EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE
EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE NTR 108
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ndidiamaka Okorozo on Monday December 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NTR 108 at University at Buffalo taught by Temple, J L in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 12/07/15
NUTRITION EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE HEMATOPOIETIC SYSTEM 1 Blood which is made up of two fractions a Cellular blood cells includes the red blood cells RBC immune cells white blood cells lymphocytes etc and platelets for blood clotting b Plasma includes albumin lipoproteins hormones nutrients glucose amino acids and waste products ammonia urea 2 Bone marrow origin of the blood cells Func ons 1 Blood carries wastes C02 and urea 2 Carry nutrients 02 glucose amino acid and lipoproteins Nutrients 1 Iron trace mineral has two charges 2 and 3 Function required in hemoglobin in RBCs and myoglobin in muscles for oxygen transport within the body De ciency two levels gt Iron de ciency low iron stores low cognitive function low energy level gt Anemia microcytic more severe small RBC fatigue low work capacity and poor immune function Groups at risk people in developing countries women growing individuals preg women infants children adolescents athletes people with excess blood loss and vegetarians Especially in adolescent females who are of childbearing age still growing and menstruating Absorption gt Increased by 0 Need when body stores are low 0 Heme iron is absorbed faster heme iron is found in hemoglobin and myoglobin and comes from an animal source meat sh and poultry 0 Meat factor protein meat sh and poultry Helps in absorbing nonheme iron Nonheme iron is from plants but are not very good providers of iron tofu whole grains dried fruits and leafy vegetables 0 Vitamin C o Stomach acid the more you have l more iron absorption gt Decreased by 0 Lack of physiological need when body stores are low 0 Excess dietary calcium 0 Dietary ber 0 Tannins tea red wine coffee etc 2 Zinc cofactor in immune and energy systems Groups at risk poor elderly preg women children and people taking excess of iron copper and dietary ber Zinc and copper use the same transporter transferrin So excess zinc intake will decrease copper absorption and vice versa INDIRECT relationship 3 Copper cofactor iron and energy metabolisms De ciency anemia microcytic like in iron Groups at risk having too much zinc Sources beans seeds nuts organ meat and from copper water pipes 4 Folate water soluble vitamin Functions coenzyme for amino acid metabolism and cell replication DNA synthesis and RBC synthesis De ciency gt Macrocytic anemia very large RBCs gt Neural Tube Defects o Malformation of the central nervous system 0 Formed by the 4th of pregnancy 0 Spina bi da associated with paralysis 5 Vitamin 312 water soluble and largest vitamin Functions folate metabolism formation of RBCs Vit 812 helps in folate metabolism DIRECT relationship 6 Vitamin K fat soluble Functions formation of blood clotting factors and formation of bone matrix protein for Ca2 deposition De ciency blood clots very slowly or not at all WATER ELECTROLYES ACIDBASE BALANCE Water most essential nutrient 70 of body 40 is extracellular and 60 is intracellular Involved in nutrient and waste transport excretion of waste lubricating tissues and temperature regulation To control the amount of water in a body compartment the body regulates the particle concentration because water diffuses freely among compartments Electrolytes 1 Sodium Na Functions primary extracellular ion regulates uid volume muscle and nerve contractions and transports nutrients Sources table salt NaCl processed food etc Loss is mostly from sweating and vomiting 2 Potassium K Functions primary intracellular ion uid amp electrolyte balance muscle and nerve function and helps maintain lower blood pressure Sources fresh fruits veggies and whole grains De ciency can be fatal Loss is from urine and diarrhea 3 Chloride Cl major extracellular anion Can move freely across the cell membrane and neutralize charge Follows sodium and potassium Helps balance charge along with water and diffuses freely Osmosis passage of solutions across a semipermeable membrane The water follows the movement of ions in order to equalize ionic concentration between compartments It always follows the greater positive charge Kidney helps regulate retention and excretion of water in the body Osmotic pressure is the pressure exerted by particles in a solution to draw water across a membrane Fluid requirements varies by individuals Depends on temperature humidity diet alcohol use and activity level About 2Lday needed Water intake output So you need to excrete about 2Lday by perspiration skin breathing feces and urine Dehydration causes thirst fatigue reduced mental function increase in body temp and circulatory collapse and eventually death Increased by factors like physical activity diet low water intake environmental conditions medications diuretics illness pregnancy and breastfeeding Symptoms urine color darker means you need more water Hypertension a chronic condition characterized by above average blood pressure It affects 33 of US adults Causes heart disease stroke and kidney disease gt ldeal bp is 12080 systolicdiastolic gt High bp is gt 14090 Risk factors are obesity MAJOR cardiovascular diseases age as it increases heredity race African Americans with highest risk and diet Recommendations decrease in sodium intake loss of weight if overweight exercise alcohol intake limit increase intake of calcium potassium magnesium amp vitamin C follow ChooseMyPlate and follow DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet MATERNAL NUTRITION The best predictor of successful birth is appropriate maternal weight gain Maternal weight gain includes infant mother placenta amniotic sac and cord a Normal weight gain is 2535 lbs b Low weight gain is lt 15 lbs c High weight gain causes high birth weight gt 9 lbs and complications during child birth Underweight should gain more 28 40lbs Overweight should gain less 15 25lbs Obese should gain a lot less 1120lbs Teenagers gain more EVEN obese teenagers lt35lbs they are still growing and are pregnant Multiple fetuses gain 2554 lbs No dieting recommended during pregnancy Other factors that in uence pregnancy outcomes diet closely spaced pregnancies and drug use During pregnancy need for all nutrients increase especially folate iron and calcium Health complications during pregnancy involve heartburn constipation morning sickness gestational diabetes and pregnancyinduced hypertension Vegetarians are recommended to take supplements INFANT NUTRITION Nutritional requirements are greater in infancy than any other stages in life per kg of body weight changes in weight and length Fat 40 50 of energy content should be from dietary fat Human milk is perfect for infants Advantages free nutritional qualities protection from infection and allergies Challenges effect of food or drug intake returning to work and concerns of infant s willingness to eat it s painful Formula feeding improving over time and coming slower to breast milk but it needs to be made up properly Introduction of solids can occur after 6 months earliest 4 month and readiness signs are double body weight in infant holding head up loss of rooting and tongue extrusion re ex and interest in eating These signs re ect physiological and immunological readiness Iron rich food should come rst Don t offer food the size of the esophagus l choking hot dog grapes hard candy etc No allergy risk food like milk eggs nuts and sea food CHILDHOOD NUTRITION Solid food introduced from 4 months of age Food like cereal fruits and veggies and they should be introduced one by one to make sure that none cause allergic reactions Each food should be given up to 1015 times before introducing new food Selffeeding is encouraged in children as it reduces the risk of obesity Allow the child to selfserve so they choose realistic portions for themselves Children get picky at this age but they should be introduced to variety of new foods After one year there is decreased growth in kids Growth chart Weight for age lt5th percentile underweight Height for age lt5th percentile stunted BMI for age lt5th percentile underweight gt95th percentile overweight It s an indirect measure of body fatness Adiposity Rebound at a certain age children drop in BMI then adiposity rebound occurs when they regain weight It should be between 6 and 9 years old Early adiposity rebound increases risk of obesity as an adult The goal is to delay it Food allergies an allergy is an abnormal immune response to a protein When the protein enters the body the body produces antibodies to attack it 1 Exposure hypothesis as our food is changing people are becoming more allergic to peanuts and that children are being exposed to peanuts at a much younger age l FALSE 2 Hygiene hypothesis the use of a lot of antibacterial products is killing the good bacteria present in our gut Support people in third world countries don t have allergies because they don t sanitize everything ADOLESCENT NUTRITION Puberty second most rapid period of growth a Sex hormone production b Developmental changes secondary sex characteristics Girls have rapid growth from 10 to 13 years old Boyd have rapid growth from 12 to 15 years old In adolescents there is decreased physical activity bad eating habits in addition to the rapid growth which increases the risk of obesity There is increased need of energy protein calcium Vitamin D B vitamins folate Vit 812 and iron Iron de ciency is at the highest risk here Other factors that arise during adolescence are Acne problems substance use and abuse alcohol and tobacco obesity due to caloric imbalance and in activity and adolescent pregnancy ELDERLY NUTRITION Life span the maximum number of years of a human life It is the amount that is possible for a human to live up to It is 116 years Life expectancy the average time a person can expect to live a Primitive people 30 35 years b 19005 48 years Increased due to better medicine Chronic diseases 85 of elderly have chronic diseases related to nutrition They lived long enough to develop these diseases because of better medical treatments These chronic diseases include heart disease diabetes hypertension osteoporosis and obesity In the 19705 death happened about 71 years in 2010 it became 78 years Infectious diseases acute they used to kill the population at younger ages in the past due to the underdevelopment of medicine Changing demography of North America a 1960 gt Overall 9 of population gt than 65 years gt Female 10 gt Male 84 b 2030 estimated gt Overall 20 population gt than 65 years As a result due to increasing number of the elderly healthcare will be more expensive Our generation and the following one are the rst generations not expected to live relatively as long as their parents due to drastic increase in obesity In uences on nutritional needs and status of the elderly 1 2 3 Physiological changes associated with aging changes in GIT function decreased sense of smell and taste Other factors a Use of medication especially diuretics Diuretics increases water and nutrient loss elders hate being helped to use the bathroom so they drink less water Depression Confusion memory loss Poverty Physical hindrance Loss of friends and spouse harder to eat when you are eating alone Fluids lower thirst sensation W090 Nutritional requirements 1 4 5 Decreased energy requirement due to decline in BMR and physical activity 2 Increase ber intake to treat constipation 3 Need same amount of protein per day but need higher protein nutrient density because of the lower energy need Vitamins increased Vitamin Bs 312 Vitamin D at risk of de ciency and antioxidants carotenoids Vit E and C Minerals increase iron and calcium Guidelines for improvement 1 Regular and small frequent meals N Convenient and easily prepared foods there is no concern for risk of obesity at this point Encourage different avors and eating with others Share meal preparations Utilize community services for shopping and cooking 6 Encourage physical activity to increase appetite Food service for the elderly SNAP famously associated with the EBT card Adult Care Programs Commodity Supplemental Food Programs Senior Farmers Market nutrition Programs and Nutrition Services Incentive Programs meals on wheel deliver as often as needed per week 9159 ALCOHOL Moderation consumption of up to 1 drink a day for women and 2 drinks a day for men A drink serving a 1502 of distilled spirits b 4502 of wine c 1002 wine cooler d 1202 beer Should not consume alcohol if a Women who are or may be pregnant b Women who are breast feeding c Those taking medication that interact with alcohol Digestion not required Absorption it is passive with no transporter and occurs in the small intestine From there it travels to the liver via the portal brain and is able to get to the brain in minutes Metabolism average adult metabolizes one drink per hour Men and individuals with more body weight metabolize alcohol slower so feel the effects slower Energy two pathways for alcohol metabolism a One results in energy production of 7kcag b On results in no useful energy l Okcalg during excessive consumption Excessive chronic alcohol consumption leads a to fatty liver excess alcohol stored in the liver b cirrhosis of the liver caused by long term alcohol consumption c vitamin de ciencies esp water soluble vitamins Affects Vitamin A Bl thiamin Vitamin 36 and Vitamin D Also causes folate de ciency Alcohol consumption increases water loss from the body decreases production of antidiuretic hormone Alcohol Issues a Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS when women with chronic alcoholism produce children with characteristic facial features Characteristics poor growth small head circumference physical deformities and mental retardation Leading preventable cause of mental retardation b Fetal Alcohol Effects FAE distinct characteristics found in children born to women who were drinking especially during the rst trimester Characteristics low birth weight short attention span delayed reaction time and lower learning capacity THERE IS NO KNOWN SAFE MINIMUM OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY As a result women are generally encouraged to abstain from alcohol totally c Binge drinking 5 or more drinks on one occasion for men and 4 or more drinks for women 0 Alcohol poisoning a metabolic state that can occur in response to binge drinking 0 Symptoms cold and clammy ski bluish tint irregular breathing and loss of consciousness EATING DISORDERS Brought about by biological psychological and social media causes Warning signs are loose clothing and social isolation especially while eating 1 Anorexia Nervosa prevalent in girls and usually begins in adolescence There is an intense fear of gaining weight distorted body image and amenorrhea absence of 3 or more consecutive menstrual cycles Harder to diagnose in males because they have no menstruation 2 Bulimia Nervosa binge eating and purging afterward to compensate for it Normally maintain a close to normal body weight Binging is eating a large amount of food over a short period of time and must be characterized by a loss of control ie Eating till you are physically unable to consume more Purging is a compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain and includes vomiting excessive exercise fasting diuretics and laxative use 3 Binging Eating Disorder newest eating disorder classified by the DSM Also known as compulsive over eating Most common eating disorder It is associated with obesity and found in BOTH men and women Develops after about 30 years Leads to medical complication associated with obesity diabetes high blood pressure high blood cholesterol gallbladder diseases heart disease and certain types of cancer NUTRITION AND EXERCISE Engaging in physical activities has a lot of bene ts besides losing weight Components of tness a Flexibility range of motion of an anatomical joint b Strength ability to exert force on something using muscle c Muscle endurance increased muscle function due to increase in muscle mass d Cardiovascular endurance ability to utilize oxygen more ef ciently Energy Sources a ATP and phosphocreatine very short term lt 30 seconds b Glucose and glycogen intermediate duration intermediate to high intensity about 30 seconds Can be aerobic or anaerobic c Fat and fatty acids long duration low to intermediate intensity ALL aerobic but can be with or without glucose d Protein and amino acids supply little amount of energy 10 for activities because energy production is not its primary role Can be aerobic and anaerobic Carbohydrate loading consuming a lot of carbohydrate in order to maximize glycogen stores to have enough for an event Should be done a day or two to the day of the event During exercise water and electrolytes need to be maintained by replacing used portions For example while running a marathon you need to have steady intake of water and Gatorade to replenish your nutrients Female athlete triad this is common among adolescent girls who are involved in sports that encourage weight loss such as gymnastics dance long distance marathons etc 1 Amenorrhea loss of menstrual cycle 2 Disordered eating behaviors 3 Osteoporosis stress fractures UNDERNUTRITION Malnutrition condition of impaired development or function caused by de ciency or excess Excess of a nutrient can hinder absorption of another Undernutrition food supply insuf cient to meet needs of a population Famine extreme shortage of food leading to massive starvation of a population Prevalent in under developed countries 0 Food insecurity condition of anxiety about running out of food or money to buy food Seen all over the world and is related to obesity In the US 33 million of the population are on and below the poverty level 18400 annually for a family of four because of a Poverty and homelessness b Rising cost of food Conditions related to undernutrition are 1 Poverty due to unemployment minimum wage and no health bene ts and single parent families 2 Homelessness due to rising cost of homes and unemployment they are usually mentally ill and engage in substance abuse Help concentrate on aampb a Supplemental Nutrition Assessment Program SNAP previously known as the food stamp program It restricted to only food items and does not include fast food b Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infant and Children easier to qualify fir than SNAP Coupons cover only certain food brands It encourages breastfeeding and improve the women s nutrition education c The Emergency Food Assistance Program TEFAP distribute USDA food commodities d Congregate meals free noon meal for elderly encourages communication among the elderly e School Breakfast Program and lunch free reduced cost of breakfast Studies shows that eating breakfast increases academic achievement in children Food insecurity and overweight there is high incidence of overweight in children in food insecure homes This leads to reliance on convenience foods and fast food There is also lack of grocery stores and therefore no access to fruits and veggies Lack of physical activity is another factor too Undernutrition at Critical Life Stages 1 Pregnancy high nutrient needs which is not met there is high risk of death for mom andor child Also increased risk of birth before 37 weeks gestation poor lung development and weak immune system and increased risk of low birth weight baby Childhood brain impairment stunted growth and iron de ciency Elderly need nutrient dense foods limited income and medical costs yaw
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