heart attacks, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and kidney failure  Blood pressure reading indicating hypertension 140/90  Cholesterol reading indicating high blood cholesterol 200  Guidelines for reducing cancer risk Avoid tobacco; reduce sun exposure; healthy diet (reduce red and processed meats); exercise; limit or eliminate alcohol consumption; use protective measures against STDs; minimize exposure to radiation, workplace hazards, and chemicals; know detection signs; regular check ups; do self-exams  Cancer's 7 warning signals (CAUTION) change in bowel/bladder habits; a sore that doesn't heal; unusual bleeding or discharge; thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere; indigestion or difficulty swallowing; obvious change in wart or mole; nagging cough or hoarseness  Stress Nonspecific response of the human organism to any demand made upon it  Stressor Factor causing stress  Stages of stress response Alarm, resistance, exhaustion Alarm stage (of stress response) fight or flight physiological and psychological responses appear Resistance stage (of stress response) body tries to cope with the fight or flight reaction through organ systems; can lead to stress-related diseases Exhaustion stage (of stress response) resistance eventually fails and signs of alarm reappear; disease and disability can result  Eustress positive stress  Distress negative stress  Optimal stress Stress is intense enough to motivate and physically prepare us to perform well but not enough to cause harm  Acute stress body's response to imminent danger; most common type  Chronic stress Caused by prolonged physical or emotional stress, more than can be coped with  Perception’s involvement in stress Reaction type (negative or positive) depends on person's perception  Control’s involvement in stress feeling of not having control causes stress  Harmful effects of too much stress psychosomatic disease; hypertension, stroke, cardiovascular heart disease, ulcers, migraines, tension headaches, addictions, cancer, allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, hay fever, backache, depression  Psychosomatic disease physical ailment that is mentally induced  Type A personality Stressed, hurried, angry, hostile, organized, on time; Body produces an extra amount of stress hormones  Type B personality Procrastinate, weight gain, creative, laid back, no worries  Type C personality hardy; control, commitment, challenge, choices, connectedness (the 5 C's)  Type D personality Distressed personality with negative emotions;Tends to be depressed, anxious, and insecure  Six major nutrients carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, water  Carbohydrates main source of energy; stored as glycogen; 45-65% of daily calories; 4 cal/g; can include fiber  Proteins Builds and repairs tissues, maintains chemical balance, and regulates formation of hormones, antibodies, and enzymes; 10-35% daily calories; 4 cal/g  Fats Provide stored energy and fat-soluble vitamins, needed for growth and healthy skin and hormone regulation; 20-30% daily calories; 9 cal/g  Vitamins necessary for metabolic function  Minerals Critical to enzyme function in the body; Macro (needed in large doses) and trace minerals _(much smaller amounts needed)  Water Involved in every function of the body,2/3 of your body weight  Health benefits of fiber lowers bad cholesterol, keeps you regular, may protect against cancers, nutrient dense  Good sources of fiber whole wheat and grains; lentils; leafy greens; oat bran; beans; fruits and veggies (including their skin)  Complex carbs starches; potatoes, rice, whole grains, beans, vegetables, etc; 35-55% daily calories  Simple carbs sugars; cookies, cakes, candy, pop, etc; less than 10% daily calories  Healthy fats and oils fish oils (omega 3) and plant source oils; unsaturated fats  Unhealthy fats and oils saturated and trans fats; animal sources  Overweight vs obese overweight refers to a body weight in excess _of a recommended range for good health; obese refers to having an excessive accumulation of body fat  Healthy BMI range 18.5-24  High risk waist dimensions (women and men) Women 35+ inches; men 40+ inches  Healthy weight loss/gain program vs. fad/diet program Avoid low calorie and low carb diets; should be a balanced way of eating throughout lifetime  Three major components of lifetime weight management Food management, emotional management, exercise management  How exercise helps in weight management Burns calories; prevents loss of lean muscle mass; decreases abdominal fat; appetite suppressor; lowers set point; helps maintain weight loss; improves self-esteem


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